Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Greene County, Pennsylvania"

See other formats




Sx\MUET. f; bates. 

Hills, vales, woods, netted in silver mist, 
Forms, gransee, donlik'd up nmoiis the hills 
And cattle grazing in the watered vales. 
And cottage chimneys smoking from the woods, 
And cottage gardens smelling everywhere. 
Confused with smell of orchards. See! I siud. 
And seel is Uod not with us on the earth y 





/ s '■] 




The section of country, of which Greene County occupies a central 
position, has more vitally interesting problems in its history, than any 
other portion of the United States. The natic lality which should occupy 
the great Mississippi Valley — Spanish, French, or English; the narrowed 
struggle between the French and the English, inaugurated by Marquette 
and LaSalle, in their pious ceremonials, and by Celeron in planting the 
leaden plates; the lierce military contest led by Washington, Braddock, 
and Forbes for possession of Fort Pitt and the final banishment of the 
French beyond the lakes; the long and wasting conflict with the natives 
in which isolated pioneers with their families were exposed in their 
scattered cabins in the forest, to the fiendish arts of the stealthy and 
heartless savage, who spared neither the helpless infant, the tender female, 
nor trembling age; the protracted controversy with Maryland over the 
possession of territory which both States claimed; the settlements of a 
Virginia company on Pennsylvania soil, and the claim of the former State 
to the whole boundless Northwest; the chances by which the final 
settlement of possession was invested, and the finding of the southwest 
corner of the State finally accomplished by astronomical observations at 
the instance of Thomas Jefferson; the subtle influences which swayed the 
location of the National road, and the Baltimore and Ohio railway — these 
were all questions which nearly touch the ultimate reaches of its history. 
It has been thought best accordingly, to give generous space in this 
volume to these vital subjects, which will ever command the attentior 
of the thoughtful, will daily increase in interest to the oncoming genera- 
tions, and by means of which we trace the jihilosophy of the vital events 
of history that are really useful. 

In preparing these pages for publication it has been decided not to 
encumber the te.\t with marginal notes, and references to authorities; but 
to name authors where their investigations have been used, and to make 
acknowledgements in a general way. It would be impossible to name 
all, but the following have been found especially useful and have been 
freely consulted: The Histories of the United States by Bancroft, Hildreth, 
Spencer, Bryant, and Lossing; Irving's Life of Washington; Life and 
Writings of William Penn; Colonial Records, and Pennsylvania archives; 
History of Pennsylvania Volunteers; the Western Annals; History of 

Western Pennsylvania; Redstone Presbytery; McConnell's Map of Greene 
County; The Historical Atlas; the State Reports of Education from 1837 
to 1887; and Crumrine's History of Washington County. 

Especial acknowledgements are due to L. K. Evans, Esq., who, during 
the Centennial year of American Independence, published in the Waynes- 
burg Repuhlican^ which he then edited, a series of articles running through 
an entire year of weekly issues, embracing investigations which he pushed 
with singular perseverance and marked success, covering much of the 
early history of the county. In a spirit of generosity and kindness, he 
not only placed at my disposal a complete set of these articles, but also 
a mass of manuscript which had been addressed to him by aged citizens 
in various sections of the county, bearing upon the subject of his investi- 
gations. From these sources matter has been freely drawn; and though 
it has not been possible, on account of the limits prescribed to this work, 
to use as much as might have been desired, in the interesting style in 
which it appears, yet in a condensed form it has been freely appropriated. 

Probably no equal portion of any part of the United States has been 
the scene of so many cold-blooded and heartless murders by the Indians 
as this county; not because the pioneers here piovoked the natives to re- 
venge, nor because they were the special objects of hatred, but because 
they happened to be in the way of the savages in their march to and fro 
upon their war expeditions, and because this was their ancient hunting 
ground. The Indians never made this section their home, having no vil- 
lages nor wigwams in all its limits; but from time immemorial had kept 
this as a sort of park or preserve for the breeding of their game. They 
may have felt aggrieved in seeing their favorite hunting grounds broken in 
upon, and the game scared away by the ring of the settler's ax, the echo 
of his gun, and his frequent burnings; but it is probable that this had 
less influence than the fact that their war-paths happened to cross here, 
and they found in their way subjects on whom they could glut their 
savage instincts. There are over one hundred well authenticated records 
in the State archives of murders committed within the limits of this small 
county alone. 

Hoping that the work will prove useful to the citizens of the county, 
and especially to the rising generation, and will serve to stimulate to 
further inquiry into the subjects which it touches, it is respectively sub- 
mitted to their considerate judgment. 

S. P. B. 
Wiiynesburg, Nov. 13, 1888. 



CIIAPTEU I. — Pictiiroeiiiio Beamy <if 
Greouu Couuty — Wordy of AlcxniuU-r 
Cnrapbcll — Its Lcicatiou— ;S89,120 Sqiiiirc 
Acreis— StrcamB Draiuiiif^ It — WnttT-bhed 
-Trend of the HillH— Fertility of the Soil 
— Limestone — Forests -- Remarks upon 
Forchtry -A Girdled Forest— Coni«e(Mieuie 
of War upon the Forests— Judicious Plant- 
ing— The Sugar Maple— As Seen in South- 
ern Italy— Questions Touching Its Early 
Occupation 17-24 

CHAPTKR Il.-Why Called Indians-The 
Grandfathers, or Delawarcs— Shawuees— 
Six Nations or Irociuois, or Mingoep-The 
Tuscaroras— Dclawares Vassals- Indiana' 
Shemetic Origin— Application of Bitile 
Prophecy— The Indian Sui Generis— Char- 
acteristic*— ludolont—Position of Woman 
-The Indian a Law to Himself- Ills Occu- 
pations— Thievish— Patient of Toil to 
Feed Revenge — View of Columbus- 
Amida's and Barlow's Experience- Penn's 
Testimony— Bttncroft*8 View— The Stealth 
Practiced in Hunting Boned Them in 
Seeking the Victim's of their Savage Cru- 
elty— P.reheuf Describes an Instance of 
Their Barbarity which he Beheld— Cruelty 
a Delight— Greene County the Scene of 
this Savage Barbarity 87-39 

CHAPTEK HI, -Original Settlement upon 
the Continent by Europeans— Ponce do 
Leon in Florida -Vasquez de Ayllon Seiz- 
ing Natives for Slaves— De Soto Discovers 
the Mississippi— Voyages of Verrazzaiii — 
Jaques Carter— Champlain in Canada— 
His Expedition Against the Iroiiuois— 
Marquette and Joliet Voyage to the Mis- 
sissippi-Map of Country— l)eath of Mar- 
quette— Hemarks of Hildreth and Charie- 
voix— La Salle Pushes Explorations on the 
Missisei()pi -Takes Formal Possession 
of thcKiverand Lands it Drains— Possi- 
bilities of Greene County— England <;olo- 
ni/.es— Early Attitmpts Abortive- (irants 
of James I— Settlenu-ntof Jamestown and 
Plymouth— The Dutch on the Delaware— 
By What Kighthad European Possessions 
on this Continent— A Fruitful Couulry 
Unused— A Savage and Barbaric People 
Encumber It — Observations of Justice 
Story- Decision of Chief Justice Marshall 
—The Injustice liaukled in the Breasts of 
the Savages 40-54 

CHAPTER IV.— The Dutch and Swedes 
upon the Delaware— The English Super- 
cede Them— In 1077 came the English Qua- 
kers-William Peun Interested in New 
Jersey- Admiral Penn — The Uncertain 
Bounds— King Charles II. Grants Penn a 
Liberal Domain-Charier of Pennsylvania - 
Liberal Terms— Spelling— Penn had Medi- 
tated of a Frt^e Commonwealth— Receives 
his Grantin an Humble Spirit— Bitter Ex- 
periences in the Life of Penn— Disinher- 
ited—Father Rch-nls on his Death-bed— 
Urges his Son not to Wrong his Conscience 
—Seeks a Deed of tJuit-Claim from James, 
and Buys the Lower Counties -Perplexed 
in Devising a Form of Government- Se- 
cures Freedom to the Subject— Published 

Abroad— Letter Showing Abundance of 
Products— Penn Warns 'all to Consider 
Well Before Embarking the Privations 
Thev Must Endure— Tender of Rights of 
the Natives- Sends a Notice to Them of 
his Purposes- All Alike Answerable to 
God— mil Take no Land Except by Their 
Consent— Might have Become Citizens- 
Four Hundred Years of Intercourse has 
not Changed Their Nature— Show no Lev- 
ity in Their Presence— "They Love Not to 
be Smiled On." 57-78 

IHAPTER V.-Markhara First Governor- 
Sails for New York oud is Accorded Per- 
mission to Assume Control on the Dela- 
ware-Purchase Land of the Indians- 
Seek a Site of a Great City— Penu Sails for 
America— Advice to Wife and Children on 
Leaving- Love of Rural Life— Thirty Pas- 
sengers' Die on the Voyage — Culls an As- 
sembly and Enacts Laws— Civil and Reli- 
gious Liberty— Visits Site of the New City 
—Satisfied with It — Visits Governor of 
New York and Friends in Long Island 
and Jersey— Discusses Bonndarv with Lord 
Baltimore— The Great Treaty— Method of 
the Indians- Terms of the Treaty— Speech 
of Penn— Legal Forms Observed—" Treaty 
Tree" Preserved — Walking Purchase- 
Consideration of Peun— Injustice of Later 
Governor — Rapid Increase — Penn De- 
scribes the New City — Distances from the 
Chief Cities — Latitude and Longitude- 
Designs River Bank for a Public Park- 
Disregarded— Names His City Philadel- 
phia-Growth of the Colony— Compared 
with Other Colonies 73-&1 

CHAI'TEE VI — Controversy with Lord 
Baltimore Opened— Charters Comiiarcd— 
Penn Visits Lord Baltimore — Baltimore 
Makes Excuses — Ambiguities in both 
Charl.er8 — Baltimore offers Disputed 
Lands for Sale and Drives Out Pennsylva- 
nia Owners— Summons to Quit— K<'sponse 
-Penn Offers to Purchase— Penn Carries 
the Controversy Before the Roysl Com- 
mission—Letter to His Friends on Quit- 
ting His Colony— Found Officers Sour and 
Stern— New King Friendly, but Ministry 
Hostile to Dissenters— Claims Comprom- 
ised- Elaborate Treaty of 1760— Line De- 
scribed—Local Sun'eyors Appointed— Ma- 
son and Dixon Appointed— Native Sur- 
veyors' Work Found Conect— Sample of 
Work— Delaware Line Established— Ex- 
tracts from Notes—" Visto" Cleared— 
Horizontal Measurement- Stone Pillars 
Set— Indians View Astronomical Observa- 
tions with Awe— War Path iu Greene 
County Survey Stops— Tedious Lobors of 
Surveyors— Boundary Stone Cut in Eng. 
land— ('ost of Sun'ev for Pennsylvania, 
$171,nOO-End Not Yet «7-I0I 

CHAPTER VII. —French Claim the Entire 
Vnllcv of the Mississippi— The Peace of 
Ryswick— The Peace of Utrecht— The Five 
Nations Subject to the English— France 
Still Confirmed in Possession of th<^ Mis- 
sissippi Valley— Claim of the En-jlish- 
The Peace of Aix la ChappcUe— Uuprinci- 


pled Traders— Ohio CompaEy Formed— 
The Boy Washiusrton— Ohio Company to 
Locate 300,000 Acres— Freiicll JealoilK-» 
Send Celeron to Bury rlates— Paes Over 
Chautaiinna Lake-The Rome by FreBquc 
Iple andLe Bffinf Snlieequeutly Adopted- 
Indians on the Watch-Plate Buried at 
Warren— Inscription upon Plate- Plate 
Una up and ( urrieil to 8ir William John- 
son- Governor Clinton Communicates 
Contents to Lords of Trade, and to Gover- 
nor Hamilton— Speech of Indian Chieftain 
and Interpretation of Inscription- Reply 
of I 'hieflain — Celeron Plants Another 
Plate at Indian God— Another at Logs- 
town — E\pi-ls English Traders— Sends 
Letter to Governor Hamilton Warning 
nini -Other I'lates at .Month of Jhiskin- 
.'iini -Great Kanawha, and Great Miami— 
Ascends the lliami and Down the Maumee 
—Plates found— Proprietary Distnrhod— 
Notes of Croghan — Buililiiig a Fort 
Contemplated 102-118 

CHAPTER VIII.— Activity of the "Ohio 
Contpany" — Explorations of Gif-t — Prepa- 
rations of the French to Occnpy— Arms 
Sent to Indians- Half King \V arns the 
French- Insolent Reply— Earl Hoklerness 
Warns Governors of the C'olonies — War 
"Vessel Sentto Virginia— Washington Com- 
missioned to Visit French Commander- 
Perilous Journey — Selects Site of Fort 
Pitt— Provisioijs sent from S^w Orleans— 
"Where Does the Indian's Land Lie :-''— 
Jean Cteiir at Franklin— Heceived at Le 
Bd'uf l)v Legardenr St. Pierre— Answer- 
Politeness of the General- Refers to the 
Slarciuis DuQ.uesne- Return of Washing- 
toiJ— Treacherous Indian Fires at Him— 
Sutrcring from the Cold— Makes his Re- 
port to fJoveruor Dinv\ iddie — Journal 
AVidelv Circulated— The Intention of the 
French to hold the Ohio Valley l)y Force 
Clearly .-Manifest llil-iaSl 

CHAPTER IX.— Troops Sent to Fort Pitt- 
French I apture It— The Summons- Wash- 
ingt.uu IMoves Forward— Jumonville Skir- 
mish— Toki's Post at the Gn-at Meadows- 
Surrender— ram)jaiLni with Four Objects 
— Braddock to .Move Asoinst Fori Dii 
Qiicsne — Frtmklin Fiinjishes Wau'ons- 
Braddock Moves Leisarelv- Order of 
March— Ohservution of Franklin-Sickness 
of Washington— Indians in Camp— Bright 
Lightning— Indicationsof a Hostile Force 
:Menaciiig Inscriptions — Cross and Re- 
cross the River— A Militarv Pageant— 
Armv T^it in Battle Order— Enemy Com- 
manded bv Beaiiien— The War Whoop— 
Inilians Gain the Flank by a Wooded 
liaviiie-R-iiuiois Thrown into Confusion 
— Braddock .Mortally Wounded- Killed 
and Wounded- Washington Preserved- 
Great Spirit Protected Him — Braddock 
Buried — Dunbar Cowed — Enemy^s 
Strength— Washington's Losses-Gallantry 
Admired 130-148 

CHAPTER X.— Seven Years' War Opened 
—Indians Inspired by Defeat of Braddock 
—Terrible War upon Settlers — French 
Offer Rewards for Scalps— Line of Forts 
Along the Kittatinny Hills— Franklin in 
Command — Armstrong at Kittanuing — 
Lord Loudon Unsuccessful— William Pitt 
Comes to Power-Abercronibie and Bosca- 
wen — Ticonderoga Held, but Frontenac 
Lost by the French— General Forbes at 
Fort Da Quesne — Moravian Post Sent to 
the Indians— The Vicegerent of the Lord 


-Indians Superstitious— Indian Siethods 
—Fort Du (Juesne Occupied— Amherst in 
Command— Ticonderoga iiiid Crown Point 
and Niagara Takeu-Wolf on the Plains 
ofAbraham-Quebec Defended— Montreal 
Captured — The French Expelled from 
North America East of the Mississippi- 
Pitt's Vigorous Policy Everywhere Crown- 
ed witli Success— But at a cost of $.0(10,- 
000,000— English Speaking and not French. 

CHAPTER XL— Mind of Indian Poisoned 
—The Red and White Man Live Together 
— Pontine — His Conspiracv — Game of 
Baggatiwa— Gladwin at Detroit— Indian 
GirPDiscloses the Plot— Pontiac Foiled— 
Concealed Mtlskels— Attacks the Fort— . 
Gladwin Secures Stipplies— Pontiac's Or- 
ders for Supplies JIade on Birch Bark— 
Dalzell Sent for Succor-Boldly Ofl'ers 
Battle— Repulsed, Death— Settlers Driven 
from Homes, Pitiable Condition— 
Presque |sle-Le liienf and Venango Full 
—Fort Pitt Attacked— Commander Sum- 
moned to Surrender— Eoquet SeniforEe- 
lief— Battle of Bushy Run— Won by Strat- 
etrv- Raise the Siege— Boquet Enters— 
£11)0 Offered for Pontiac— Colonel Brad- 
street— Deceived by the Indians— Boquet 
Firm— Demands Prisoners and Hostages 
— Is Stern — Makes Terms — Caiitives 
Brought in— Not Recotruized -Many Pre- 
fer to Stay with the Indians— Lovers Brave 
all forTlieir Loves— Song of the German 
Mother — Pontiac Yields — Miserable 

Death 1B9-M3 

CHAPTER XII. -First Settlers — Lands 
Must be Acquired of Indians — Kind's 
Proclamation — Lands West of the 
AUeghanies — " Fair Play " Court — 
Two Roads Leading West — Procla- 
mation of Governor Penn— Little Heed to 
Them— Sachems Complain— Settlers Pla- 
cate the Local Tribes bv Kindness- Gage 
to Penn and Repiv— Law Passed Giving 
the Settlers to Death Who do not Move 
Off— Notice Given— Indians Interfere — 
Settlers Willingto Remov tliouLdi Encour- 
aged to Ueinain-I'ostserii.t to Keport— 
Names ol Seli'ers--Iuili,iii Coufev.-nce at 
Fort Pitt- Miirderof liidi.iiis. S;iti-fiedby 
Presents -Indians A-ree i" W'irii otTthe 
Settlers- Finally Declii"' le i- 'ii — Plan 
to Secure the Hemov:ii ■ l! ' i;i; ~ in the 
Interest of Philadel|dii;i sp.., i:liitors— 
Hillsborough Attemiit,- in lir-tioy Vir- 
ginia Claim— EaL'eniess to Secure Blocks 
of these Western Lands by Siiccnlators— 
Great Gatherings at Fort Stnnwix— Treaty 
Made— Lands A(|uirod — Peunsylvanni 
Land Oftice Opened— Rush of Applicants- 
Case of Henry Taylor— Testimony— Dis- 

honest ClairaantB 192-209 

CHAPTER XIII.— Treaty of 1784— Cumber- 
land County Seat at Carlisle^Bedford 
County— Piii and Springhill Townships- 
Assessments- Names of Ta.x-Payers — 
Westmoreland County Formed- Hanna- 
lown— Arthur St. Clair— Road Laid Out 
from Mouth of Fishpot Run Eastward- 
Important Thorousrhfare— Case of Eliza- 
beth Smitli— Delegates Assume all Author- 
ity over the Colon\'— Convention to Form 
aNew Government, -Franklin President— 
Coinmitlee of Siifety — Governor John 
Penn Relieved — The' Fonnder Eemem- 
beredGratefully—NewConetitntion, Thom- 
as Wharton, Preeideiit— Assembly Legal- 
ized all Acts of Preceding Courts and Pro- 


vidocl for Completiiis Unsatisfied CiiBcs - 
ReiDetating Civil OfHcors— Thread of Au- 
thority was Taken Up by the New Peo- 
ple's Government just as Dropped by 
that Acting under Royal Authority 2Ui-^'-21 


rH~'''\Vi-t<t and Northwest' 

J^eltlers Innocent— Writ of (Juo Warranto 
—King's Proclamation— Virginia only a 
lUiyal Colony— Mason and Dixon's Line 
Continued — Walpole Grant Covered an 
Empire— Correspondence of Governors— 
Frv had Ascertained Latitiideof Logslown 
— Build a Fort— ProiM>se Commissioners- 
Civil Commotion — Wilson's Letter— Set- 
tlers Oppose I'enn's Laws and Ask for a 
Vir;;ini>i Court— Material of Fort Pitt Sold 
— liovernor Dunmore— Connollv's Procla- 
mation— Connolly Arrested— Sheriff Proc- 
tor Arresteil--<'orri*s])oiidence of Govern- 
ors—Formal Notiec of Peun — Connolly 
Comes with a Dcta. Iiment of Militia-llis 
Position -Court's Answer-Connolly Ar- 
rests Justices— better of MacknyTilghman 
and Allen Sent to Vircinia— Dunmore Ar- 
bitrary— Peun Counseled Peace- Claims 
Complicate— Dunmon:'s War— Needless- 
Logan's [{evenge on Ten-Mile Creek— Set- 
tlers Flee— Armies of Lewis und Dunmore 
-—Proclamation of Dunmore— I'l'uu's Coun- 
ter Proclamation— Virginia Court at Pitts- 
burg- Arrests and Counter — Lexington 
and Concord— Patriotism— Advice of Con- 
gressmen—Fate of Connolly Si!-349 

CHAPTER XV — VirL'inia Militia Sent to 
Piii»biir^'-\V-st AuL'u^^ta Countv— Ohio, 
YoliiiL-imiii. all.! McuouL-halia Counties— 
Vii;;iuia Sends Auimnuition to Pittsburg 
—Troops On;ani/.ed~ linns Sent-Govern- 
or Patrick Heurv of Virginia Urges a 
stout Defence of Fort Pitt— Manv Names 
of Early Settlers Among Militia OfHcers— 
Defend" to the Last Extremitv— A New 
State to be Called Westsylvania Petitioned 
for to Continental Congress to be the 
teiAith- Strong Language of the Petition- 
Bounds of Proposed New Slate— S4(J Miles 
in Length by 70 to 8;) in Breadth, Equal in 
Extent to an Empire -"Vandalia" and 
"Walpole" Proposed — Virginia Opens 
Land Offices, Fixes Price of Land— Titles 
to the Greater Part of Southwestern Pan 
of Pennsylvania Held by Patents Granted 
by Virginia 2.->a-2r>4 

CHAPTER XVI.-Attrnctions in this Sec- 
tion forihe SetIl.■r^— \ali(lilv i.f the Ohio 
and Wal)iiile Coinpinivs TIMik in Doubt- 
Continental Cougress -One Weakness in 
Pennsylvania Charter— Pennsylvania, Pub- 
lication — Propositions for Settlement — 
Commissioners Meet at Baltimore— To the 
41°— To the 40°— To Mason and Dixon's 
Line — Western Boundary Extend West- 
ward into Ohio— To the :W°, W, with a 
Western Corresponding^ to the Meander- 
ings of the Delaware River— To the :«», 
30 , with a Meridian Line for the Western 
Boundary- Mason and Dixon's Line with 
a Meridfan Line for the Western Bound- 
ary Settles the Controversy- Virginia 
Sends Land Commissioners to Redstone 
and Issues Patents for Vast Tracts— Re- 
monstrance Sent to Congress — Recom- 
mendation of Congress Unheeded— Joint 
Addressof Council ami Assemblv of Penn- 
sylvania-Pennsylvania Becomes Belliger- 
ent-Proposition of Virginia Accepted— 


Commissioners Appointed to Kun and 
Mark the Line -Jetrerson Advises a Tem- 
por:in l,;Mr ^ "1. is Rise up in Arms to 

Opi ''im: : me— Cry Against Tuxes 

and! :.' w State, Final Report 
of I'iMiin;!-- MM r> Made— Meridian Line 
Fouiui hy Asti-oiioiuical Observations — The 
Long Sought Southwest Comer of the 
Stale PiniiUy Found and Marked— Western 
Line of Pennsylvania Run and Marked — 
The Vexed Question of the True Limits of 
the State Finally Settled SiT-SOS 

CHAPTER XVII.-Titles to Lands Largely 
Derived from Virginia Authority — Criim- 
rine Gives Entries— Petitions for a New 
County- Washington County Organized — 
County Officers — 'Tribulfltions — George 
Rogers Clark's Expedition— To Advocate 
New State Treason— Conn tyOftices—llenry 
Taylor First Judjje — Alleghany County 
Erected- Portion Taken from Washington 
County — Boundary of Tract Taken from 
Washington Countv, which Forms the 
Southern Part of Alleghany '-.'esi-a'a 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Curtailments of Wash- 
ington County— County Seat Not Central 
— Act Creating Greene County — Name 
Given— Notice of General Greene- Where 
Buried — Acquire Land for County Seat- 
Land of Thomas Slater— Deed — Named 
Eden— Streets Named -Cider and Whisky 
—Name of the Now Town— GenerulWayne, 
Notice of— Incident Described by Whit- 
man—Purchasers of Lots— Prices Paid- 
Commissions Issued to County Officers — 
Court of Common Pleas, Five 'Districts- 
Judge Addison— Notice of his Life— Im- 
peached and Removed— Charges Preferred 
Against Him — Sentence of Court--As8o- 
ciate Justices-- Judge Roberts--Thoma8 
H. Baird over the New Fourteenth District 
—Notice of Judge Baird— National Road- 
Nathaniel Ewing in IKW— Term Ten 'i'cars 
—Notice of Judge Ewing— Samuel A. Gil- 
more in 1848— Notice of Judge Gilmore— 
James Liudscy in 18BI — Notice of Judge 
Lindscy — Minute of Fayette County 
Court a7i-291 

CHAPTER XIX.— Value of Edueation— 
"Enoch Flower" First Teacher— Friends' 
School — C'oUegi! Academy and Charity 
School — Founding Colleges — Founding 
Academies— Men and Women Make Their 
Marks— Retarding ('ouBes— Instruct the 
•'Poor (tratis '—Speech of Stevens— Law 
of 1*14- Opposition of IS.I.I-Law of 1836 
—Governors Widfe and Ritner— Journey 
of Burrowes— First School Report— Oppo- 
sition where Least Expected — Greene 
County Slow in .\do))tiug — Showing of 
Greene in School Property 
—Solicitude for its Safetv -1,000 Districts 
—TOO in Operation— Broad Plime of Bur- 
rowes— Progress of a Pupil Through the 
Whole— Defects Showu bv Fifteen Years' 
Trial— Revised Law of IS.'Vl— Opposition to 
County Superintendency—Non- Accepting 
Districts — Honorable Charles A. Black, 
Superinrendcnt — Independent Districts- 
True Sphere of County Superlntendentr— 
Circular Letter— Beneflcient Influence of 
Law— Hecoinmends Normal Schools— Nor- 
jnal School Law of 1R5T— Ten Schools- One 
%t California for the Tenth District — 
C.rowth— School Architecture- Edited by 
T. H. Burrowes- No Retrograde Steps— 
The People's Colleges— Sources of Bless- 
ings .292-810 


CHAPTER XX.-Keiioil8 of Couuty Mipcr- 
intendentfl— John A. Gordon, Opiionjtiou 
to Common Schools— Assistance of Mcb- 
aenger and Eagle— Kcv. G. W. Baker— 
Waynesliurg and Carmicbaels Graded 
Schools— New Hoases and Increased At- 
tendance—A. G. McGlumphy — InHtitute 
Organized- John A. Gordon — Normal 
School at Greene jVcademy — Gordon a 
Soldier— Prof. A. B. Jliller— Prof. T. J. 
Teal for Twelve Ycar.s— New Bnilding at 
Wavnesburg— County Institute Under the 
New Law-lu 1870, 113 Frame, '33 Brick, 3 
Stone, di) Lo^— Array of Talent at County 
Institute— ilount Morris Graded School— 
Dr. A. B. Miller, Rev. J. B. Solomon, Prof. 
Lakin, Rev. Samuel Graham — Jaclvsou- 
villc Graded — Centennial Report — Earliest 
Schools— Qualilications of Early Teachers 
Meager- Teach to Double Rule of Three- 
Names of Early Teachers— Stone School- 
House in ^^■hiteley Township 311-: 

C H Al >TE I; XXI.— Charter for Greene Coun- 
ty Academy— 82,000 from the State— Prin- 
cipals Served a Useful Purpose— Pennsyl- 
vania Academies Unsatisfactory — Law to 
Transfer Property to Common School- 
Select Schools — Wayneshurg College — 
Origin— Value of the Small Colleges- Mad- 
ison and Beverly— Need of Such an Insti- 
tution—Pennsylvania Presbytery of Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church- Waynes- 
burg Selected— Rev. J. Loughran Opened 
a Scliool— Charter Obtained— Supplements 
—Margaret K. Bell Opens School' in Bap- 
tist Church for Females— Now Building 
Opened— First Classes Graduate — Taken 
Under Pennsylvania Synod— Relations of 
the Church to the College — Miller Snc- 
ceedB Fish— Rev. J. P. Wethee, President 
-Insists on Classification of Males and 
Females Alike— Settled After Investiga- 
tion—John C. Flenniken— Rev. Alfred B. 
Miller President ia 1860— His Devoted La- 
■bors- Debt of SM.OOO— Struigles- Had Un- 
dertaken Too I\luch— Church to Support, 
Three Professors — Unselii.^h Devotion to 
Dr. Miller— Mrs. M. K. B. :Millrv -Untimely 
Death— Resolutions of TreMrrs -Itoiiou- 
gidiela College— Rev. Joseph Hmiih— Rev. 
H. K. Craig — Rev. J. B. Solomon- Scope 
of the College .324-342 

CHAPTER XXII.— The Wayncsburg Mas- 
sereffer- TheWaynesbnrg/Je^?<6Kcan— The 
Was-nesburg Independent — The Greene 
County Democrat 342-3^8 

CHAPTER XXIII.— The Cumberland Road 
— Recommended by Wasliington- Canal — 
Ohio Admitted in 1803— Act Authorizing 
Rond in 1800- Albert Gallatin— Refuses to . 
Interfere — President Madison— By Wash- 
ington — Finished in 1820— Specifications- 
Appeared Excellent — Material Defective — 
Traffic Immense — Speedy Repairs — Dcla- 
fleld and Cass — Limestone Renewal — 
Ceded to the States— Toll Houses— "Oys- 
ter Line" — Monkey Box Line — 1852 Penn- 
sylvania Railroad and Baltimore &> Ohio 
Opened- Baltimore & Ohio Pushed Out of 
Pennsylvania — Cause of Opj)osition — 
Washington & V.'aynesburg Railroad— B,v 
the Hills- Circuitous — Novel Experi- 
ence 348-S57 

CHAPTER XXIV. — Methodist Episcopal 
Church — The Cumberlaud Presbyterian 
Church— The Baptist Church- The Presbv- 
t.'riaii Church— The Wayneshurg Catholic 
Church .' 337-362 

CHAPTER XXV. — Introductory Note to 
Military History 363-364 

CHAPTER XXVI. — Company I, Thirty- 
Seventh Regiment of Infantky, Eigutu 
Reserve. — Organization — Battle of Me- 
chanicsville — Gaines' Mill — Charles City 
X Roads— Second Bull Run— South Moun- 
tain— Antietam— Fredericksburg — Wildcr- 
ness— Spottsylvania — Mustered Out — Rec- 
ord of Individual Members of Company .364-378 

Fourth Regiment, First Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, Fifteenth Reserve. — Organi- 
zation of Regiment — Camp Pierpont — 
Drainesville, Cross Keys and Port Repub- 
lic-Robertson's River— Cedar Mountain- 
Second Bull Rnu—Frcdericksburg— Death 
of Bayard— Mud itarch— Chancellorsville 
Campaign — Braudv Station — Aldie and 
Mine Run Campaign— Wilderness — Raid 
to Richmond— Hawes' Shop- Barker's Mill 
— St. Marv's Church — Reame's Station— 
Weldon Railroad— Mustered Out— Record 
of Men .378-389 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Companies F and G, 
EiuHTY-FiFTH Pennsylvania Infantry 
Regiment.- Organization— Yorktown and 
WillianLsburg— Fair Oaks— Newbcme, N. 
C— West Creek— Kingston-White Hall— 
Goldsboro— Folly Island, S. C — Siege 
Operations Before Fort Wagner— Death of 
Col. Piuviance— Before Petersburg— Deep 
Bottom — Losses — Transfers — Mustered 
Out— Records of the Men 390^03 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Company A, One Hun- 
dred AND Fortieth Pennsylvania In- 
fantry Regiment. — Oranization — North 
Central Railway— Chancellorsville— White 
House— Gettysburg— The Wheat Field— 
Mine Run Campaign— The Wilderness— 
C.orbin's Bridge— Spottsylvania— Tolopo- 
tomy Creek— Death of Captain McCuUough 
—Cold Harbor— Before Petersburg— Jeiii- 
salem Plank Road- Deep Bottom— Ream's 
Station — Hatcher's Run — Southerland 
Station- Sailor's Creek— Farmville— Ap- 
pomattox Court House— Surrender of Lee 
—Muster Out— Record of Individual Sol- 
diers 404-414 

CHAPTBRXXX.— Company K, Fifteenth 
Cavalry, One Hundred and Sixtieth of 
THE Line. -Battle of Antietam— Disorgan- 
ized— s.iit to Kentucky- Stone River— 
Refusal to'Artvancc— Colonel Palmer Re- 

. lea.^^cd-drtMiiiz.uiou ( :omp)oled— Hatth- 
Of Clii.:k:iiii;al';;i- licseiTans Shul Up liv 
Brn:;- uV Clinllaiiooga-Griuit iu L oin- 
manil -A'ictniy -Army Rclicved-V.'illey of 
the French Broad-Ordered to Nashville 
to Recruit— Nashville— Pursuit of Hood 
—Pursuit of Davis— Capture of Bragg and 
Vast Sums of Money —Mustered Out- 
Individual Record 414-125 

CHAPTER XXXI.— Companies A, C, AND G, 
Eighteenth Cavalry, One Hundred 
AND Sixty-Three OF the Line.— Organ- 
izatiou— Mosby's Guerrillas — Hanover — 
Gettysburg — Round Top — Pursuit of 
Trains —Brandy Station and Upperville- 
Raid to Richmond — Wilderness— Yellow 
Tavern — Hanover Court House— Ashland 
— St. Mary's Church— Weldon Railroad — 
Silencer Rifles- Winchester— C'edar Creek 
— Mivstercd Out— Individual Records... ,426-437 


CHAPTER XXXII. - County Okkices.- 
Sherifls— County TreaHururs — Clerk of 
Courts — Registere— Prottionotariop — Re- 
corders— Corbueis— Scalers of Weighte aud 
Measures— Notaries I'ublic — County Sur- 
veyors— Justices of the reaco — School 
Superintendents — District Attonieys — 
Commissioners- .Auditors — I'oor House 
Directors — Jury Commissioners — Bur- 
gesses of Waynesljurg 458-4V" 

CHAPTER XXXIII. - Aleito TowNsuir 
—Speculators — Boundaries— Outlook on 
the Highlands — Lewis Wetzel— Have u 
Scnlp or Lose My Own— Note of the 
Turkey Gobler— A Price Set on His Head 
-Put in Irous— Astilitv in Ituuninj; — 

"Conrad Mo 

-Schools— Directors . . .478- 18^ 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— Centke Township.- 
Location — How Watered — Productions 
—Osage Orange Hedge — Rogersville — 
Business— Churches— Clinton Marked for 
County Seat— Hunter's Cave— The Har- 
veys— Daniel Throckmorton— South Ten- 
Mile BaiJtist Church— Rutnn -Oak Forest 
—Schools— Thomas Pursley- Molly Sel- 
lers—Attacked by Indians -Thomas Hoge. 

CHAPTER XXXV. —Cumberland Town- 
8UIP.— Boundaries— Fort Swan- and Van- 
moter— Rattle Snake Meat-^lohn Swan— 
Watered— Wife Loads Guns— Carmichaels 
—John McMillan— Schools 486-491 


—Early Visitauts—Dunkard — Religion— 
Eckerline Brothers — Fate of Christina 
Sycks— Enix— Dogs Excited— Twentv-two 
and a half years a Captive— Satisliecl with 
the Red Men— Dr. W. Greene— Martin's 
Fort— Attack of Harrison's Fort-Massacre 

— Schools 49'.!-4!W 

—Central Location— Surface— Sugar Majile 
— Drainage — Waynesburg — Cemetery — 
Robert \^^litehill— Court House- Site Pur- 
chased—Original Settlers— Jackson's Fort 

— How Arranged — Story of Jackson — 
Slater Friendly with Indians- Fate of 
Mathew Gray— Notes of Robert Slorris— 
Three Brotheri- Rinehart— Brown Mas- 
sacre— Schools— Directors 49t)-503 

—Titles to Laud — Boundaries -- Well 
Watered — Fertile — Jolleytown — Con- 
ditions of Sale— Mason and Dixon Mon- 
uments— Schools— Dr. Smith Building the 
Cabin 503-507 

CHAPTER XXXIX.— GiraENE Township.- 
Original Extent— Present— Garnrd's Fort 
-Goshen Baptist Church — John Corbly— 
Corbly Massacre— Minutes of Redstone 
Baptist Association — Curious (Questions — 
Spiccr Massacre — Logan's Revenge- Cap- 
tivity— Boy Never Returned— Schools — 
Directors .'508-51* 

C11.\PTER XL. — Jackson Township- 
Agriculture— Baltimore and Ohio Road— 
Timber- White Cottage— Schools— Direc- 
tors— Habits of Settlers— Dr. Doddrigle's 
Reminiscenses — Dress — Moccasins — 
Clothing Hung on Pegs— Occupation of 
the Wivmcn— Of the Boys— Throwing the 
Tomahawk : ...blS-iie 


Swan aud Hughes— Lindsej- Fauiilv— llia- 
ton's Mill- Jefl'erson and Hamilton- 
College — Rice's Landing — Boundaries - 
Schools— Directors— Teagarden rights foi 
His Claim— Manumission 51ti-51l) 


siiip. — John Minor - Mapletowu — 
Flouriu" Mill — Morgan Built Forts — 
Clark's Flotilla— Greensboro-New Ueueva 
-Gallatin — Glass Works — StonecastJ<' — 
School— Directors— White Savages ... 5aO-5» 

Everhnrt Hupp — Indian Training— Only 
Fear— Mrs. IIupp. First White W omau— 
( 'oiiking— Boundary- Schools — Directors 
— Kecollections of iiu Old Settler— School- 
House— Shoeinakcr-FroEeu to Death. .sati-WS 

CHAPTER XLIV— MoRBis Township.— 
Miliiken- First Court House— Nineveh — 
Beulah Church— Methodist Church— Unity 
I'hurch— Carl Brothers Murdered 588-532 

CHAl'TER XLV.— Perry Township.- Sur- 
face — Soil — Productions — Boundaries — 
Mount Morris— Intelligence— Schools — Di- 
rectors — Jeremiah Glassgow — Personal 
H; Contest -First Settler— War Paths 533-535 

CHAl'TER XLVI.— RicHHiLi. Township.— 
Name Significant — Graysville — Jackson- 
ville-Thomas Leeper— Cameron Station— 
Ryerson's Fort— Old Sea Captain Searches 
for his Town— Fort— The Davis Massacre 
—David Gro.v— Braddoiks- Abuer Brad- 
dock Drowned — The Teagflrdeiis— Jacob 
Crow — Headless Hunter — Massacre of 
Three Sisters— Return of the Murderer- 
Schools— Directors 535-0-11 

CHAPTER XLVIII— Wayne Township.- 
Location — Boundaries — Well Watered- 
Dye's .Mill-Schools— Funiiture for u 
Cabin— Dress of Pioneers — Massacre at 
Stattler's Fort— Burial of an Infant — 5-14-.'>4i) 

CHAPTER XLIX.— Washington Town- 
ship.— Commercially Situated — Railroad 
—8(10 Subscribers— l-'ost $6,500 per Mile— 
In 1877 is heard the first Scream of the Lo- 
comotive — Surface — Boundaries — Early 
Settlers— Religions — First Sacrami-nt in 
178:J— Services in a Barn— Schools-Dircc; 
Hirs 547-i>lII 

CII.VPTER L. — WuiTKi-EY Township — 
CommcrciolAdvantages— Surface— Bound- 
aries— E.xperience of Dr. McMillan— Mr. 
Evans' Account of Mrs. Bozorth— Heroic 
Defense of Herself-Relicf 549-551 

cn.\PTER LI.— .MISCEU.ANE0U9— Excise 
Law— Held rnconstitutional— Transporta- 
tion DifHcull — Whiskv Easy— Law Re- 
sisted—Officers Abused— Law Modified— 
Still Resisted- Macfarlahe Killed— Militia 
Called— Gen. in Command— Washing- 
ton Moves with the .\rmy— Reviews it at 
Cumberland- Submit — Honest Whisky- 
No License— Three Stills Left— Religious 
E.xcitement— Sects — Slavery — Geology- 
Oil— Honored List 551-»:i8 




AiiMll, Asumy 361 

Chiuii be i-H, Benjamin 561 

CK'un.iiMiug, W. W 561 

Elliiii.J. t: 56^ 

KvauF, A/ni-iah 



lli-nrv. -fulm 

llincnulill, Lillrteiy BO.i 

Hill' riiinn, AudcTSou 564 

IlMiermnii, J. S 561 

JliMiHtdii, William 5(55 

M(.ps, Ilirum P 565 

;^Itirr!ly, Key. Jacol) M 566 

McCraclvun, Jonepll 566 

McrracRun, S. W. S 567 

McVMV.James B6T 

MoViiy, George 567 

Parry, Lewis SBS 

Parry, William M., M. D 56R 

Phillips, B. P 569 

Sammous, Rev. Lewis.; 569 

Sammons, Koeeell 569 

Smith, Lather A 570 

Tedrow. William .570 

Ullom, bn vid 571 

While,.]. M 571 

Wood, Joslina 571 

Woodrufl', George 573 


Adamson, S, H 573 

Bavnrd, George A 573 

BoWler, Heury 573 

Burroughs, Thomas T 574 

Bnrroughe, H. S 571 

Call, James 574 

Carpenter, Thnniu? .T 575 

Clutter, Cephas .576 

Clutter, J. 51 .57B 

Church, G.Jt 57.5 

Church, R. B .575 

Cook, W. IT 577 

Crouse, IjavLon 577 

Eagon, S. B 577 

Fordyci^, A. G 578 

Fordycc, Siia,") 578 

Fordyce, Jesse ..' ,570 

Fordvce, S. R 57n 

Fry, 1). W 57!l 

Fry, W. C .5,sn 

Funk, , John S 580 

Gooden, Eagon .^8i 

Goodwin, !Sef h ,iSl 

Goodwiii, John T 581 

Graham, Samuel J 583 

Iloge, James 582 

Iloge, Levi sm 

Huge, Joseph 583 

Hoge, W i II inm .5&1 

Iloge, William 583 

lIutTman, T. J .584 

Uuirmnn, Reasiu 585 

Hufrman,S. B .585 

lams, Samuel , .585 

Jacobs, F. G .586 

Johnston, A. J .586 

Johnston, Columbus 58H 

KniL'ht, David .587 

Knight, Thomas .587 

Martin, LeviH 587 

Meek, John 587 


Millikin, William '*'J 

Morris, -John ^^j! 

McClelland, A. B ^f 

McNecly. Jesse '°o 

McGIumphv, J. P 588 

Orudurf, Eii o* 

Orndoir, W. B 590 

Orndotr. Isaac 691 

Orudoff. D. S j9} 

Orndurf, Jesse Sill 

Owen, S. B., M. D 593 

Patterson, John =•'? 

Patterr'on, Jesse C ;™ 

™lliP^O-.S 5^ 

f'ortcr, Levi f-^ 

Reese W. P '^ 

Rush,'Phillip • • 5M 

Scott, C.W 595 

Scott, Thomas ?» 

Scott, Henry A ™'' 

Scott, GeorgeW 596 

Scott, Joshua 591) 

Sellers, AsaM j'-'J 

Smith.Thomas 51IJ 

Smith, JobC °f„ 

Smith,J.c J;;» 

Strawn, Stephen 598 

Thompson, Samuel 59B 

Throckmorton, James ^•i-J 

Throckmorton, Samuel 5^ 

l71lom, Jesee «» 

Watson, Robert ^ 

Wehster, Samuel '£}■ 

Woodruff, Benjamin L., M. D 601 

Wood, E.W 602 


Ailes, William A ^^ 

Armstrong, William "M 

Armstrong, Alfred T 6W 

.Armstrong, Jose-ph H 604 

Armstrong, Hori 6'" 

Bailey, J. K "^4 

Bailey, Rev. E. E 605 

■llailey, Joseph Taylor 6»' 

Bailey, Ellis B 606 

Bailey, J. E...... ^7 

Bailey, Georje E 60' 

Barclay, W. Il glj 

Barclay, G. A JlB 

Barns, James °'i° 

Biddle, Isaac T '"j" 

Biddle.N.H *'" 

Bunting, Samuel Jj; 

Bayard, S. S "1 

Cloud, Jeremiah 6ii 

Crec, Hiram H '<]i 

Crago, John MS 

Orago, J. N 613 

Crago, T. J f* 

Crago. Thomas J 614 

Crow. George G «\2 

Davidson, Jerry 61d 

Dowlin, .John M 616 

Eichcr, J. F 6lB 

Elliott, William C 616 

Flenniken, William.: 6'T 

Flenniken, W^illiam 617 

Frost, Alfred 6)V 

Gregg, George T 618 

Grooms, William 619 



Gwynn, Jopiah... till) 

Uwynii.J.F fi','0 

Harlmiiu, William ii!») 

Ilalliawiiy, J. W 6-Jl 

Hiimiltoii, Joseph (Bl 

.liu:k«in, I. K 83a 

K.Tr, Williiim liaa 

Kerr, James «*) 

Kerr, Jolin (.; 623 

Kerr, Arehihald (533 

Liiitllcy, Ncirvn) (JiM 

Laidley, J. B, M D .^ f.24 

Laidlev, Hou. T. H TTr:.^ 625 

Long, K. S rS 625 

Long, Milton tlili 

Minor Family 61» 

Miirdock, Jniiics 626 

Mcirdock, Wiilinm M 626 

Mori'dock, Simon 627 

JItUlintock, Hev. John 627 

McMillan, Rev. John 628 

N ickeson , Prof. W. iM 62!! 

Patterson, 1. B h.«) 

Patterson, J. Q 630 

Rea.J.H Ml 

Kca, Samnel W 631 

RcevcH, Joseph OT.' 

Rich, Daniel fiK 

Richcy, Albert M 6W 

Uiuehart, ThomaB am 

Rogers, 'J'hnmas W 634 

Shurpnack, A.J 6^-1 

Sharpnack, Levi X KV, 

Stewart, Tliomae L f<:V> 

Stone, Elins 635 

Stephenson, D. C 636 

Toppiu, Johnson 636 

Warne, T. P 637 

Wiley, Lem IT 687 

Youii'.', A. J 638 

Youni;, Morgan 6:,K 


Beall,Emanncl Ii3il 

Coalbank, Thnrntou 639 

Dilliner, Ambrose 610 

Knotts, IraD., M. D 610 

Mason, John B 611 

Miller, George G Ml 

Miller, Asa 642 

Morris, LA 1543 

McCliip', James 643 

Roberts. 1'homas B 644 

Steele, Unvid 614 

Steele, Thomas B ii-14 

Sterline, .\ braham 64.') 

South, .Joseph 615 

South, Rev. 6l.^i 

V'anvoorhis, L. G tM6 

Vanvoorhix, Isaac r.iii 


Artamson, Thomas 617 

Adamsoii. Cvrus 848 

Alliim, J. P.'. HIR 

Ankrom, ,\. I rii8 

Axtell. H. B iH9 

Barb, William H 649 

llcU, Jason M iioO 

Blachly, Stephen L, M. D 6,t0 

Black, non.C. A 6.S1 

Hlair, William (HI 

Boyd, James 052 

Brock, R. E., M. n ' prrf 

Bo\ver,C.E («S> 

Buchanan, James A.J H.52 

(.'all, Harvey 8-53 

Call, John ;.. ...".'.".".'.!.'.']"'.' ' "' 6.53 

Chapman, G. W 6.M 

Cooke, A. I ffii 


Cole, Jacob . . . (l.'j.'i 

Crav.-ford, David o.'a.^ 

Cross, A. G., M. D 656 

Day, William G. W ii57 

Day, Uarvey tl.58 

Denny, B. B. W K» 

Donley, Hon. J. B lir,n 

Dougal, Thomas E 6.)!P 

^ Downey, R. F «iO 

Ely.J.'W., M. D at» 

Elv, Jonas 661 

Evans, W. W 6«l 

Funk. J. M »«2 

Garard, J. C .. 663 

Gordon, Captain John A 668 

Gordon, Solomon 664 

Gordon, Hon. Basil 661 

Gordon, lion. John B C64 

Goodwin, Thomas 6«m 

Grimes, H. M 665 

llainer.D. H 606 

Ilarvev. Samuel 61»6 

Hays, William Thompson 667 

Herlis, Joseph S (;«8 

Herrington, B. P WO 

Hill, Jesse 67(1 

Hose, Norval 670 

Ho^e, Asa B 671 

Ho^e, James M 671 

Ho'ipcr. Isaac 672 

■ Hook. W. A 67i ■ 

Hook, Thomas 672 

Hoskinson, Thomas 678 

Hughes, William R 673 

lame, John T., M. D 674 

lllig, Frederick 674 

Inghram, William 675 

• Inghram, Hon. James 675 

Jennings, Col. James S 675 

Johnson, William R 676 

.lordon. Rev. C. p 677 

Kent, Hiram 677 

Kent, Col. John M 678 

Kimber, Gapt. W. E 670 

Knox, I. H 87H 

Knox,P. A 680 

Lantz, W. T 6S0 

Lemley, J. S 681 

Levi no, Morris.... 681 

Lindsev, lion. James 681 

LindseV.H.n 6K 

Lippencott, W^illiam, Sr 682 

Lucas. H.C 6.S3 

Miller, A. B., D. D. LL. D 688 

Mitchell, Isaac «83 

M(.mtt, T. P 8™ 

Moore, John A ««6 

.Morris, William II 686 

M.c.nnell, n.m. Robert A 687 

Mcronnell, Joseph L «88 

McXmv. Samuel J «*« 

Orndoir. Jesse B 6^8 

Parehall, T'inthanicl 68'.1 

Patterson, W. W '""• 

Patterson, Rev. Albert K 689 

Patton, Hon. Alexander 690 

Pattern, Joseph 590 

Pauley, W. t. H 6«0 

Phelan, Zadock W 691 

Phelan, R. H 691 

KPipes, John R 692 ^ 

Pratt, D. B «»; 

Pnrman.A. A °^. 

Ragan.Z. C «"' 

Randolph, .lames F V'f 

Randolph, J. A. r ™ 

Kay, Joseph -.V ^ 

Rhodes, .Villiam 696 

-- Rinehar ',, S. S "Jj. 

Rineho.-t, James R ™J, 

Rinehi.rt, Prof. A. I. P "98 


RitcWo, J. G 638 

KosB. Morgan . . B'J9 

Kop5, Joseph B 699 

Ross, Hon. Abner 700 

Eogers,J.H -700 

Kyan, Egv. W. M VOl 

^ Sarei-B, E. M 703 

Snyers, James B 703 

Sayers, Eoliert A 708 

~ Sayers, HcmyC 704 

Scott, J. M 7(14 

Scott, S.W 705 

Scott, W. G 705 

Sbipley. E. H 706 

SilveuB, A. F 706 

Simpaou, Eev. J. L 700 

Snialley, A. C 707 

Smith, J. M 707 

Smith, James B 708 

Spragg, D. A 708 

Sproat, T. Ross . 709 

Strosnider, M. L 709 

Stoy, Cpt. W. H VIO 

Taylor, George 710 

Temple, J. F. 711 

Teagarden, John P. 711 

Throckmorton, Jol3 713 

Throckmorton, P. B 714 

Ullom, J. T.j M. D 714 

Vnndniff.W.S 714 

Walton, D. S 715 

Wisecarver, George "W 715 

Wood, Eev. Joel J 717 

Wood, Hiram C 717 

Zimmerman, Henry 71.S 

Zollars.E. S ,. 718 


Clovis, William 719 

Dye, Jeftersou 719 

Eakiu, Jacob M 730 

Pordyce, John G 731 

Gilmore, S. W 751 

Hagan, Hon. Jolm 73-^ 

Henncu, T. M 733 

Lantz, John 733 

Lcmmon, W. M 72,3 

Lemmou, Salem ....... 7SA 

Lcmmon, Salathiel 724 

Meighen, Peter 734 

Shnver, Jacoh L., M. D, .. 736 

Shough, Philip ;: ■;■'■ 733 

Taylor, Ahraham 7311 


Bailey, W. C V-X' 

Deuny, B. W., M. D 727 

Plcnuilcen. W. C 728 

. Garnrd, Steplien.sou T>>H 

Keener, Charles yjjl 

Lantz, Hon. Andrew ' 73!! 

Lantz, John F ;^'i 

Lantz, Geor^ie W 7311 

MycrB,P. A '.... '." 730 

Et-amer, Jacob T-iV 

Eoherts, J. B 731 

Sedgewick, T. H., M.D. '..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'"". 731 

South, Benjamin 7.32 

Vance, Joseph ,,.. , ' 733 


Ammous, A. F 733 

Bane, N. M 73.t 

Bayard, Samuel., ' ,' 734 

Burson, J. C 735 

(^otterrel, William 735 

Cottcrrel, John, Sr ' . 735 

Cotterrel, John, Jr... 7,jfi 

Cree, HnghD. 

uree, HnghD.. 

Bowlin, JeHse 

Goodwm, William. 


Gwynn, Marshall 737 

Haver, John 738 

Haver, Jacob 733 

Haver, Charles H 738 

Hays, Isaac 739 

Hughes, Charles 739 

Hughes, John H 740 

Jordan, Robert H 740 

Kendall, John C 740 

Long, Eli 741 

Love. Martin J 741 

McCleary, Ewing 74S 

McGoveru, Michael 743 ■* 

McMiiin, ThomaB.R 743 

Moredock, Daniel 743 

Price, Jeremiah . 744 

Rex, George 744 

Einehart, S. P 745 

Scott, James 745 

Shape, Milton S 746 

Sharpnack, Tliomah 746 

Sharpiiiick, T. l-I., 31. D 747 

Shurpuack, Sticrs 747 

Shaw, Alva C 745 

Smith, Sylvanns, M. D 748 

Tilton, Eev. Charles W 749 

Wi6e,'P. B 749 


CarpenterjJames 750 

Graham, William 750 

Grimes, Harvey Allison 7.51 

Grimes, George W 751 

Grimes, P. M 751 

Groves, Jolm 752 

Huffman, William 753 

Johnson, N. H 753 

Keener, Lindsey 753 

Kiger, Alexander 753 

Kughn, Lester 754 

Kiiiihu, Jackson '('54 

Meek, .Tames 754 

Williken.W. E 755 

Mitchell, h. H 755 

Mitchell, Eufus C 736 

Mitchell, A. J 756 

Morris, Jacob 756 

Scott, Capt. John 757 

Smith, Hngh 758 

Smith, Johnson T 738 

Staggers, Abraham 758 

Weaver, Hiram 759 

Weaver, Jacob 760 

Weaver, David 759 

Webster, Joseph 760 

Wliite, Hiram 761 

Williams, T.T.,M.D 761 

Wood, Jame.^ 763 


Atchitou, H. K 763 

Barb, John W 763 

Birch, George P., M. D 763 

DIatk, James A 764 

Black, J. S 764 

Blackshere, James E 765 

Bonghuer,A.V 765 

Cooper, O. P 763 

Donaway, A.B 766 

Dulany, J. H 766 

Dnulap, Samuel 766 

Evans, E.S 767 

FIcnniken, Elias A 7B7 

Gabler.A.K 76S 

Gabler, J. W 768 

Gray, J. E 769 

Greene, Wilson, M. D 769 

Jones, John 77O 

Kramer, T. P 77I 

Kramer, John C 773 

Kramer, John P 77s 


Xartin, Prof. George F TVii 

Mcstrczat, Joan Louis Guillanme '773 

MfBtrezat, Frederic "'3 

Millikiu, Robert 774 

MiUiliin, J. L^ M.D 774 

Minor, Otlio W 775 

Minor, John S 775 

Pennington, T. F 775 

ProvinSjJ.Y 77fi 

Ro8s, Silas V7fi 

Time, Eli N 777 

Titus, B. L 177 

Weltner, J. D 778 

Williams, llenjamin O 77S 


Adameon, Joseph ?7il 

Adomsou, Smith 7»a 

Bell.J R 78(1 

Bell, U. F 780 

Braden, s. II 780 

Buckin£;h;im, Henry 781 

Bnrsou, A. S 781 

Cary, Cephas 783 

Clayton, John 782 

Cox,John B 7*) 

Craj-ne, Miller 788 

Orayne, Stephen 7S4 

t'rayne, David 784 

Fulton, Samuel 784 

(Jrocnleo, James 785 

Oreenlee, James 785 

Grimes, Henry 78(i 

Harry.C.C 78t> 

Hataeld, William 787 

Hawkins, John C 787 

Hawkins, E. C 788 

Hawkins J. F 788 

Holder, Thomas J 788 

Horner. O. C 781t 

Keys, Henry 789 

Lewie, Samnel TOO 

Montgomery, Samuel 790 

Montgomery, Thomas H 791 

MuiTay, Samuel ; 791 

McCulloUKh, Able 791 

Pollock, J . C 792 

Pyle, William 79-.! 

Kniidolph, W. H. F 793 

Rogers, W. D., M. D 798 

Rose, John 7t)4 

Rush, Jacob.. ,^. TIM 

Rush, James ' 795 

Stewart, W. B .'■'.■ 795 

Vankirk, Edward, Sr 796 

Virgin, W.H : 791! 

Walton, Amos 797 

Watson, Henry 7<|;' 


Anld, Hugh 79g 

Bane, Jasper ,[ 79H 

Bradbury, Cyrus ...79H 

Brooks, Enoch 799 

Cary, Stephen C ■799 

Conklin, John M 80(1 

Drier, H 8qo 

Dunn, Joseph ..!..! 801 

Dunn, William 801 

Hays, Jesse L 8111 

Hopkins, Samuel ' " 80S 

Hopkins, D. W 802 

Huffman, Joseph .' ' . gOlJ 

lame,Otho '..'.'".. V.'.'.V.'. 808 

lams, J. L 80.3 

Liglitner, Henry ........!..!!".'! g04 

Loughmau, Daniel 804 

Loughman, William '. '. 806 

Loughman. Daniel 805 

JJ'^t'nllougii, Silas M .' 8«) 

McVay, Oliver 80U 


Patterson, Thomas 806 

Pettit, Elymas 807 

Pctut, Matthias 807 

Ross, Thomas M 807 

Sanders, Reuben 808 

Shape, George 808 

Shoup, Jacob 809 

Simpson, Hugh 809 

Simpson, J. W 809 

Swart, Jacob 810 

Throckmorton, William S., M. D 810 


Blair, Hon. .John. .. ., 811 

Boydstou, T. W 813 

BoydstoD, Thornton E 812 


,vu, O. J. 


Rrown, Reuben., 813 

Cowell, S. A 814 

Donley, D. L 814 

Fo.\, Dennis 815 

Gutnric, Samuel 815 

Guthrie, George W 815 

Haines, Cvrenius 81fi 

Hatfield, Jacob, M. D Slfi 

Hcadlev,G.P 817 

Headleo, W. 818 

lieadlee, Joseph 818 

Hoy, J. S 819 

Lemley, Morris 819 

Lcmley, Clark 819 

Lemley, Asberry 830 

Long, J. W 820 

Lont;, William 820 

Luellen, Coleman 821 

Morris, Spencer, M. D 831 

Morris, Levi 823 

Patterson, .Toseph 838 

Reamer, Minor N 823 

Shultz, Z. T 834 

Snider.A 834 

Spit/.nagel, Jesse 834 

Stephens, Spencer 825 

Whitlatch, Lewis 825 


Baldwin, F. W 82H 

Bane, Ellis 82ti 

Barnett, A. B, .'"27 

Bcbout, John 827 

Booher, I. C 827 

Braddock, James H ■ 828 

Braddock, Newton H 828 

Braddock, F. M 829 

Braddock,D.A 829 

Bristor, Robert 829 

Clutter, Abraham 8;<0 

Clutter, William 831) 

Coukev, J. M : 881 

Conkey, James Harvey 831 

Day, lliram SJl 

Drake, W.S. 8.S2 

Fenell, George W. .i 8.82 

FIctclu-r, H. 8 833 

Fouuer, William R 8.83 

Goodwin, A.J 8;54 

Goodwin, Daniel &84 

Grav,ThomasL 8:15 

Grihben, Elias K 835 

Grim, Capt. Samuel 8.86 

Ilauna,Rcv. William 836 

Hughes, .1 ames 8.87 

Jacobs, William 887 

Knights 888 

Lazear, Jesse 838 

Leslie. JohnJ 839 

l.oar, .Jacob 8.89 

Longbridge, J. K - 810 

Marsh, I'liillip 841 

Milliken, William G 841 

.Murray, John M . 843 


McCleary.T J 84^- 

McNay,B.H 8« 

Ornaoff, John «« 

Pari-v H II •• • °** 

Patterson,J. E., M. D Hj4 

Scott, Mason JJS 

Scott, Hiram °*? 

Smith, Eolrert ^« 

Smith, James L wb 

Supler, Martin e*!; 

Wright, John M »*' 

Wright, GW W 

White, P.J *■' 


Ayevs,J.K 848 

Barger,Johii 848 

Burdine, Jnmes 84a 

Biirge.W.L.. ^. 8.>0 

Carpenter, Thomas M 8jU 

Diusmore, P. C, M. D 8d1 

Ferrell, James M «-_'l 

Griffith, F. II..., 8p-3 

Griffith, Snmuel o.i. 

Hamilton, Lewis W 8.i- 

Ilamiitou, Enoch hM 

IIoBkinson,W. P *)J 

Isimiiigcr, Josephus 8o4 

Isimiuger. Jacob 854 

Miller, Jolm U., M. U 8.)4 

Miller, John 85.t 

Morford, J. L ^ 

McNeely, John ^ 8nb 

Kinehavt; J. H., M. D 8.% 

liinehart, W. II >:* 

Stiles.Jaraes o5( 

Stropc, Thomas »;» 

White, W-T 8.iS 

Whitlaich, Joseph ^« 

Wiklmun, William ooJ 


Barnes, Silas ••• 8S9 

Boyd, James »WJ 

Bristor, Robert .- ™l) 

Cary, Sylvester 8W 

Closser.J. W 8H 

Craig, Jesse 81.^ 

Durliiu, Enoch 8b3 

Dnrbiu, G. W 86d 

Edgar, John 8fi'T 

Fulton, Stephen 863 

Garner, Spencer B ...804 

Huffman, T. J 8B4 

Huffman, G. W 8(1.5 

Hughes, Andrew 8b5 

Johnson, Zephaniah KC5 

Johnson, George W Sfilj 

Johnson, Zenas 8tiB 

Joins, D.W 8«T 

Jol ne, Jacob »t>7 

Keigley, George 8tis 

Martin, John M ous 

Meek.L. W 8bK 

Meek, Cephas... 8li9 

Mitchell, Asa 8(59 

McClelland, M. M 870 

Pettit, John 870 

Pettit, JosephH 8.0 

Hoss, John 

Roes. Tho 

, 871 

Shirk, Benjamin 872 

Smith, J. H 8.2 

Walker, John 873. 


Bell, George W 874 

Brant, Hon. Matthias 874 

Brant, Kendall J 875 

Calvert, Kichard T 875 

Coen,JohnF 8;^5 

Cole,Ephraim 876 

Cole, James L 87() 

Cole, Henry 877 

Conldin, Iienry 87i 

Cumberledge, A. J '■ 877 

Frechind, John 8^8 

Headlev, Sam H 878 

Johnson, A\'illiaml£... 879 

Kent, J. S 87? 

Knight, James 


Lautz, William 

Moore, George W 

Phillips, Hon. Jesse 

Phillips, William D oo^ 

Phillips, .John Mc 883 

Spragg, David 883 

S piiigS; calub A 883 

Slirn^'ff, UeiirvM 8b4 

Ste«-;,rt, L.'raM 8R4 

Tiistiu, Abraham 884 

White, Keasin 885 

Worley, John 1 885 

Zimmerman, Robert 886 


Bailey, A. M 887 

Bare, David 887 

Bowers, Henry 888 

Brant, M.C 88S 

Cowell, David L 889 

Cowell, John M 889 

Cummins, John A 890 

Pox, John 890 

Fuller, Johns 891 

Gump, Abraham 891 

Guthrie, Solomon . . 892 

Hattteld, G. W 893 

John, Christopher 898 

Moss, G. W., M. D 893 

Morris, Henry 894 

Morris, Elijah 8!)4 

Patterson, Rufus 894 

Shriver, Arthur 895 

Smith, A. J 895 

Staggers, Lisbon 895 

Stephens, Liudsey 890 

Strosuider, Simon E 897 

Temple, A. M «97 

Zimmerman, James R 898 



Adamson, Thomas 365 

Barnes, J anScs i« 

Beall, Emanuel •"!; 

Biddle, N. H I'jj 

Black, Hou. 0. A „f,' 

Braddock, F. M 3.% 

Clayton, John »> 

Conkliu, John M *'l 


Donley, D. L 375 

Fordyce, A. G .«5 

Fox, Dennis 35f 

Fuller, John S U.= 

Gordon, Hon. John B IC 

Grimes, P. M 34'> 

Hfttlield, Jacob, M. D l.W 

Hiucrman, Liudsey 4;ir 


Hughes, James 3ir> 

lams, Hon. Thomas 105 

Johns, Jacob, Sr Sit.') 

Lindsey, Hon. Jamus 55 

Lippeucott, William 3*> 

Long,Eli 325 

Loughridge, J. K 505 

MeeK, James 365 

Mestrczat, John Louis Gaillaumi; 135 

Miller, Aen.... 3r. 

Millikm, John L., M. D 375 

Morris, Isaac A 415 

Moss, G. W., M. D 1«5 

McClelland, M. M 345 

McCouuell, Robert A 185 


McMiim.T.K 255 

McVay, James 295 

Parry, W.M.,M.D 4'<7 

I'bilhps, O. S 4«'J 

Sayers.E.M 35 

Scott, Capt. John 75 

Scott, James 2S5 

Spragg, David 145 

Swart, Jacob 305 

Thompson, Samuel 215 

Tilton, Rev. C. W 95 

Throckmorton, W. S.,M. D . 1"5 

Wisecarvor, George W 45 

Worlev, John I. 115 

Young,A. J 405 

Map of Greene County 15 

1r t^^^ ^^ ir 

V^A. S H I >- c 

>VE S T 

History of Greene County, 




Campbell — Its Location — 389,120 Square Acres — Streams 
Deainikg It^Water-siiej) — Trend of the Hills — Fertility 

OF the Sou Limiostdne — Forests — Remarks upon Forestry 

— A Girdled Forest — Cdnsequence of War upon the For- 
ests — JuDxcioi'S Planting — The Sioar Maple — As Seen in 
Southern Italy — (Questions Touching its Early Occupation. 

AN English nobleman of tlie last "generation, scliooled by travel in 
many lands, in a book which he wrote descriptive of an extended 
tour in the United States, deliberately declared that of all the lands 
which had gladdened his vision by their picturesque beauty in any 
part of the globe, none excelled those along the upper waters of the 
Ohio and its tributary streams. Indeed, so fascinated were the early 
French visitants, accustomed in their own land to scenes of enchant- 
ing natural beauty, that when they beheld the Ohio, they designated 
it, and ever after called it in all their books and writings, Ixi Belle 

Of that portion of country, which, by its lines of beauty and 
grace, has justly won these generous and just encomiums, to none 
can they more fairly l)e applied, than to that territory included within 
the limits of Greene County; for it will be remembered that the 
French knew less of what is now designated the Ohio River, than 
its two principal tributaries, to which they applied the one common 
name. To the traveler who passes on over its network of higlnvays, 
winding among its crown of hills, or by the margin of its sparkling 
streams, on every side are presented the elements of beauty; and the 
artist who seeks for worthy subjects of his brush, cannot tail to find 
them here. The monotony which plagues the traveler in a prairie 
land, and in many portions of the Atlantic shores, is unknown to 


him here. Scarcely one field in all its broad domain is like another. 
Nor is there here the other extreme, — the bald and shaggy mountain 
with its inaccessible summits, forbidding intercourse from its op 
posing sides, given up to barrenness and sterility. 

But everywhere is pleasing variety. In spring time the whole sur- 
face of the landscape is gladdened with the vei-dure of the fast spring- 
ing wheat, and rich pasturage links the margins of the quick flowing 
streams to the summits of the farthest hills. In summer time num- 
berless flocks and herds lick up the morning dew of the valley, repose 
at the heated noontide beneath ample shade, or slake their thirst at 
the cool and abundant fountains, and find rest at night-fall on some 
breezy knoll or sheltered nook. In autumn shocks of well ripened 
grain gladden all the valleys, and along the hills are ridges of golden 
corn. When winter comes with its hoary breath, and river, and creek, 
and brooklet are bound in icy adamant, and the great clouds of snow- 
flakes come whirling over hill-tops and down the valleys, wrapping 
all the earth in a drapery of white, the sun, though with far-off 
slanting rays, peers into happy homes, sheltered from the biting 
blast by massive hills that rise up in giant form on every side, like 
trusty sentinels to keep back and break the force of the blizzards that 
come with their deathly embrace to torment the dwellers on the 
western plains. 

That I may not seem extravagant in my estimate of the beauties 
of a Greene County landscape, or the fertility of its soil, I quote the 
language of one who well knew of what he was writing, and was not 
accustomed to speak in terms of exaggeration, — the Memoirs of Alex- 
ander Campbell. "As we follow the descending waters, the hills and 
upland regions, which in reality preserve pretty much the same 
level, seem gradually to become higher, so that by the time we ap- 
proach the Ohio and Monongahela Kivers, their sides growing more 
and moi-e precipitous, rise to a lieight of four or five hundred feet. 
These steep declivities inclose the fertile valleys, through which the 
larger streams wind in graceful curves. Into these wide valleys 
small rivulets pour their limpid waters, issuing at short intervals upon 
each side from deep ravines formed by steep hillsides, which closely 
approach each other, and down which the waters of the springs, with 
which the upland is abundantly supplied, fall from rock to rock in 
miniature cascades. Upon the upland not immediately bordering 
upon the streams, the country is rolling, having the same general 
elevation, above which, however, the summit of a hill occasionally 
lifts itself, as though to afl'ord to lovers of beautiful landscapes most 
delightful views of a country covered for many miles with rich 
pasturages, with grazing herds or flocks, fruitful grain-fields or orch- 
ards, gardens and farm-houses, while upon the steeper sides of the 
valleys still remain some of the ancient forest growths of oak and 


asli, walnut, hickory and maple. Frequently as the traveler passes 
along the roads upon the upland, he sees suddenly from some dividing; 
ridge, charming valleys stretching away for miles with their green 
meadows, rich tields of corn, and sparkling streamlets. At otiier 
times, as he advances, he admires with delight in the distance, the 
ever varying line of tlie horizon, whicii on all sides is formed by the 
summits of remote ridges and elevations, sometimes conical in form, 
hut mostly defined liy various arcs of circles, as regularly drawn as if 
a pair of compasses had traced the lines upon the sky. Every- 
where around him he sees lands abounding in limestone, and all the 
necessary elements of fertility, and producing upon even the highest 
summits abundant crops of all the cereal grains. To enhance the 
natural resources of this picturesque country, its hills conceal im- 
mense deposits of bituminous coal, which the descending streams 
here and there expose. * * * Such for nearly two hundred miles 
west of the Alleghanies, is the general chai-acter of this region especial- 
ly of that portion of it lying along the Monongahela and Ohio, a region 
whose healthfulness is not surpassed by that of any country iu the 

We have thus far considered only the general aspects of the 
county. Its location and topographical features can be briefly 
stated. Greene County is situated in the e.xtreme southwest corner 
of Pennsylvania, and is bounded on the north by AVashington County, 
on the east by the Monongahela River whicli separates it from Fayette 
County, on the south by West Virginia, the western extremity of 
Mason and Dixon's line forming the dividing boundary, and on the 
west by West Virginia, known as the Panhandle, the western merid- 
ian line of five degrees measuring the length of the State constitut- 
ing the line of demarkation. It contains within these limits three 
hundred and eighty-nine thousand, one hundred and twenty square 
acres (389,120) of surface, or about six hundred and eight square 
miles (608). W^ere it in the form of an absolute square it would be 
nearly twenty-live miles on each side, or a hundred miles in circuit; 
but as the length is to the breadth as five to three, the average length 
may be set down as thirty-two Tuiles and breadth nineteen. The 
surface is drained by the Monongahela River, which unites with the 
Allegheny at Pittsburg and forms the Ohio proper, and by the 
Wheeling River which also falls into the Ohio, and forms part of the 
great Mississipj ' system. The water-shed which separates the 
waters of the Monongahela from the W^heeling system, commences 
at a point on the W^ashington County line a little north and east of 
the Baptist church, near the northern extremity of Morris Township, 
and pursues a southwesterly course cutting a small section of the 
eastern portion of Richhill Township, striking Jackson Township at a 
point near the intersection of Jackson with Centre, dividing Jackson 


from north to south very nearly at its center, catting off the north- 
west corner of Gilmore, and the southwest corner of 8pringhill Town- 
ships, and passes on into A¥est Virginia near the center of the 
southern houndary of the latter township, thus forming as it were, 
the back-bone of the county, and sending the waters on its eastern 
slope through innumerable and devious channels to the on-moving 
waters of the Monongahela, and those njjon the western slope to the 

Of the streams which drain the eastern slope, Ten Mile Creek is 
the most considerable, draining with its tributaries a full third of the 
entire territory; the second in magnitude, and nearly the equal of the 
former, though receiving a considerable portion of its volume from 
West Vi]'ginia, is Dunkard Creek. Of lesser magnitude are Muddy 
Creek, Little Whiteley and Whiteley. On the western slope are Ens- 
low's and North Forks of Wheeling Creek and Pennsylvania Fork of 
Fish Creek. 

Ten Mile Creek, which forms the northern boundary of Jefferson 
Township, and the northern limit of the county and is something less 
than four miles in length, is formed by the junction of the North 
and South Forks. The North Fork is forthe most part in Washing- 
ton Connty, draining its southeastern section. The South Fork which 
drains the central and northeastern portion of Greene County, has for 
its tributaries on the left bank, Casteel Run, Euff's Creek, Wylies Eun, 
Brown's Fork, Bates' Fork, Brushy Fork, Gray Eun and MirandaEun, 
and upon the right bank, McCourtney's Eun, Hargus Creek, Pursley 
Creek, Smith Creek, Laurel Eun and Coal Lick Eun. Pumpkin Eun is 
the next stream south of Ten Mile Creek and empties into the 
Monongahela at the point where is located the village of Patton and 
Hughe's Ferry. Muddy Creek drains for the mostpmrt Cumberland 
Township, passes through the village of Carmichaels and enters the 
river where has been established Flenniken's Ferry. Whiteley Creek 
which is fed by Frosty, Lantz and Dyer's Euns from the north, 
drains Whiteley, Greene and Monongahela Townships, passes through 
the villages of Kirby, Lone Tree, Whiteley and Mapletown, and 
falls into the Monongahela Eiver at Eoss' Ferry. Dunkard Creek, 
which has for tributaries West's, Culvin's, Shannon's, Eandolph's 
Eobert's, Eush's Hoover's, Fordyce's, Tom's and Blockhouse Euns 
from the north, and numberless confluents from West Virginia 
from the south, has upon its banks the villages of Mt. Morris, Fair 
Chance and Taylortown and is the last of the considerable streams 
that flow into the Monongahela Eiver on the south in Pennsylvania. 
The North Fork of Wheeling Creek, Avhich drains the western slope 
of the county is fed upon the left bank by Whorton's, Llewitfs, 
Chamber's and White's Euns, and on the right bank by Stonecoal, 
Crabapple, Laurel, Kent's, Wright's and White Thorn Euns, and has 


tlie \illages ot'Bristoria, Kyerson and Crow's Mills, located \ipon its 
banks. Fish Creek is fed by Hart's, Waggon-road, Laurel and 
Herod's Runs, and has the villages of Freeport and Deep Valley. 

The general trend of the hills throughout the county of Greene 
is troin northwest to southeast, and the roads which follow the val- 
leys l)y which the hills are bordered, follow the same general direc- 
tion, being for the most part parallel to each other and connected at 
intervals by cross roads leading over the hills, or through intersecting 
valleys. The only exception to this general law is the tract embracing 
the three western townships, comprising the valley of Wheeling 
<'i-eek, where the course is from north to south or bearing some- 
what from northeast to southwest. Eveiy part of the surface is well 
watered by abundant springs and streams, and tlie soil is deep and 
fertile, being tillable even to the very summits of the highest hills. 
In many portions the hillsides, though ver}' abrupt, are capable of 
being cultivated, and yield good returns for the labor liestowed. In 
the western section of the county are beds of limestone, which, on 
lieinc reduced and applied to the soil, stimulates it to great fertility. 
When first visited by the white man, this whole stretch of country 
was covered with one vast forest, the trees of giant growth, consist- 
ing of white oak, red oak, black oak, and in many sections of sugar 
maple, chestnut, black walnut, hickory, butternut, ash, poplar, locust, 
cherry, ironwood, laurel and bay. In the rich bottoms, along the 
Monono-ahela River, in the southeastern section of the county, were, 
originally, vast tracts of pine and hemlock and spruce. These liave 
l)eeu swept away for use in building, and the arts, until scarcely a 
vestige remains of the pristine forests, and few if any of a new growth 
have been permitted to spring up in their places. As a consetpience, 
all tJie rough timber and sheeting boards used in building, are of 
the different varieties of oak. Poplar and hard-woods have now to be 
used as a finishing wood, or if pine is employed it has to be imported. 

The observation may be permitted in this connection, though 
not strictlv in place here, that the subject of forestry has been too 
much overlooked by the inhabitants of Greene County. In a former 
generation the deep, dense forest was looked ujion as the worst 
enemy of the settler, standing in the way of his improvements, and 
shutting out the sunlight from his vegetables and growing crops. 
Hence, to get the heavy growths out of his way, and prevent future 
o-rowths was his greatest care. In what way this could be ac- 
complished with the least labor and most speedily, was his chief 
concern. Hence the hardy axmen went forth at the first breaking 
of the rosy tinted morn, and we can realize as he attacks, 

" some stately growth of oak or pine, 

Wliich nods aloft and proudly spreads ber shade, 

The sun's defiance and the flock's defence; 

How by strong strokes tough fibers yield at length, 


Loud groans her last, and rushing from her height, 
In cumbrous ruin thunders to the ground. 
The concious forest trembles at the shook, 
And hill, and stream, and distant dale resound. " 

This is but the history of what was transpiring in every portion 
of the county, day after day, and year after year, through all the 
early generations. It was too laborious and troublesome to chop the 
monster trunks into sections fit for handling, so, fire was brought 
into requisition, and at convenient intervals burnings were made, 
when tlie dissevered parts could then be swung around into piles and 
the torch applied. All tlirough the dry season vast volumes of smoke 
would ascend heavenward, and at night the sky would be illumined 
by the flames leaping upward and standing like beacon lights on 
every hill-top and down every valley. And when the settler was in 
too much haste to cut and burn the cumbersome forest, he would rob 
the innocent trees of their life by girdling the sap, thus cutting olf 
the health giving currents. By this process the foliage was forever 
broken, and the light and genial warmth of the sun Avas let in upon 
the virgin mould of centuries, which was quickened into life as the 
husbandman dropped his cherished seed. But there stood the giant 
forest still, torn and wrenched by lightning and storm, stretching- 
out its massive arms to heaven, bleached and whitened by sun and 
shower, like the ghosts of their departed greatness, and as if implor- 
ing mercy still. One can scarcely pass one of these lifeless forests, 
without a sigli of pity for the decaying monarchs. 

But they subserve a purpose. The constant droppings from their 
decaying limbs engender moisture, and give nourishment to the rich 
pasturage which springs, like tufts of velvet, beneath them; and, 
when at length they yield to the blows of the elements, and the cor- 
oding tooth of time, they are reduced to ashes, and finally disappear 
from sight. They were sometimes fired while still standing, and 
scarcely cananiore sublime sight be imagined tlian a forest of lifeless 
trees in full blaze. The ashes from a burned forest were some- 
times gathered up and converted into potash, which always com- 
manded ready sale in the eastern market, and was exchanged for salt 
and otlier necessaries of life not produced in the vicinage. 

But what will be the consequence of this indiscriminate war upon 
the forests ? In a few generations the hills, being entirely denuded 
of shade, will be parched by the burning suns of summer, and the 
streams will become less copious in the heated term and will eventual- 
ly become entirely dry. On the other hand, in the spring time, with 
no forests to hold the moisture, and yield it up gradually through 
the burning months when needed, the rains and melting snows will 
descend in torrents, and flood the viJlleys. The fertility of the soil 
will be soaked and drained out of it, the hillsides will be gashed and 


seamed by the descending torrents, and thns all the hills, burned in 
summer and Hooded in winter, will become barren. The tiller of 
the soil will wonder at the scantiness of his crops, and his Hucks and 
herds will bleat and call in hopeless starvation. 

Of late years an attempt has been made to excite an interest in 
forestry. Mr. Northnp, in Connecticut, has secured some legislation 
upon the subject in that State and by lecturing before teachers' in- 
stitutes, and on pulilic occasions, has called attention to the subject, 
so that we have our forestry day in this State, to which the governor 
annually calls attention by a special proclamation. I'ut the manner 
in whicli it is acted upon, instead of resulting in a pulilic good, 
will l)e a positive injury. In the appeals of Mr. Xorthup and 
others, the call is to have trees planted about school-houses and 
dwellings. Now what will be the consequence ? In a few years, 
when the trees have become grown, there will be excessive shade 
and moisture. Moss will accumulate upon the roofs, the sunlight 
will he entirely shut out, and the children will be pale and sickly in 
consequence. The school-room will become unhealthj' for lack of 
sunlight, and the dwelling will lie damp and gloomy. One tree for 
a school ground not exceeding one acre, is ample shaile. Excessive 
shade must always prove injurious to health, while sun light is a 
better medicine for failing strength than ever hnnian ingenuity com- 

l>ut what is the remedy for the evil complained of; The forester 
should commence his work upon the far-oif hill tops, and with dili- 
gent hand should crown them with forests most useful and valuable 
to man, — the Hue maple, comely in shape, challenging the painter's 
most gaudy pigments for color, close-grained and unyielding in fiber 
for lumber; the walnut, cherry and ash, unrivalled for furniture and 
tinishing; the chestnut, valualjle for its nuts and for fencing, and 
pine and birch and hemlock, useful all. For holding moisture, and 
tempering the heats of summer, none are more useful than the ever- 
greens. All the waste places, the ravines and rugged hill-sides, 
unsuitable for cultivation, should be planted. The sugar from a 
thousand good trees will bring to any farmer a bigger income than 
the whole produce of his farm in other ways. The price of a good 
black walnut log is almost fabulous. A white ash of twenty years' 
growth will yield a timber unsurpassed fir carriages; and pine of 
tifteen years' growth will produce lumber which will be much sought 
for, and is year by year becoming more and moi'e scarce. A good 
field of planted trees, or sprout land, should be fenced and protected 
from the browsing of cattle, as carefully as a field of corn. It may 
seem an unyjalatable doctrine to preach, that the forests, which our 
fathers worked themselves lean to banish, should be protected, and 
nurtured, and brought back to their old places. But it is a true 


gospel, and if we look carefully at it in all its bearings, we shall re- 
ceive it and recognize it as possessing saving grace. 

Along the hills of southern Italy may be seen, to-day, an aspect 
which, in a few years, will be presented in the now fertile lands uf 
Greene County. The Italian hills for centuries have been swept 
bare of forests. As a consequence, the soil is parched in summer 
time, and has become bare and barren; the streams, which in other 
days were deep and ran in full volume to the sea, and were the theme 
of extravagant praises by the Latin poets, are now for months together 
entirely dry, not a gush of water gladdening their baked and parched 
beds. Of the innumerable streams which fall into the Mediterranean 
on the western coast, from Genoa to the Straits of Messina, there are 
only a very few, like the Anio and the Tiber, that do not, in July and 
August, cease to flow, the husbandman being obliged to resort to 
artesian wells to feed his vegetables and growing crops. 

We have now considered the general features of the territory 
known as Greene County. But before entering npon a more particu- 
lar description of the settlement, and growth of its civil and religious 
institutions, it will be proper to consider several very interesting 
questions vitally touching its early occupation. The manner in 
which the original inhabitants became dispossessed of the inheritance 
of their fathers, and were driven towards the setting sun; why the 
dwellers in this valley are English, and nat a French-speaking peo- 
ple; how it has transpired that we are the subjects of Pennsylvania 
rule, and not of A''irgiuia or Maryland, and, finally, why we are not 
the constituent parts of a new State formed out of western Pennsyl- 
vania and portions of West Virginia and eastern Ohio, — these were 
living questions which plagued our fathers, and were not settled 
without des[jerate struggles, marked with slaughter, which may 
justly give to this county of Greene the title of the "dark and 
bloody ground."' , 


CllAl'TEJi II. 

Why Called Indiaws — The Guanukatheus, uk Delawakes— Shaw- 
XEES — Six JMations ok lKocn:ois, oi: Minooes — The Tuscaeokas 
— Delawakes Vassals — Indians' Shemitic Okigin — Api-lioa- 
TioN oE Bible Pkoi-hecv — The Indian Sui Genekis — Chakac- 
TEKisiirs — Indolent — Position of Woman — The Indian a Law 
TO IIimselk — His Occupations — Thievish — Patient ok Toil 
to T'eed IIkvenue — View ok Columbus — Amida's and Bak- 


Stealth Pkacticed in Hunting Sekved them in Seeking the 
Victims ok theiu Savai^e Ckuelty — Brebeuk Describes an 
Instance ok theik Bakbakity which he Beheld — Cruelty a 
Delight — Greene County the Scene ok this SavacSe Bak- 

"llfHEN Cohunbus, ufter liaving deHioiistrated tlic rotundity of the 
*V earth in liis sciiolar's cell, had \eritied the ti'utli of liis theory 
by sailing westward in search of the farthest east, and had actually 
reached and discovered the shores of the New World, he believed 
that he had found the famed Cathay. Though he made several voy- 
ages, and lived a number of years, he still thought that it was the 
Indies he had found, and died in ignorance of the grandeur' of his 
discovery. To the inhabitants whom he found in the new country 
he gave the name of Indians, and. though wholly inappropriate in 
view of til", historical facts, it has clung to them through every vicis- 
situde of fortune, and when the last of their race shall have disap- 
ijeared forever from the earth, they will be recorded as Indians. 

The natives who occupied tlie greater portion of that jiart of the 
North American continent now designated Pennsylvania, were known 
as the Lenni Lenape, the original people, or grandfatliers. They 
were by nature fierce and warlike, and there was a tradition among 
them that the Lenapes, in ages quite remote, had emigrated from be- 
yond the Mississip))!, exterminating or driving out, as they came 
eastward, a race far more civilized than themselves, numerous, and 
skilled in the arts of peace. That this country was once the abode 
of a more or less civilized jieople, accustomed to many of the com- 
forts of enlightened communities, that they knew the use of tools, 
and were numerous, is attested by remains, thickly studding western 
Pennsylvania and the entire Ohio valley; but whether their extcruii- 


nation was the work of fiercer tribes tlian themselves, or whether 
they were swept oiY by epidemic diseases, or gradually wasted as the 
fate of a decaying nation, remains an unsolved problem. The three 
principal tribes of which the Lenapes were composed, — the Turtles or 
Unamis, tiie Turkeys or Unalachtgos, the Wolfs or Monseys, — occu- 
pied the eastern portion of Pennsylvania, and claimed the territory 
from the Hudson to the Potomac. They were known to the Englisli 
as the Delawares. The Shawnees, a restless tribe which had come 
up from the south, had been received and assigned places of habita- 
tion on the Susquehanna, bj' the Delawares, and finally become a 
constituent part of the Delaware nation. 

But the Indian nationality which more nearly concerns the sec- 
tion of country of which we are treating, is the Six Nations, or as 
they were designated by the French, tlie Iroquois. They called 
themselves Aquanuschioni or United Tribes, or in oiir own parlance, 
United States, and the Lenapes called them Mingoes. They origi- 
nally consisted of live tribes, and hence were known as the Five 
Nations, viz: the Senecas, who were the most vigorous, stalwart and 
numerous; tlie Mohawks, who were the first in numbers and in rank, 
and to whom it was reserved to lead in war; the Onondagas, who 
guarded the council fire, and from among whom the Sachem or civil 
head of the confederacy was taken ; the Oneidas, and the Cayugas. 
Near the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Tuscaroras, a 
large tribe from central North Carolina and Virginia, having been 
expelled from their former dwelling place, were adopted by the Five 
Nations, and thenceforward were known as the Six Nations. Tlicy 
occupied tiie country stretching from Lake Champlain to Lake Erie, 
and from Lake Ontario and the river St. Lawrence on the north, to 
the head waters of the Delaware, the Susquehanna and the Allegheny 
rivers on the south. It was a country well suited for defence in 
savage warfare, being guarded on three sides by great bodies of water. 
They were quick to learn the methods of civilized warfare, and 
securing fire-arms from the Dutch on the Hudson, the}' easily over- 
came neighboring hostile tribes whom tiiey held in a condition of 
vassalage, exacting an annual tribute, but protected them, in return, 
in the possession of their rightful hunting grounds. The Lenapes. or 
Delawares, were held under subjection in this manner, whicli gave 
to the Six Nations semi-authority over the whole territory of the 
State of Pennsylvania, and reaching out into Ohio. This humili- 
ating vassalage to which the Lenapes or Delawares were subjected, 
had been imposed upon them by conquest of the Iroquois; but the 
former claimed that it was assumed by them voluntarily, that "they 
had agreed to act as mediators and peace-makers among the other 
great nations, and to this end they had consented to lay aside entirely 
the implements of war, and to hold and to keep bright the chain of 


peace." It was the office, when tribes had weakened themselves by 
desperate conflict, for the women of those tribes, in order to save 
their kindred from utter extermination, to rush between the contend- 
ing warriors and implore a cessation of slaughtei'. It became thus 
tiie office of women to be peace-makers. The Delawares claimed 
that the}' had assumed this office from principle; but the Iroquois 
declared that it was a matter of necessity, and applied the epithet 
•'women" as a stigma, thus characterizing them as wanting in the 
quality of the braves. The pious Moravian missionary, Ileckewelder, 
who spent much time among them, and knew their chai'acter well, 
believed that the Delawares were sincei-e in their claim, and from the 
fact that the}' had a great admiration for William Penn, with whom 
they associated much, and imbibed his sentiments of peace, it may be 
that they came to hold those principles, even if they had formerly 
been conquered in war, and l)een compelled to accept terms of de- 
pendence. Gen. Harrison, afterwards President of the [Tnited States. 
in a discourse on the aborigines of the valley of the Ohio, observes: 
"Even if Mr. Ileckewelder has succeeded in making his readers be- 
lieve that the Delawares, when the}- submitted to the degradation 
proposed to them by their enemies, were influenced, not by fear, but 
by the benevolent desire to put a stop to the calamities of war, he 
has established for them the reputation of being dupes. Tliis is not 
often the case with Indian sachems. They are rarely cowards, but 
still more rarely are they deficient in sagacity or discernment to de- 
tect any attempt to impose upon them. I sincerely wish I could 
unite with the worthy German in removing this stigma from the 
Delawares. A long and intimate knowledge of them in peace antl 
war, as enemies and friends, has left upon my mind the most favor- 
able impressions of their character for bravery, generosity and fldelity 
to their engagements." But whatever may have been their original 
purposes, or their subsequent convictions, after their associations 
with Penn, they did demand complete independence of the Iroquois 
in 1756, and had their claims allowed. 

Of the origin of the Indian race little is definitely known. The 
Indians themselves had no tradition and they had no writings, coins 
or monuments by which their history could be preserved. Ethnolo- 
gists are, hovrever, well assured that the race came originally from 
eastern Asia. Without reciti"g here the arguments which support 
this theory, it is sufficient for our present purpose to state, that it 
seems well attested that the race has dwelt upon this continent from 
a period long anterior to the Christian era, oljtaining a foothold here 
within Ave hundred years from the dispersion of the race, and that 
their physical and mental peculiarities iiave become fixed by ages of 
subjection to climate and habits of life. Mr. Schoolcraft, who has 
written much tipon Indian history, and has given inuch study and 


thought to the subject, adduces the following considerations as proof 
of the fultillnient of that prophecy of scripture recorded in the ninth 
chapter of Genesis: "And the sons of jS'oah that went forth of the 
Ark were 8heui, Ham, and Ja'pheth. God shall enlarge Japheth 
[Europeans] and he shall dwell in the tents of Sheni [Indians] and 
Canaan [Negro] shall be his servant." 

"Assuming," says Schoolcraft, "the Indian tribes to be of Shem- 
itic origin, wliich is generally conceded, they were met on this conti- 
nent in 1492, by the Japhet-ic race, after the two stocks had passed 
around thb globe by directly dift'ereut routes. Within a few years 
subsequent to this event, as is well attested the humane influence of 
an eminent Spanish ecclesiastic, led to the calling over from the coast 
of Africa, of the Ilam-itic branch. As a mere historical question, 
and without mingling it in the slightest degree with any other, the 
result of three centuries of occupancy has been a series of movements 
in all the colonial stocks, south and north, by which Japhet has been 
immeasurably enlarged on the continent, wliile the called and not 
voluntary sons of Ham, have endured a servitude, in the wide 
stretching valleys of the tents of Shem." 

The Indian, as he was found upon this continent when first vis- 
ited by the European, was very diiferent in form, features, mental 
constitution, and habits from the latter, and apparently unalterably 
different from any other race. But while they were thus unlike 
other races, there was found to be a strong resemblance in all essen- 
tial elements in all the various tribes and nationalities of their own 
race. The color of the skin was of a reddish brown, their hair was 
black, straight, stiff, not plentiful, and the males had scarcely any 
beard ; the jaw-bone was large, the cheek-bone high and prominent, 
and the foi-ehead high, square and prominent above the eyes, show- 
ing a large development of the perceptive faculties; but narrow, and 
sloping backward at the top, showing defective reasoning powers. 
The person, unincumbered with the clothing common to a fashionable 
age in civilized countries, was erect, well developed, and in movement 
quick, lithe, and graceful. 

-Dr. Spencer, in his chapter on the characteristics of the Indians, 
has given the following graphic account of them: " Their intellect- 
ual faculties were more limited, and their moral sensibilities, from 
"want of cultivation, less lively. They seemed to be characterized by 
an inflexibility of organization, wliich rendered them almost incapa- 
ble of receiving foreign ideas, or amalgamating with more civilized 
nations — constituting them, in short, a people that might be broken, 
but could not be bent. This peculiar organization, too, together 
with the circumstances in which they were placed, moulded the 
character of their domestic and social condition. Their dwellings 
were of the simplest and rudest character. On some pleasant spot 
by the hanks of a river or near a sweet spring, they raised their 


groups of wigwams, constructed of the barks of ti-ees, and easily 
taken down and removed to another spot. The abodes of tlie cliiefs 
were sometimes more spacious, and constructed with care, but of the 
same materials. Their villages were sometimes surrounded by de- 
fensive palisades. Skins taken in the chase, served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, its uncer- 
tain supply had led them to cultivate around their dwellings some 
patches of maize; but their exertions were desultoi'y, and they were 
often exposed to the severity of famine. Every family did every- 
thing necessary within itself; and interchange of articles of commerce 
was hardly at all known among them." 

The Indian is by nature and habit indolent — as -'lazy as lie can 
be." To take up a tract of land, build himself a liouse with tl\e 
conveniencies and privacies of civilized home life, clear away the 
heavj^ forests whicli incund)er it, plough and cultivate the sodden 
acres, fence in the many fields, dig for him.self a well, get and care 
for flocks and herds, and lay up for himself and family abundant sup- 
plies of the products of the soil, would ha\e been to entail upon 
him insufferable misery, and rather than undertake the first sti'oke of 
such a life of toil, he would rather end it at once. He l^elieved that 
the fish of the stream, the fowls of the air, the beasts of the field, 
and the land where he should stretch his wigwam, were as free and 
open to approi:)riation as the air we breathe, or the w^aters that run 
sparkling in abundance to the sea. They ridiculed the idea of 
fencing a field, and depriving any who desired the use of it. The 
strong dominated over the weak. The male assumed superiority over 
the female, and made her in reality his slave. Ilis grunt was law to 
her, and if he started upon a journey she must trot after, bearing the 
infant, if she have one, and the burdens. If crops were to be planted, 
and cultivated, and gathered, it was by the sw-eat of her lirow' that it 
must be done. She must gather the fuel for the fire, weave the mat 
on which to set and sleep, fashion the basket and decorate it with 
fanciful colors. She was in short little less than the abject and 
degraded slave. 

Of the more special occupations of the men Dr. Spencer has 
given the following interesting picture: "In cases of dispute and 
dissension, each Indian held to the right of retaliation, and relied on 
himself almost always to effect his revenge for injuries i-eceived. 
Blood for blood was the rule, and the relatives of the slain man were 
bound to obtain bloody revenge for his death. This principle gave 
rise, as a matter of course, to innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars 
of extermination, where that was possible. War, indeed, rather than 
peace, and the arts of peace, was the Indian's glory and delight; war, 
not conducted on the scale of more civilized, if not more Christian- 
like people; but war where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and 


cruelty were prime requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the 
Indian was capable of making vast sacriiices, and displayed a patience 
and perseverance truly heroic; but when the excitement was over, he 
sunk back into a listless, unoccupied, well-nigh useless savage. The 
intervals of his moi'e exciting pursuits the Indian tilled up in the 
decoration of his person with all the reiinements of paints and feath- 
ers, with the manufacture of his arms — the club, the bow and ar- 
rows — and of canoes of bark, so light that they could easily be car- 
I'ied on the shoulder from stream to stream. His arnusements were 
the war dance and song, and athletic games, the narration of his ex- 
ploits, and listening to the oratoiy of the chiefs. But, during long 
periods of his existence, he remained in a state of torpor, gazing 
listlessly upon the trees of the forest, and the clouds that sailed far 
above his head; and this vacancy imprinted an habitual gravity and 
even melancholy upon his aspect and general deportment." 

The Indian was thievish to the last degree, indeed this seems to 
have been as much a temper of his mind as indolence was of his 
body. The disposition to take that wliicli did not belong to him 
may have in a measure resulted from his belief in the common prop- 
erty of water and air, and land, the beast and fowl that swarm upon 
its surface, and the iish that dart in its streams. It seems to him no 
sin to steal. Among the first colonies sent out from England to 
colonize the American coast an Indian was discovered to have stolen 
a silver cup. The punishment inflicted by the inconsiderate colo- 
nists of burning their villages, and destroying their growing crops, 
provoked a revenge which resulted in the utter annihilation of the 
colony and engendered a hatred which many subsequent colonists 
felt the force of, and which inherited from generation to generation, 
seems never to have been worn out of the savage mind. 

The Indians of IMorth America, as they were found upon the 
arrival of Europeans, could not be said to have been under the gov- 
ernment of law. If an Indian had suffered an injury or an insult, 
he took it upon himself to avenge without the forms of proof to fix 
the guilt, and if he was killed in the quarrel his nearest relatives 
felt themselves obliged to take up the avengement. Thus from the 
merest trifle the most deadly feuds arose by which the population 
was visibly diminished. The warrior chiefs among them became 
such by superior skill or cunning, and not by any rule of hereditary 
decent, or majority of voices. Mattel's of public interest were dis- 
cussed in public assemblies of the whole people, in which all were 
free to join. Decisions were generally in favor of him who could 
work most powerfully upon the feelings of his audience, either by 
his native eloquence or by appeals to their superstition, by which 
they were easily moved. The man who pretended to be the repre- 
sentative of the Great Spirit, had a great influence over them, and 


in cases of sickiijiss he was appealed to as a last resort. It has been 
observed above that the Indian was naturally lazy. To tliat assertion 
one exception should be made. To carry out his purpose of re- 
venge tlie Indian was capable of making sacrifices, enduring liardships, 
and undei-going sufferings unsurpassed by the most daring of the 
human race. To gratify liis tliirst for revenge, lie M'ould make long 
and exhausting marches, with scant food, subsisting upon the bark 
of trees, the roots of the forest, and such random game as he might 
come upon, would lie in wait for liis victims for hours and days 
enduring untold suffering. 

It is curious to observe the impression which tlie natives made 
upon the first I^uropean visitants to these shores. Columbus in his 
report to Ferdinand and Isabella after his first voyage, said: "I 
swear to your majesties, that there is not a better people in the world 
than these, more affectionate, affable, or mild. Tliey love their 
neighbors as themselves; their language is the sweetest and the 
softest, and the most cheerful, for they always speak smiling, and 
although they go naked, let your majesties believe me, their customs 
are very becoming, and their king who is served with great majesty, 
has such engaging manners, that it gives great pleasure to see hiiii, 
and also to consider the great retentive faculty of that people, and 
their desire of knowledge, which incites them to ask the causes of 
things." If these were the real sentiments of Columbus, we are 
forced to believe that he had never seen an Indian in liis war-paint 
and feathers, and that he had seen tlie Shylock who had mone}' to 
lend, and not the Shylock who was exacting the penalty of the for- 
feited bond. 

The adventurers whom Sir Walter Italeigh sent out for discovery 
and settlement, Aniidas and 15arlow, gave a graphic report of their 
impressions of the natives upon their return, which Ilakluyt has 
preserved in his annals: >'The soile is the most plentifull, sweete, 
fruitfuU and wholesome, of all the worlde; there are above fourteene 
severall sweete smelling timber trees, and the most part of their 
underwoods are bayes and such like; they have such oakes that we 
have, but farre greater and better. After they had l)een divers times 
aboard our shippes inyselfe, with seven more went twentie mile 
into the river that runneth towards the citie of Shicoak, which river 
they call Occam; and the evening following we came to an island, 
wliich they call Roanoke, distant from the harbor by wliicli we entered 
seven leagues; and at the north end thereof was a village of nine 
houses, built of cedar, and fortified round about with sharpe trees to 
keep out their enimies, and the entrance into it made like a turnpike 
very artificially; when we came towards it, standing neere unto the 
waters' side, the wife of Cranganimo, the king's brothei', came run- 
ning out to nieete us very cheerfully and friendly; her husband was 


not then in the village; some of her people shee commanded todrawe 
onr boate on shore, for the beating of the billoe, others she appointed 
to carry ns on their backes to the dry ground, and others to bring 
our oares into the house for feare of stealing. When we were come 
into the ntter room, liaving iive rooms in her house, she cansed us to 
sit down by a great fire, and after tooke off our choathes, and washed 
them, and dried them againe; some of the women plucked off our 
stockings, and washed them, some washed our feete in warm water, 
and she herself tooke great paines to see all things ordered in the 
best manner she could, making greate haste to dresse some meate for 
us to eate. After we had thus dried ourselves she bronght us into 
this inner roome, where shee set on the boord standing along the 
house, some wlieate like fermentie; sodden venison and roasted; fish, 
sodden, boyled, and roasted; melons, rawe and sodden; rootes of 
divers kinds; and divers fruits. Their drink is commonly water, 
but while the grape lasteth, they drinke wine, and for want of caskes 
to keepe it, all the yere after they drink water, but it sodden with 
ginger in it, and black sinnamon, and sometimes sassaphras, and 
divers other wholesome, and medicinable hearbes and trees. We 
were entertained with all love and kindnesse, and with as much 
bountie, after their manner as they could possibly devise. We 
jound the people most gentle, loving, and faithfull, voide of all guile 
and treason, and such as live after the manner of the golden age. 
The people onely care to defend themselves from the cold in their 
short winter, and to feed themselves with such meat as the soile 
afforeth; their meat is very well sodden, and they make broth very 
sweet and savorie; their vessels are earthen pots, very large, white, 
and sweete; their dishes are wooden platters of sweet timber. With- 
in the place where they feede was their lodging, and within that 
their idoll, which they worship, of whom they speak incredible things. 
While we were at meate, there came in at the gates two or three 
men with their bowes and arrowes from hunting, whom, when we 
espied, we began to looke one towards another, and offered to reach 
our weapons; but as soone as she espied our mistrust, she was very 
miTch moved, and cansed some of her men to runne ont, and take 
away their bowes and arrowes and breake them, and withall beate the 
poore fellowes out of the gate againe. When we departed in the 
evening, and would not tarry all night, she was very sor}', and gave 
ns into our boate our supper half dressed pottes and all, and brought 
us to our boateside, in which we lay all night, removing the same a 
prettie distance from the shore; she perceiving our jelousie, was 
much grieved, and sent divers men and thirtie women, to sit all 
night on the bank-side by iis, and sent into our boates live mattes to 
cover us from the raine, using very many wordes to entreate us to 
rest in their houses; biit because we were fewe men, and if we had 


jniscarried the voyage liad beeiie in very great danger, we durst nut. 
adventure anything, althougli there was no cause of doubt, for a more 
kinde and loving people there cannot be found in the worlde, as far 
as we have hitherto had triall." 

Though given here at some length, this passage from the records 
of the faithful JIakluyt is very valuable as picturing the life of the 
simple Indians, and their temper towards the early European voy- 
agers, before their minds had been soured by injury and wrong which 
careless and lirutal colonists subsequently visited upon them; and it 
may well be questioned whether, they would not have remained friend- 
ly and loving as here descriljed had they recei\ed loving and Chris- 
tian treatment in return. It is possible that such relations might 
have been preserve(l with the natives, that the tales of blood and sav- 
agery which form a dark page in the early histury of Greene County 
would never have had occasion to be recorded. Certain it is that 
the redmeii have had great provocation, antl have received most in- 
human and unchristian treatment at the haiuls of the pale face. 

The relations of Williani Penn with the savages was different from 
those of any other European. He really believed them brethi'en in 
tiie true scripture sense, and treated them as sucii. Hence his view 
of the Indian character wotdd naturally be more favorable to them 
tlian if regarded through prejudiced eyes. ''For their persons," he 
says, "they are generally tall, straight, well Iniilt, and of singular 
proportion. They tread strong and clever, and mostly walk with a 
lofty chin. Their language is lofty, yet narrow; but, like the Ile- 
lu-ew, in signitication, full. If an European comes to see them, or 
calls for lodging at their house or wigwam, they give him the best 
place and first cut. If they coine to visit us, they salute us with an 
'Itah!' which is as much as to say 'Good be to you I' and set them 
down, which is mostly on the ground, close to their heels, their legs 
upright. It may be they speak not a word, but observe all jiassages. 
If yon give them anything to eat or dritdc, well, for they will not 
ask; and be it little or much, if it be with kindness, they are well 
pleased; else they go away sullen, but say nothing." 

"In liberality," he says, "theye.vcel; nothing is too good for 
their friend; give them a fine gun, coat or other thing, it may pass 
twenty hands before it sticks; light of heart, strong affections, l)ut 
soon spent. The most merry creatures that live, feast and dance per- 
petually; they never have much nor want much; wealth circulateth 
like the blood; all parts partake; and though none shall want what 
another hath, yet exact observers of property. Some kings have 
sold, others presented me with several parcels of land; the pay, or 
presents I made them were not hoarded by their particular owners; 
but the neighboring kings and their clans being present when the 
goods were brought out, the parties chieHy concerned consulted what, 


Mud to wlioui, they M'oiild give tliem. To every king then, by the 
Jiauds of a perscjn for that M'ork appointed, is a pj'oportion sent, so 
sorted and folded, and with that gravity that is admirable. Then 
the king subdivideth it, in like manner, among his dependants, they 
hardly leaving themselves an equal share M'ith one. of their subjects; 
and 1)6 it on such occasions as festivals, or at their common meals, 
the kings distribute and to themselves last. They care for little be- 
cause they want little, and the reason is a little contents them. * * * 
We sweat and toil to live; their pleasure feeds them; I mean their 
hunting, fishing and fowling, and their table is spread everywhere. 
They eat twice a day, morning and evening; their seats and table are 
the ground. Since the Europeans came into these parts, they are 
grown great lovers of strong liquors, rum especially, and for it ex- 
change the richest of their skins and furs. If they are heated with 
liquors, tliey are restless till they have enough to sleep; that is their 
cry, 'Some more and I will go to sleep;' but when drunk, one of the 
most wi-etched spectacles in the world." 

Bancroft, in iiis elaboi'ate chapter on the habits and customs of 
the Indians, says: "During the mild season there may have been 
little suffering. But thrift was wanting; the stores collected by the 
industry of the women was squandered in festivities. The hospitality 
of the Indian lias rarely been questioned. The stranger enters his 
cabin, by day or by night, without asking leave, and is entertained 
as freely as a thrush or a black-bird that regales himself on the 
luxuries of the fruitful grove. He will take his own rest abroad, 
that he may give up his own skin, or mat of sedge, to his guest. 
Nor is the traveler questioned as to the purpose of his visit; he 
chooses his own time freely to deliver his message." 

We may gather from the testimony of those who earliest 
encountered them, what were some of the most marked of the charac- 
teristics. Of the stealth of the Indian in creeping upon his victim 
unawares, and the laying in wait for him in some well-chosen am- 
buscade, we may look for the cause in the necessity he was under of 
practicing these qualities in the pursuit of his game. From child- 
hood he was taught to move noiselessly through the forest lest by 
the breaking of a twig he put to flight the coveted game for lack of 
which he was perhaps starving. The same noiseless tread with which 
he approached the pool M"here sported the finny tribe, and came un- 
noticed upon the wild fowl, was practiced in seeking out the victims 
of his revenge, or putting to the torture his prisoners of war. Of 
the barbarit}' practiced upon the latter, in no part of the liuman race 
is it equalled. Brebeuf has described it in all its horrors, as recorded 
by Bancroft: "On the way to the cabins of his conquerors, the 
hands of an Iroquois prisoner were crushed between stones, his 
fingers torn ofi' or mutilated, the joints of his arms scorclied and 

iiis'idiiv OK <m;eexk rocN'rv. 39 

gaslied, while he himself preserved his tranquility, and sang the 
songs of his nation. Arriving at the homes of his conquerors, all 
the cabins regaled him, and a young girl was bestowed upon him, to 
be the wife of his captivity and the companion of his last loves. 
-X- « -A 'jy j.],g (-rowd of his guests lie declared: 'My brothers, 1 
am going to die; make merry around me with good heart; I am a 
man; I fear neither death nor your torments;' and he sang aloutt. 
The feast being ended, he was conducted to the cabin of blood. They 
place him on a mat, and bind his hands; he rises and dances around 
the cabin, chanting his death song. At eight in the evening eleven 
tires had been kindled, and tliese are hedged in by tiles of spectators. 
The young men selected to be the actors are exhorted tn dc) well, for 
their deeds would be grateful to Areskoui, the powerful war god. A 
war chief strips the prisoner, shows him naked to the people, and 
assigns their office to the tormentors. Then ensued a scene the most 
horrible; torments lasted till after sunrise, when tlie wretched victim, 
bruised, gashed, mutilated, half roasted and scalped, was cari'ied out 
of the village and hacked in pieces." 

From the veneral)le sachem to tlie infant in arms, the aged mother 
to the tender maiden, by all the tribe was this torture of the captive 
beheld. It was an occasion of feasting and rejoicing. The greater 
the j)0wer of enduraiu-e of the victim and the more fierce and tei- 
rible the torture invented the more e.xquisite the enjoyment of the 
spectators. To add a pang to the sutierer was a subject of congratu- 
lation to the one who inflicted it. Often the greatest retineinent of 
cruelty was devised and inflicted by the women. And when the last 
pang had been endured and all was over they feasted upon the 
victim's rtesh. 

Further on in this work some account will be given of deeds of 
blood perpetrated by the savages in this county. From the evidence 
which has now been adduced some conception of the jirimary char- 
acter of the natives can be formed, and an i<lea entertained of those 
qualities of mind and heart which could prompt them to the mid- 
night murdering and deeds of savagery which were to them a favorite 



Orujinal Settlement Upon the Continknt by Europeans — Ponce 
DE Leon in Florida — Vasquez de Ayllon Seizing Natives foe 
Slaves — De Soto DiecovEES the Mississippi — Voyages of Vee- 
EAzzANi — Jaques Oaetee — Champlain IN Canada — IIis Ex- 
pedition Against the Ieoquois — Maequette and JoLirrr 
Voyage to the Mississippi — Map of Countey — Death of 
Marquette — EemaeksofHildeeth and Ciiaelevoix — La Salle 
Pushes Exploeatioks on the Mississippi — Takes Foemal Pos- 

Geeene County — England Colonizes — Early Attempts Aboe- 
TivE — Ctrants of James I — Settlement of Jamestown and Ply- 
jtouTii — The Dutch on the Delawaee — By What Right PIad 
European Possessions on This Continent — A Fruitful Countey- 
Unused — A Savage and Barbaric Peoit.e Encumber It — 
Observations of Justice Stoey — Decision of Chief Justice 
Maeshall — The In.iustice Rankled in the Breasts of the 

Aroused by the roseate accounts given by Columbus and the com- 
panions of his voyage of discovery in 1492, which was spread 
broadcast over Europe by the art of printing jnst then brought into 
use, the Sovereigns of three European nations, at that time most 
puissant, encouraged their subjects to make voyages of discovery and 
issued patents empowering them to take possession of such portions 
of the main land in the ISew World, and the contiguous islands of 
the sea, as they might visit and explore. Spain, having through 
Ferdinand and Isabella, patronized the great discoverer, took the lead, 
assuming a preemption right to the continent, by virtue of discovery, 
and Cortes and Pizzaro did their work of slaughter and extermination 
upon weaker and inoffensive peoples, innocent of any crimes against 
their oppressors. 

Juan Ponce de Leon, who had been a companion of Columbus, 
having heard of a miraculous fountain upon the mainland whose 
waters could impart life and perpetual youth, eager to bathe in the 
healincr stream, sailed on the 3d of March, 1512, in quest of it. It 
was the season, when, in that far southern clime, the whole land was 
bursting into blossom, and, as he coasted along a great country pre- 
senting one mass of bloom, lie thought indeed, he had found the 
land of .perpetual life, and, accordingly, named it Floi'i<la. But tlie 


weather was tempestuous, and retni'iiins;- to the West Indies, he 
souglit, and obtained from Charles Y., of Spain, autlioj'ity to take 
and govern tiie country; but upon liis second expedition lie found the 
natives liostile, and upon giving battle was mortally wounded and re- 
turned to tlio Islands to die. 

Vasquez de Ayllon, in quest of slaves to work in the mines of 
Mexico, came upon this coast, and having enticed numbers of 
natives on board his vessels, perlidionsly sailctl away; but one of his 
ships was lost in a storm, and the natives, who survived, disdaining 
to work, refused to eat, and died miserably of starvation. Not satis- 
tied with his experience, de Ayllon obtained authority from Charles 
Y. to conquer and go\erii the country, and in 1525 again set sail 
with his colonists. Jjut now he found his tactics reversed; for the 
natives were the enticers, and having invited the body of the visitants 
to a feast gave them to slaughter and destruction. Again in 1528, 
Pamphilo de Narvaez with Alvar de Vacca and four hunilred colon- 
ists sailed for Tampa Bay; but after fruitless wanderings by sea and 
land in which the leader was lost, de Vacca made liis escape with 
but four of his comjtanions alive, having spent ten years in fruitless 
search for gold and Ijoot}'. In his adventures he had traversed the 
Avhole southern border of what is now the United States, crossed the 
Mississippi, bent his steps onward to the Iloeky Mountains, gladly 
performing the offices of a slave for sustenance and the poor boon of 
life, and arrived at last in Mexico, whence he returned to Spain. 
Undismayed by the ill-fortune of others, and thirsting for riches, 
which he might have for the seizing, Hernando de Soto, invested 
with the patent of power and the title of Governor General of Cuba 
and Florida, with about a thousand followers in ten vessels, set 
sail in 1539 well armed, and provided with the implements of mining, 
even to bloodhounds for capturing slaves, and chains for securing 
them. The first night on shore he was attacked by the Indians 
lying in wait for him, and driven in disgrace to his ships. Return- 
ing to the land he commenced even wider search than de Vacca , and 
after three years of toilsome and fruitless wanderings, and incessant 
conflicts with Indians, having crossed the Mississippi and reached 
the great plains where grazed the countless herds of bufi'alo, final- 
ly, broken and dispirited at finding neither the wealth of gold which 
he sought, nor the empire which he coveted, he died, and the waters of 
the Mississippi roll jwrpetually above his bones. Having but one 
purpose, that of escape from this hated country, his surviving fol- 
lowers floated down the river, and retired tt) Spanish settlements in 
Mexico. Thus ended miserably the greatest expedition hitherto 
attempted upon the Florida coast. For a score or more of years 
religionists from Spain and France attcmpte<l p;'rmanent lodgement 
upon this territory, in which the town of St. Augustine was founded, 


at present the oldest town in the United States. But instead of 
practicing the mild and gentle precepts of their Master, they were 
torn by mortal feuds, and a large propoition perished in their deadly 
and treacherous conflcts. 

Thus, of the vast sums of money expended and hardships en- 
dured, in which the greater portion of the southern half of our 
country was overrun, and perpetual and wasting warfare for a 
quarter of a century was prosecuted with the natives, nothing good 
or lasting was the result, though there was exhibited a resolution and 
unconquerable spirit by those proud cavaliers who went forth clad in 
their habiliaments of silk, rejoicing in their trailing plumes and 
glittering armor, truly worthy of a better cause. They expected to 
lind great nations overflowing with gold and precious treasures, whom 
tliey could easily overcome and despoil, where they might set up a 
kingdom. Unhappily for them they found no such people; the gold 
they coveted existed only in their own lieated imagination, and the 
empire which they hoped to fond vanislied like the mists of the valley 
liefore the breath of a summer morn. Their cause was the cause of 
tlie gambler and the freebooter in every country and in every age, 
and the lesson is one which the race may well take to heart. 

Of the great European nations. France was the next to send out 
colonies to take possession of, and settle the American continent. 
Moved by a knowledge of tlie misfortunes which had attended Span- 
ish settlements far to til e south, the French sought a far northern 
latitude, and though on the same parallel as Paris, was swept by 
blizzards, aiid bound in icy fetters such as were wholly unknown in 
sunny France. This very circumstance may have defeated the en- 
tire French plans of colonization,, and changed the wliole course of 
empire upon this continent. Foi- the French possessed, in an eminent 
degree, the spirit of colonization, and were eager to push plans of 
empire. Had the first adventurers seated themselves upon, the Po- 
tomac or the James, or along the shores of the Carolinas, they would 
have found so genial a climate and similar to their own, that they 
would have gained so firm a foothold and so long in advance of the 
English, that they would probably not have been supplanted. 

The state of navigation at this time was .so ci'ude, the vessels so 
small and imperfect in construction, that a voyage on the open ocean, 
across the Atlantic, was attended with deadly perils, and solemn re- 
ligious services marked the departure of the venturesome voyagers 
as they went down upon the seas, a large proportion of whom nevei- 
emerged from the waves. Fishermen from Brittany, in France, as 
early as 1504-, had discovered the rich fishing grounds on the Banks 
of Newfoundland, and liad visited and named Cape Breton, a name 
which it still retains. Francis I. of France, a sovereign not un- 
mindful of the growth of his kingdom, seeing the activity of neigh. 


boring nations in sending out their subjects for voyages of discovery 
and colonization, dispatclied Juan Yerrazzani, a Florentine navigator, 
in 1524, ill a single vessel, the Dolphin, to discover and take posses- 
sion, in the name of France, of lands in the famed New World. 
After '-as sharp and terrible a tempest as ever sailors suffered,'" Yer- 
razzani arrived upon the coast, touched at the Caroliuas, at Long 
Island, at Newport, and skirted the coast to the fiftieth degree north, 
■when he returned without making a settlement. Ten years later, in 
1534, Jaques Cartier was dispatched by Chabot, Admiral of France, 
on an expedition to the Northwest, and arrived at the month of the 
St. Lawrence. Returning to France with extravagant reports of the 
excellence of the country and the climate, he was dispatched on the 
following year with three large ships, and njwn his arrival on St. 
Lawrence-day, gave that name to the (4ulf which he had entered, and 
the river which drains the great lakes. Ascending the river, he 
visited Hochelaza, now Montreal, and wintered at the Isle of Orleans. 
The cold was intense, in marked contrast to his fornrer visit, which 
was in the heat of summer, and his followers, suffering from scurvy 
and the severity of the climate, clamored to be led back to France. 
In 1540, Cartier was again sent out, and now with five ships, and 
Francis de la Tloqne as Governor of Canada. Rut strife ensuing, the 
attempt at colonization was abortive. This put an end to further 
attempts at settlement in this latitude for upwards of half a century. 
In 1598, the great Sully, under Henry lY. of France, dispatched 
the Marquis de la Roche, of Brittany, to take possession of Canada 
and other countries "not possessed liy any Christian Prince." The 
expedition, however, failed utterly, thougli the enterprise of private 
individuals in trading with the natives for rich furs had in the mean- 
time proved succes.sfnl. In 1603, Samuel Cham plain was sent out, 
who carefully explored the river St. Lawrence, and selected the site 
of Quebec as a proper location for a fort. At about the same time 
De Monts, a Huguenot of the King's honsehold, was granted a com- 
mission to assume tlie sovereignty of Acadie, from the fortieth to the 
forty-sixth degree of north latitude, which meant from the latitude 
of Delaware l.ay to the north pole, — a glorious empire if it could be 
held and peopled, i'ut the trouble with all the European sovereigns 
in drawing patents for slices of the New World, was that they did 
what was charged upon the greedy countryman when offered tobacco 
— bit off more than he could chew. The expedition of De Monts, 
consisting of four ships, sailed in 1604, and the right of trade proving 
lucrative, the monopoly was revoked. But Chaihplain continued his 
explorations, embracing the St. John's River, Bay of Fundy and 
Island of St. Croix. By the advice of Champlain. Quebec was 
founded in 160S by a company of merchants from Dieppe and St. 
^lolo. In the following year Champlain explored the lake which 


bears his name, and, that he might secnre the good will of the natives 
of Canada, he accompanied the Algonqnins on a hostile campaign 
against the Five Nations, or Iroquois. But this proved a fatal mis- 
take; for it provoked the implacable hatred against the French of 
that powerful Indian confederacy which held in an iron grasp what 
is now the States of New York and Pennsylvania. Thus, by an 
inscrutable Providence, was France again cut off' from taking that 
course of empire, which would doubtless have given that nation pre- 
ponderance upon this continent. Champlain was devoted to his re- 
ligion, regarding "the salvation of a soul of more consequence than 
the conquest of an empire." Flis chosen servants, the Franciscans, 
but later the Jesuits, assumed control of the missions to the Indians, 
and for a score of years threaded the mazes of the forest for new con- 
verts, pushing out along the great lakes by tlie northern shore, even 
to Huron, Michigan and Superior; but ia all their efforts to reclaim 
the Iroquois meeting with little success, and suffering, at the hands 
of these savages, whippings, and torments, and death. With the 
tribes of the north and west, even to tiie Chippewas, Pottawatamies, 
Sacs and Foxes, and Illinois, they had better fortune, and with them 
made alliances against the Iroquois. From the Sioux they learned 
that there was a great river to tlie south, and this they were seized 
with a desire to explore. 

In -the spring of 1673, Jaques Marquette and il. Joliet, with 
attendants, embarked in two bark canoes at Mackinaw, and passing- 
down the lake to Green Pay, entered the Fox Piver. Toilsomely 
ascending its cnri-ent to its head waters, they bore with difficulty 
their canoes across the ridge which divides the waters of tlie great 
lakes from tlie gulf, and having reached the sources of the Wisconsin 
River, launched their frail lioats upon its turbid waters, and ffoated 
onward upon the current, the stream studded with islands and the 
shores adorned with goodly trees and creeping vines, until, on the 
17th of June, with "inexpressible joy and thankfulness to God for 
his mercies," they entered the Mississippi. Marquette was fre- 
. quently warned by the natives not to expose himself to the dangers 
of the voyage, and to desist from the further prosecution of his jour- 
ney; but the reply of the pious priest was characteristic: " I do not 
fear death, and I would esteem it a liappiness to lose my life in tlie 
service of God." 

Passing, in turn the Des Moines, the Missouri, witli its turbid 
stream, the Ohio gently rolling, they proceeded as far south as the 
Arkansas. Here they were fiercely attacked by the natives. But 
Marquette boldly presented the pipe of peace, and called down the 
blessing of heaven upon liis enemies, in I'etnrn for which the old 
men received liim, and called off" their braves who were intent upon 
blood. But now the dangers seemed to thicken as they descended. 

-H-^^'. ^^-//4^ 


iiisToitY (IK (;i:kkne county. 47 

Fearing tliat they might hazard all by proceeding further, and 
being now satisfied that the river ninst empty into the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, having made a complete map of the portion thus far explored, 
Marquette determined to return and report his great discoveries to 
Talon, the intendant of France. With incredible e.xeition they forced 
tlieir way against the cun-ent of the Mississippi, up the Illinois, 
across the portage, down the Fox by the same course that they had 
come, and reached Green Day in safety. Though filled with satis- 
faction at the importance of his discovery, and extravagant in praise 
of the country which he liad seen — '•such grounds, meadows, woods, 
stags, buffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, swans, ducks, paroquetts, 
and even beavers," as lie found on the Illinois Iliver being nowhere 
equalled; — yet he apparently felt a more serene and heartfelt satis- 
saction, in the fact that tlie natives had brought to him a dying infant 
to be baptized, which he did about a half an hour before it died, 
which he asserts God was thus pleased to save, tluxn in all the far 
reaching consequences of his expedition. On the IStliof May, 1675, 
as he was passing up Lake Michigan with his boatmen upon the 
eastern shore, he proposed to land and perforiu mass. With pious 
and devoted steps leaving his attendants in the boat, he ascended the 
iianks of a fast flowing stream to ]>erform the rite. Not returning 
as lie had indicated he would, his followers, recollecting that he had 
spoken of his death, went to seek him, and found liim indeed dead. 
lloUowing a grave for him in the. sand, they buried him on tlie very 
spot which his prayers had consecrated. 

In commenting upon the devotion and loyalty of these pious men 
— Marquette, and his associates. Ilildreth justly remarks, '"Now 
and then he would make a voyage to Quebec in a canoe, with two or 
three savages, paddle in hand, exhausted with rowing, his feet naked, 
his breviary hanging about his neck, his shirt unwashed, his cassock 
half torn from his lean body, but with a face full of content, charmed 
with the life he led, and inspiring by his air and his words a strong 
desire to join him in his mission. " And Charlevoix, in his annals, 
even more vividly describes the character of these devoted men. "A 
peculiar unction" he says, '' attached to this savage mission, giving 
it a preference over many others far more brilliant and more fruit- 
ful. The reason no doubt was, that nature, finding nothing there to 
gratify the senses or to flatter vanity — stumliling blocks too common 
even to the holiest — grace worked without obstacle. The Lord, who 
never allows himself to be outdone, communicates himself without 
measure to those who sacrifice themselves without reserve; who, dead 
to all, detached entirely from themselves and the world, possess their 
souls in unalterable ]ieace, perfectly established in that childlike 
s])iritiuility which .Fesus Ghrist has recommended to his (lisci])les, as 
that which outrht to bo the most marked trait of their character. 


* * * Such is the portrait of the missionaries of New France 
drawn by those who Icnew them best. 1 myself knew some of them 
in my youth, and I found them such as I have painted them, bend- 
ing under the labor of a long apostleship, with bodies exhausted by 
fatigues and broken with age, but still preserving all the vigor of the 
apostolic spirit." It should be added to this picture of the labors of 
the priests, that of all the heathen in any part of the world to whom 
the gospel has been sent, none were more difHcult to reach and in- 
doctrinate in its mild and gentle spirit, than the North American 

The report of the discovery of a great river to the west, draining 
boundless territory, and opening a highway to the gulf, aroused 
cupidity, and the desii'e to enlarge the dominion of France. Robert 
Cavalier de La Salle, who had already manifested remarkable enter- 
prise in his explorations along the shores of Ontario and Erie, and in 
his mercantile enterprises with the natives, was seized with the de- 
sire to follow the course of the Mississippi to its mouth. lietnrning 
to France he sought and obtained from Colbert authority to proceed 
with his explorations, and take possession of the country in the name 
of France. Returning to Fort Frontenac with the Chevalier Tonti, 
and a picked band, he ascended to the rapids of Niagara, passed 
around the falls with his equipment, built a vessel of sixty tons which 
he named the Grifiin, and began his voyage up the great lakes, now 
for the first time gladdened by so pretentious a craft, the forerunner 
of a commerce whose white wings has come to enliven all its ways. 

Arrived at Green Bay, he sent backhis craft forsupplies with which 
to prosecute his voyage down the great valley of the prince of streams. 
Caught in one of those storms which lurk in the secret places of 
these lakes, the little vessel was lost on its return voyage. Waiting 
in vain for tidings of his supplies he crossed over to the Illinois 
River, and in the vicinity of the present town of Peoria, he erected 
a fort, which, in consonance with his own disappointed spirit, he 
named Creve-ccjeur, the Broken Heart. Leaving Tonti and the Recol- 
lect, Hennepin, to prosecute the explorations of tlie valley, La Salle 
set out with only three followers to make his way back through the 
sombre forests which skirt the lakes, to Fort Frontenac at the mouth 
of Lake Ontario. In the meantime Hennepin explored the Illinois 
and the Mississippi to the Falls of St. Anthony, accounts of which 
on his return to France he published. Gathering fresh supplies and 
men, La Salle started again upon his arduous and perilous voyage; 
but upon his arrival at Fort Crevecceur, upon the Illinois, he found 
it deserted and his forces scattered, Tonti, whom he had left in 
charge, having been forced to flee. Not dismayed, again he returned 
to Frontenac, having fallen in witli Tonti at Macinaw. Again pro- 
vided with tlie necessary supplies, but now with ics.s cumbers<ime 


oiitlit. lie started again, after liaviiit; encountered discouragements 
that would have broken the s]iirit of a less resolute man, in August, 
1(381, and proceeded on his devious way. But now instead of the course 
which they had before j)ursued he moved up the Chicago River on 
sledges, and, having passed tiie portage, found Fort Crevecceur in 
good state of preservation. Having here constructed a barge of suf- 
ficient dimensions for his party he commenced his voyage down the 
Mississippi, and reached the Gulf without serious incident. Over- 
joyed at iinally having brought his projects to a successful consum- 
mation he took possession of the river, and all the vast territory 
which it drained, — large enough to constitute several empires like 
France, — with a formal pomj) and ceremony which was sufficient, if 
it were to depend on pomp and ceremony, to have insured the pos- 
session of the country in all time to come. They thoroughly ex- 
plored the channels which form the delta at the mouth of the stream, 
and having selected a place high and dry, and not liable to inunda- 
tion, which the}' found by the elevation of the north star to be 
in latitude twent3'-seven degrees north, they erected a column 
and a cross to which they atHxed a signal bearing this iiiscrip- 
tinn, "Louis le Grand, Uoi de France et de Navarre, regne, le 
neuvieme, Avril, 1682." Then chanting the Te Deum, Exandiat, 
and the Domine salvum fuc Uegem, and slu)Uting Vive le Roi to a 
salvo of arms. La Salle, in a loud voice, read his process verbal, as 
though all the nations of the world were listening: '■ In the name 
of the most high, mighty, invincible, and victorious prince, Louis the 
Great, by the grace of God Iving of France, and Navarre, l^'our- 
teenth of tlie name, this ninth day of April, 1082, I. in virtue of the 
commission of his majesty, which I hold in my hand, and which may 
be seen by all whom it may concern, have taken, and now do take, 
in the name of his majesty and of liis successors to the crown, pos- 
session of this country of Louisiana." And here follows a descrip- 
tion of the rivers, and countries drained by them, which he claims; 
and that all this is by the free consent of the natives who inhabit 
these lands, a statement which would probably have been difficult of 
verification, and in his verbal jirocess he inserts the name Colbert, 
the king's minister, in place of Mississippi, lie claims besides that 
they are the first Europeans who have ascended or descended the 
stream, on the authority of the peoples who dwell there, a statement 
which would also be uncertain of vei'ification, and thus ends his pro- 
cess, "hereby protesting against all those who may hereafter under- 
take to invade any or all of these countries, people or lands above 
described to the prejudice of the riglit of his majesty, acquired by 
the con.sent of the nations herein named. Of which, and of all tliat 
can bo needed, 1 hereby take to witness those who hear me. and de- 
mand an act of the notary, as re(juired bylaw." In addition to tiiis. 


he caused to be buried at the foot of the cross a leaden plate with 
this inscription in Latin: " Ludovicns, magnus Reget. Nono 
Aprilis MDCLXXXII. llobertns Cavellier, cum Domino de Tonty 
Legato R. P. Zenobi Menibre, Recollecto, et viginti Gallis primus 
hoc flumen, inde ab Ilineorum Pago, Enavigavit, ejusque ostium 
fecit pervivum, nono Aprilis, Anni MDCLXXXIL" 

By the terms of the law, recognized by all civilized nations, the 
nation whose subjects were the discoverers of the mouth of a river, 
could rightfully lay claim to ail the territory drained by that river, 
and all its tributaries even to their i-emotest limits. Had this claim 
been successfully vindicated, Louis-iana would have been bounded 
by the Alleglianj' Mountains on the east, the Rocky Mountains on 
the west, and would have embraced the bulk of the territory now the 
United States, and thus Pennsylvania would have been despoiled of 
a large proportion of its proud domain, and Greene County been a 
vicinage of France. Rut the claim of La Salle was not well founded, 
he not having been the original discoverer. For de Soto, a hundred 
and forty years before, had discovered the river, and, through his 
followers, had traced it to its mouth, and had taken possession of the 
river in the name of the King of Spain, with even greater pomp and 
ceremony than La Salle, setting up the cross and performing 
religious rites which the well known painting i-epeated on the 
greenbacks of our national currency has commemorated. Had the 
claim of Spain been maintained by force, and followed hj settlement, 
the people of Greene County would to-day be under the dominion of 
Spain, or of a Spanish speaking people. But if, by the failure of 
Spain, the French had been successful in establishing their claims, 
then the Bourbon lilies vvoiild have succeeded to power here, and 
French would have been the language. As we shall soon see, the 
chances by which it escaped that sway, were, for a time, quite evenly 
balanced between the French and the English. 

La Salle returned to France with great expectations of empire 
for his country. "With a fleet of thirty vessels, and people for a large 
colony, he set sail for the new possessions, four of which under his 
immediate command steered direct for the Gulf of Mexico, with the 
intention of entering the mouth of the Mississippi River; l)ut he 
failed to find the entrance, and, after suffering untold hardships and 
privations on the coast of Texas by shipwreck, dissension among his 
followers, and the tireless hostility of the savages, his expedition 
came to an ignoble end, he himself fortunate in escaping with his 
life. May we not believe that Providence had other designs for tiiis 

The third, and last of the European nations to engage in active 
colonization on the North American coast, was England. Vnv, 
though Holland, Denmark, and other European nations sent out col- 

]iistoi;y ok (;i:kknk coitntv. 51 

onies, tliey all liecaiiii' subject, tu the English. Henry ^'I1., who liad 
turned a deaf ear to the appeals of ("ohimlms, saw witli envy what 
he tiioiight were great advantages being secured to neighboring 
uatioiis through the discoveries of the great navigator. lie accord- 
ingly lent a ready ear to the Cabots, of Bristol, his cliief port. As 
early as 141)7 they set out to share in New World enterprise, and in 
their voyages explored the coast from Labrador to the ('arolinas, and 
subsecpiently South America, giving name to the great river of tlie 
south, Rio de la Plata. Forbisher followed, and Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
liaif-lirother of Sir Walter lialeigh, who aided Gilbert with his for- 
tune and iii.s powerful influence at Court, but perished by shipwreck 
without effecting a foothold upon the virgin soil. Under the patron- 
age of Haleigh, Amidas and Harlow in 1584 were sent, wdio made a 
lodgment on the shores of the Carolinas; but instead of observing 
seed-time and harvest, they wasted their energies in the vain search 
for gold, which they probably lioped to pick up in great nuggets, 
and their attempt at settlement came to naught. Not discouraged 
Jialeigh titted out another expedition under Sir Uichard Grenville, 
and exhausted his great fortune in the enterprise. A lodgment was 
made at Koanoke, but tlie colony planted held a sickly existence for 
a short time, when, after incurring vast expense, it was forever 
abandoned. Hendrick Hudson, under the patronage of London 
merchants, and subse(juently of the Dutch, made voyages of dis- 
covery, and in 1609 entered Delaware Bay, and made a landing on 
the soil of what is I'ennsylvania, entered New York I'a}', and 
ascended the Hudson River, to which he gave his name, and took 
possession of all this country in the name of the l)utcli, in whose 
employ he was then sailing. As yet nothing pernuiiient by way 
of settlement had been acheived. 

But the English having explored most of the coast from Halifax 
in Nova Scotia, to Cape Fear in North Carolina, laid claim to all 
this stretch of the coast, and indeiinitely westward. In the reign of 
the feeble and timid .James L, this immense country was divided into 
two parts, the one extending from New York Bay to Canada, known 
as Nortli Virginia, which was granted for settlement to the Ply- 
mouth Company organized in tlie west of England, and the other 
reaching from the mouth of the Potomac southward to Cape Fear, 
was called South Virginia, and was bestowed upon the London 
Company composed of residents of that city. It will thus be seen 
that a belt of some two hundred miles was left between the two grants 
so that they should have no liability to encroach upon each others 
settlements. The language of these grants by James was remarkable 
for every qnality of style but clearness and perspicuity. The London 
Company were to be limited between thirty-fourth and forty-first de- 
grees of north latitude, and the Plymouth Company between the 


thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees. It will thus be seeu that the 
two grnnts overlap each other Ijy three degrees; bnt as neither com- 
pany was to begin settlements within a liundred miles of the terri- 
tory of the other, it practically left the limits as given above. 
Previous to the active operations inaugurated by these companies, 
frequent attempts had been made by the English at colonization; but 
hitherto, beyond a few fishing stations, and the fort which the Span- 
ish continued to maintain at St. Augustine, no foothold had been 
gained by them along the whole stretch of the Atlantic, now occupied 
by the States of the Union. The London Company, in 1607, sent 
one hundred and five colonists in three small ships under command 
of Christopher Newport, to make a settlement in South Virginia. 
Among the number was Bartholomew Gosnold, who was the real 
organizer of the company, and tlie renowned Captain John Smith, by 
tar the ablest. They entered Chesapeake Bay, giving the names 
Charles and Henry, the names of King James' two sons, to the op- 
posite capes at the entrance, and having moved np the James River, 
they selected a spot upon its baid<s for a capital of the future empire, 
which in honor of the king, they called Jamestown. The seat here 
chosen became the seed of a new nation. The encounter with the 
powerful war chief Powhatan, and the romantic story of his gentle 
and lovely daughter Pocahontas, will ever lend a charm to the early- 
history of Virginia. 

The Plymouth Company having made fruitless attempts to get a 
foothold upon their territory, applied to the king for a new and more 
definite charter. Forty of "tlie wealthiest and most powerful men in 
the realm " associated themselves together under the name of the 
Council of Plymouth, which superceded the original Plymouth Com- 
pany, and to them James granted a new charter embracing all tlie 
territory lying between the fortieth and the forty-eighth degrees of 
north latitude and stretching away to the Pacific — a boundless grant, 
little comprehended by the king and his ministers, they believing 
that the South Sea, as tlie Pacific was designated, which had been seen 
by Balboa from a high mountain upon the isthmus, was close at hand. 
In 1620, a band of English J-'uritans, who had been persecuted and 
harried for non-conformity to the English church, having escaped to 
Holland, and there heard flattering accounts of the New World, 
conceived the idea of setting up in the new country a home for 
freedom. Having obtained from the new Council of Plymouth 
authority to make a settlement upon their grant, and having received 
assurance that their non-contbrmity would be winked at, a company 
of forty-one men with their families, one hundred and one in all, 
" the winnowed remnants of the Pilgrims," embarked in the May- 
flower, and after a perilous voyage of sixty-three days, landed on the 
shores of Massachusetts, at Plymouth Rock, and made a settlement 


wliii'li they failed New Plyinoutli. Ueloi'e leaving the sliii) they 
drew lip, and the whole coloiij- signed, a t'orni of government, and 
elected .John Carver governor. Tlie elder IJrewsterhad accompanied 
them as their spiritual guide, and here in a inid-wiiiter of almost 
arctic fierceness, they suffered and endured; but sang the songs of 
freedom. By spring the governor and his wife and forty-one of their 
numher were in their graves; l)ut not dismayed they observed seed- 
time, and gathered in harvest; other pilgrims joined them; it became 
the seed of a state. 

In the meantime, the Dutch had planted upon the Hudson and 
tlie Delaware by virtue of the discoveries of Hudson in 1609. And 
now in succession followed the planting of Maryland in 1634-5, 
Connecticut in 1632, Khode Island in 1636, New Ilampsliire in 
1631, Pennsylvania in 1682, the Carolinas in 1680, and Georgia in 

But has it ever occurred to the reader when unfolding the 
charters conveying unlimited possession of vast sketches of the new 
found continent, by the great sovereigns of Europe, to ask by what 
right or by what legal authority they assumed to apportion out, and 
give away, and set up bounds in this land? Here was a people in 
possession of this country whose right to the soil could not be 
questioned. True, it was not so densely peopled as the continent of 
Europe; but the population was quite generally distributed, and they 
were organized into tribes and confederacies, and were in actual pos- 
session — a claim fortilied by long occupancy. The European sover- 
eigns were careful to insert in their charters, " not heretofore occupied 
by any Christian prince." But the Indians believed in a Great 
Spirit whom they worshipped. 

The answer to this question, whether satisfactory or not, has 
been, that the civilized nations of Europe, on crossing the ocean, 
found here a vast country of untold resources lying untouched and 
unstirred, the Indians subsisting almost exclusively by hunting and 
fishing, the few spots used for cultivation lieing small in proportion 
to the whole and consequently their right to the soil as being un- 
worthy of consideration. They found a people grossly ignorant, 
superstitious, idle, exhibiting the fiercest and most inhuman passions 
that vex the human breast, their greatest enjoyment, their supreme 
delight being the infiiction upon their victims such refinements of 
torment, and perpetrations of savagei'y, as makes the heart sick to 
contemplate. Europeans have, therefore, held that they were justified 
in entering upon this practically unused soil, and dispossessing this 
scattered barbaric people. 

Mr. Justice Story, in his familiar exposition of the constitution, 
in commenting upon this siibject says: " As to countries in the 
possession of native inhabitants and tribes, at the time of the 


discovery, it seems diliicult to perceive what ground of right an}' 
discovery could confer. It would seem strange to us, if, in tlie 
present tiiiies, the natives of tiie south sea islands, or of Cochin 
China, should, by making voyages to, and discovery of, the United 
States, on that account, set up a right to the soil within our bounda- 
ries. The truth is, that the European nations paid not the slightest 
regard to the rights of the native tribes. They treated them as mere 
barbarians and heathens, whom, if they were not at liberty to extir- 
pate, they were entitled to deem mere temporary occupants of the 
soil. They might convert them to Christianity; and, if they refused 
conversion, they might drive them from the soil as unwortliy to inhabit 
it. They affected to be governed by the desire to promote the cause 
of Christianity, and were aided in this ostensible object by the whole 
influence of the papal power. But their real object was to extend 
their own power and increase their own wealth, by acquiring the 
treasures, as well as the territory of the new world. Avarice and 
ambition were at the bottom of all their original enterprises." 

This may be a just view of the moral and primary estimate of the 
case, yet the Supreme Court of the United States passed upon the 
question. Chief Justice Marshall delivering the opinion, holding that 
" the Indian title to the soil is not of such a character or validity as 
to interfere with the possession in fee, and disposal of the land as the 
State may see tit." In point of fact, every European nation, has, by 
its conduct, shown, that it had a perfect right to seize and occupy any 
part of the continent, and as much as it could by any possibility get 
its hands upon, could with perfect impunity' steal and sell into slav- 
ery the natives, drive them out from their huntin<)f grounds, burn 
and destroy their wigwams and scanty crops on the slightest pretext, 
and inflict upon them every species of injury which caprice or lust 
suggested. It is no wonder, therefore, that the Indians felt aggrieved, 
and that tlicir savage instincts were whetted for their fell work of 
blood, and many of the massacres which were perpetrated within the 
limits of Greene County, which will form the subject of a future 
chapter, may be traced to a bitterness thus engendered. Generations 
of ill usage could be scarcely expected to bear other fruitage. 




The Dutch and Swkdes ufun the Delaware — The English Supj;k- 


Penn Interested in IVew Jersey — Admiral Penn — The Uncer- 
tain Bounds — King Charles II. Grants Penn a Liberal 
Domain — Charter of Pennsylvania — Ltiseral Terms — Spell- 
ing — Penn had ilEDiTATEo OF A Fkee Comjionweath — Re- 
ceives HIS (trant in an Humble Spirit — Bitter Experiences 
IN THE Life of Penn — Disinherited — Father Relents on his 
Death-bed — Urges his Son Not to Wrong his Conscience — 
Seeks a Deed of Quit-claim from James, and Buys the Lower 
Counties — Perplexed in Devising a Form of Government — 
Secures Freedom to the Subject — Published Abroad — Letter 
Showing Abundance of Products — Penn Warns All to Con- 
sider Well before Embarking the Pkivations they Must 
Endure — Tender of Rights of the Natives — Sends a Notice 


Will Take no Land Except by Their Consent — Might have 
Become Citizens — Four Hundred Years of Intercourse has 
not Changed Their Nature — Snow no Lkvitv ix Their Pres- 
ence — "They Love Not to be Smiled On." 

rpiIE Colony of Peuusylvaiiia was later in being permanently 
_L settled than most of the others upon the sea-board. It is true 
that the Dutch, who originally settled New York, had effected a 
lodgment upon the Delaware, and maintained a fort there for 
trading purposes, soon after its discovery by Hudson, in 1(')09, the 
Dutch claiming all the territory which the Delaware and the Hudson 
drain b}' reason of Hudson's discoveries. Dutch colonies increased 
upon the Delaware, and made settlements on both sides of the river, 
and Dutch governors were sent to rule there with justices of the 
peace, constables, and all the apjiurtenances of civil government. 
In 1638 came the Swedes, the representatives of the great monarch, 
Gustavus Adolphus, and for several years there was divided authority 
upon the Delaware, the Dutch and the Swedes contending for the 
mastery. In 1664, upon the accession of Charles II. to the English 
throne, came the English with a patent from the King covering all 
the territory between the Connecticut and the Delaware Rivers, or in 
short, all the territory occupied by the Dutch. Seeing themselves 


likely to be overcome by force, the JJutch quietly surrendered, and 
the colony upon the Delaware passed under iMiglish rule. The list 
uf taxables between the ages of sixteeu .lud sixty, made in the year 
1677, in the colony upon the Delaware, contained 443 names, which 
gives a population of 3,101. In this same year came three ship-loads 
of emigrants, for the most part English Quakers, who settled on 
eitlier side of the Delaware, but the greater part in West Jersey. 
Some of this religious sect had preceded them, and in 1672 George 
Fox, the founder, had traveled through the Delaware country, "ford- 
ing streams in his course, camping out at night, and visiting and 
counseling with his followers on the way." In 1664 Lord Berkeley 
and Sir George Carteret received from tiie Duke of York a grant of 
territory between the Delawai-e and the ocean, including the entire 
southern portion of New Jersey. After ten years of troublesome 
attempts to settle their country, with little profit or satisfaction, 
Berkeley and Carteret sold New Jersey for a thousand pounds to John 
Fenwick, in trust for Edward Byllinge, both Quakers. - But the 
affairs of Byllinge were in confusion, and upon making an assignment, 
Gawin Lawrie, William Penn and Nicholas Lucas, became his 
assignees. Upon settlement of his affairs Byllinge cajne into pos- 
session of West New Jersey, as his share of the province. In the 
discharge of his duty as trustee for Byllinge, William Penn, who was 
himself a convert to the doctrines of Fox, became greatly interested 
in the colonization of the Quakers ni the New World, they having 
suffered grievous persecution for religious opinions' sake. In his 
devotion to their interests he had spent much time and labor in 
drawing up a body of laws for the government of the colony, devised 
in a spirit of unexampled liberality and freedom for the colonist. 

We, who are accustomed to entire freedom in our modes of woi'- 
ship, can have little idea of the bitterness, and deadly animosity of 
the persecutions for religious opinion's sake, which prevailed in the 
reigns of bloody Marjf and her successors. Even as late as the acces- 
sion of James II. to the English throne, over fourteen hundred 
Quakers, the most learned and intelligent of that faith, mild and 
inoffensive, were languishing in the prisons of England, for no other 
crime than a sincere attempt to follow in the footsteps of their 
Divine Master, for Theeing and Thouing as they conceived He had 
done. To escape this hated and hai-assing persecution first turned 
the mind of Penn to the New World. 

Penn had reason to expect favor at the hands of James II. His 
father, who was a true born Englishman, was an eminent admiral in 
the British navy, and had won great lionor upon the seas for his 
counti'y's Hag. He had commanded the expedition which was sent 
to the West Indies by Cromwell, and had reduced the island of 
Jamaica to English rule. When James, then Duke of York, made 


liis expedition against tlie Dutch, Admiral Peun couiniauded the 
tieet wliicli descended upon the Dutcli coast, and gained a great 
naval victory o\er the combined forces led by Van Opdam. For his 
gallantry in this canifjaign " he was knighted, and became a favorite 
at court, the King, and his brother the Duke, holding him in cherished 
remembrance." It was natural, therefore, that tiie son should seek 
favors at court for his distressed religious associates. Upon the death 
of Admiral Penn, the {British government was indebted to him in the 
sum of sixteen thousand pounds, a part of it mcniey actually advanced 
by the Admiral in fitting out the fleet which had gained the great 
victor}'. In lieu of this sum of money, which in those days was 
looked upon as a great fortune, the son, William, proposed to the 
King, Charles II., who had now come to the English throne, that lie 
should grant him a province in America, " a tract of land in America, 
lying north of Maryland, bounded east by the Delaware Ri\fer, on 
the west limited as ilaryland, and northward to extend as far as 
plantable." These expressions, " as far as plantable," or, " as far up 
and northward as convenient," and the like, were favorite forms of 
expression, in cases where the country had been unexplored and no 
maps existed for the guidance of the royal secretaries, and were the 
cause of much uncertainty in interpreting the royal patents, ami of long 
and wasting controversies over the just boundaries of the colonies, 
and were really the cause which made it possible for this County of 
Greene to have been subject to Virginia, or Maryland, or even to 
Massachusetts, or Connecticut. 

King Charles, who liad trouble enough in meeting the ordinary 
expenses of his throne witiiont providing for an old score, lent a 
ready ear to the application of the son, and the idea of paying off a 
just debt, with a slice of that country which had cost him nothing, 
induced him to be liberal, and he gave I'enn more than he had asked 
for. Already there were conflicting claims. The Duke of York 
held the grant of the three counties of Delaware, and Lord Baltimore 
held a patent, the northern limit of which was left indefinite. The 
King himself manifested unusual solicitude in pei'fecting the title to 
his grant, and in many ways showed that he had at heart great 
friendship for Penn. All conflicting claims were patiently heard by 
the Lords, and that the best legal and judicial light upon the subject 
might be had the Attorney General Jones and Chief Justice North 
were called in. Finally, after careful deliberation, the Great Cliarter 
of Pennsylvania, conveying territory ample for an empire, holding 
unexampled resources upon its surface, and within its bosom, glad- 
dened on every hand by lordly streams, and so diversified in surface 
as to present a scene of matchless beauty, was conveyed to Penn in 
these liberal, almost loving words: "Charles II., by the grace of 

60 History of greene county. 

God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of tlie 
faith, etc., To all to whom these presents shall come greeting." 

" Whereas our triistie and well beloved subject, William Fenn, 
Esquire, sonn and heire of Sir William Penu, deceased, out of a 
commendable desire to enlarge our English Empii-e, and promote 
such usefuU commodities as may bee of benetitt to us and our do- 
minions, as alsoe to reduce the Savage Natives by gentle and just 
manners to the love of civill Societie and Christian Eeligion hath 
humbley besought leave of us to transport an ample colonie unto a 
certain countrey hereinafter described in the partes of America not 
3'et cultivated and planted. And hath likewise humbley besought 
our Eoyall majestie to give, grant and coniirme all the said countrey 
with certaine priviledges and jurisdiccous requisite for the good 
Government and saftie of the said Countrey and Colonie, to him and 
his heires forever. Know yee, therefore, that wee, favoring the peti- 
tion and good purpose of tlie said William Penn, and having regard 
to the memorie and meritts of his late father, in divers services, and 
particulerly to his conduct, courage and discretion under our dearest 
brother, James, Duke of Yorke, in the signall battell and victorie, 
fought and obteyned againste the Dutch fleete, commanded by Heer 
Van Opdam, in the year one thousand six hundred sixty-live, in con- 
sideration thereof of our special grace, certain knowledge and meere 
motion. Have given and granted, and by this our present Charter, 
for us, our heires and successors, Doe give and grant unto the said 
William Pen, his heires and assigns, all that tract or parte of laud in 
America, with all the islands therein conteyned, as the same is 
bounded on the East by Delaware River, from twelve miles distance, 
Northwarde of New Castle Towne unto the three and fortieth degree 
of Northern latitude, if the said Eiver doth extend so far Northwards; 
But if the said River shall not extend soe farre Northward, then by 
the said River soe farr as it doth extend, and from the head of the 
said River the Easterne bounds are to bee determined by a meridian 
line, to bee drawn from the head of the said River unto the said 
three and fortieth degree, the said lands to extend Westwards five 
degrees in longitude, to bee computed fi-om the said Easterne Bounds, 
and the said lands to be bounded on the North by the beginning of 
the three and fortieth degree of Northern hititude, and on the South 
by a circle drawn at twelve miles, distance from New Castle North- 
wards, and Westwards unto the beiginning of the fortieth degree of 
Northernc Latitude, and then by a straight line Westwards to the 
limit of Longitude above menconed. 

" Wee doe also give and grant unto the said William Penn, his 
heires and assignes, the free and undisturbed use, and continuance 
in and passage into and out of all and singular. Ports, harbours, 
Bayes, waters, rivers, Isles and Inletts, belonging unto, or leading to 


and from the Country, or Islands af6resaid; and all the sojle, lands, 
lieldd, woods, underwoods, inountaines, hills, fenns. Isles, Lakes, 
Jiivers, waters, rivuletts, Eajs and Inletts, scituate or heing within or 
belong-ing unto the Liniitts and bounds aforesaid, together with the 
fishing of all sortes of fish, whales, sturgeons, and all Royall and 
other fishes in the sea, l)ayes, Inletts, waters, or Rivers within the 
premises, and the fish therein taken, and alsoe all veines, mines and 
quarries, as well discovered as not discovered, of Gold, Silver, 
(iemms and pretious Stones, and all other whatsoever stones, 
metals, or of any other thing or matter whatsoever found or to be 
found within the Countrey, Isles or Liniitts aforesaid; and him the 
said William Penn, his heires and assignes, Wee doe, by this our 
Royall Charter, for us, our heires and successors, make, create and 
constitute the true and absolute proprietaries of the Countrey afore- 
said, and of all other, the premises, saving always to us, our lieires 
and successors, the faith and allegiance of the said William Penn, 
his heires and assignes, and of all other, the proprietaries, tenants 
and Inhabitants that are, or shall be within the territories and pre- 
cincts aforesaid; and saving also unto us, our heirs and Successors, 
the Sovreignity of the aforesaid Countre}', To Have, hold and pos- 
sesse and enjoy the said tract of Land, Countrey, Isles, Inletts and 
and other the premises, unto the said AVilliam Penn, his heires and 
assignes, to the only proper use and behoofe of the said AVilliam 
Penn, his heires and assignes forever." 

Such is the introduction and deed of conveyance of the great 
charter by which Penn came into possession of that royal domain, 
Pennsylvania. But as it was to be in the nature of a sale, to make 
this deed of transfer binding according to the forms of law, there 
must be a consideration, the payment of which could be acknowledged 
or enforced, and the King, in a juerry mood, exacted the payment thus, 
"yielding and paying therefor to us, our heires and successors, two 
Beaver Skins to bee delivered att our said Castle of AVindsor, on the 
first day of January, in everey yeare." The King also added a fifth 
of all gold and and silver which might be found. But as that was 
an uncertain thing, and as in point of fact none ever was discovered, 
the sale of this great State was made, so far as this instrument shows, 
for two beaver skins, to be annually paid to the King. And as a 
sequence to this condition the King says, " of our further grace cer- 
tain knowledge and nieer mocon have thought fitt to Erect the 
aforesaid Country Islands, into a province and Seigniorie, and do call 
itt Pensilvania, and soe from henceforth wee will have itt called, and 
forasmuch as wee have hereby made and ordeyned the aforesaid 
AVilliam Penn, his heirs and assignee, tlic true and absolute Proprie- 
taries of all the lands and Dominions aforesaid." 

Penn had proposed that liis province be called Kew AVales, but 


the King objected to this. Peun then proposed Sylvania, as the 
country was reputed to be overshadowed by goodly forests. To this 
the King assented provided the prefix Penn should be attached. 
Penn vigorously opposed .this as savoring of his personal vanity. 
But the King was inflexible, claiming this as an opportunity to 
honor his great father's name, and accordingly, when the charter was 
drawn, that name was inserted. Following the provisions quoted 
above are twenty-three sections providing for the government and 
internal regulation of the proposed colony, and adjusting with great 
particiilarity and much tedious circumlocution, the relations of the 
colony to the home government. It is not on this account thought 
best to quote the entire matter of the charter here, but any who may 
be curious to consult the document in its entirety will find the orig- 
inal, engrossed on parchment with an illuminated border, in the 
executive office at Hai-risburg, and a true copy printed in the first 
volume of the Colonial Records, page seventeen. If anything is 
wanting to show the heartfelt consideration of the King for Penn, it 
is found in the twenty-third and last section, " And if, perchance, it 
should happen hereafter, any doubts or questions should arise con- 
cerning the true sense and meaning of any word, clanse, or sentence, 
contained in this our present charter. We will ordaine, and command, 
that aft all times and in all things such interpretacon be made thereof 
and allowed in any of onr Courts whatsoevei-, as shall be adjudged 
most advantageous and favorable unto the said William Penn, his 
heires and assignes." 

It will be noticed that the spelling of the royal secretary seems 
peculiar at this day, and that the capital letters and the alphabet 
generally are used with a freedom and originality which would have 
taxed the utmost stretch of ingenuity of so acknowledged an expert 
as Artemus Ward himself; but in the matter of composition it fol- 
lowed the legal forms prevalent in the courts of England of that day, 
and was drawn with a particularity and minuteness of detail scarcely 
paralleled in similar documents, apparently with a sincere desire to 
make the pi-ovisions so clear that there should be no chance for future 
dispute or misunderstanding, and the authority given to Penn as the 
proprietary was almost unlimited. In the matter of the boundaries 
the terms wei'o such that there could be no possibility of mistake, 
the boundary lines being fixed by actual measurement and mathe- 
matical calculation, or by the observation of the heavenly bodies. 
The Delaware river formed its eastern limits, and all the others were 
lines of longitude and latitude. In this respect this portion of the 
charter was drawn with less equivocal terms than ati}^ other similar 
document. And yet the authorities of Pennsylvania had more 
difficulty in establishing its claims — for reasons wl]ic'li ^yill jiereafter 
be explained^ — than all the others together. 


It was a joyful day for Peiiii when be received, at the hands of 
tlie King, tlie great charter, drawn with such liberality, conferring 
almost unlimited power, and with so many marks of the kindness of 
lieart and personal favor of his sovereign. He had long meditated 
of a free commonwealth where it should be the study of the law- 
giver to form his codes with an eye to the greatest good and happi- 
ness of his subjects, and where the supreme delight of the subject 
would be to render implicit obedience to its requirements. Plato's 
dream of an ideal republic, a land of just laws and happy men, >' the 
dream of that city where all goodness should dwell, whetlier such has 
e\ei- existed in the infinity of days gone by, or even now exists in 
the gardens of the Ilesperides far from our sight and knowledge, or 
will perchance hereafter, which, though it be not on earth, n)ust have 
a pattern of it laid up in heaven," — such a dream was ever in the 
mind of Penn. The thought that he now had in a new country an 
almost unlimited stretch of land, where he could go and set up his 
republic, and form and govern it to his own sweet will, and in con- 
formity to liis cherished ideal, thrilled his soul and filled him with 
unspeakable delight. But he was not pufted up with vain glory. 
To his friend Turner he writes: "My true love in the Lord salutes 
thee, and dear friends that love the Lord's precious truth in those 
parts. Thine epistle I have, and, for my business here, know that 
after man}' waitings, watchings, solicitings and disputes in council, 
this day my conntry was confirmed to me under the great seal of 
England, with large powers and ]>rivileges. by the name of Pennsyl- 
vania, a name the king would give it in honor of my father. - * * 
Thou mayest communicate my grant to Friends, and expect shortly 
my proposals. It is a clear and just tiling, and my God, that has 
given it me through many difficulties, will, I believe, bless and make 
it the seed of a nation." And may we not cherish the belief that 
the many and signal blessings which have come to this common- 
wealth in succeeding years, have come through the devout and pious 
spirit of the founder.' 

He had seen the companions of his religions faith sorely treated 
throughout all England, and for them he now saw the prospect of a 
release from their trilnilations. Penn himself had come up through 
l)itter persecution and scorn on account of his religion. At the age 
of fifteen he entered Oxford University, and for the reason that lie 
and some of his fellow-students practiced the faith of the Friends, 
they were admonished and finally expelled. Peturning to his home 
in Ireland, where his father had large estates, his serious deportment 
gave great oflFence, the father fearing that his advancement at court 
would thereby be marred. Thinking to break the spirit of the son, 
the boy was whipped, and finally expelled from the family home. 
At Cork, where he was employed in the service of the Lord Lieu, 


tenant, he, in company with others, was apprehended at a religious 
meeting of Friends, and cast into prison. While thns incarcerated 
he wrote to the Lord President of Munster, pleading for liberty of 
conscience. On being liberated he became more devoted than before, 
and so impressed was he with a sense of religious duty that he be- 
came a minister of the gospel. Keligious controversy at this time 
was sharp, and a pamphlet, which he wrote, gave so much offense to 
the Bishop of London that Penn was thrown into the Tower, where he 
languished for eight and a half months. But he was not idle, and 
one of the boohs which he wrote during his imprisonment, — " No 
Cross, No Crown," — attained a wide circulation, and is still read 
with satisfaction by the faithful in all lands. Fearing that liis 
motives might be misconceived, he made this distinct statement of 
his belief, " Let all know this, that I pretend to know no other name 
l)y which remission, atonement and salvation can be obtained but 
Jesus Christ, the Savior, who is the power and wisdom of God." 
Upon his release he continued to preach and exhort, was arrested 
with his associate Mead, and was tried at the Old Bailey. Penn 
plead his own cause with great boldness and power, and was acquitted ; 
but the court imposed a fine for contempt in wearing his hat, and, 
for non-payment, was cast into Newgate with common felons. At 
this time, 1670, the father, feeling his end approaching, sent money 
privately to pay the fine, and summoned the son to his bedside. 
The meeting was deeply affecting. The father's heart was softened 
and completely broken, and, as would seem from his words, had be- 
come converted to the doctrines of the son, for he said to him with 
his parting breath, " Son William, I am weary of the world! 1 
would not live over again my days, if I could command it with a 
wisli; foi' the snares of life are greater than the fears of death. This 
troubles me, that I have offended a gracious CTod. The thought of 
that has followed me to this day. Oh ! have a care of sin ! It is 
that which is the sting both of life and death. Let nothing in this 
world tempt to wrong yonr conscience; so you will keep peace at 
home, which will be a feast to you in the day of trouble." Before 
his death he sent a friend to the Duke of York with a dying request, 
that the Duke would endeavor to protect his son from persecution, 
and use his influence with the King to the same end. 

Tiie King liad previously given James, Duke of York, a charter 
for Long Island, with an indefinite western boundary, and, lest this 
might at some future day compromise his right to some portion of 
his territor}', Penn induced the Duke to execute a deed for the same 
territory covered by the royal charter, and substantially in the same 
words used in describing its limits. But he was still not satisfied to 
have the shores of the only navigable river communicating with 
the ocean under the dominion of others, who might m time become 

4^^^^ 0/ f^.tA/LAj 


liostile and interfere witli tlie free navigation of the .stream. He 
accordingly induced the Duke to make a grant to him of ^e\v Castle 
and New Castle County, and on the same day a grant of the territory 
stretching onward to the sea, covering the two counties of Kent and 
Sussex, the two grants together embracing what were designated the 
territories, or the three lower counties, wliat in after years becaine 
the State of Delaware; but by whicli acts became and long remained 
component ])arts of Pennsylvania. No such colony as Delaware ever 
existed. This gave Penn a considerable population, as in these three 
counties tlie Dutch and Swedes since 1609 had been settling. 

Penn was now ready to settle his own colony and try his schemes 
of governmejit. Lest there might l)e a misapprehension respecting 
his purpose in obtaining his charter, and unwoi'tliy persons with un- 
worthy' motives might be induced to emigrate, he declares repeatedly 
his own sentiments: "For my country I e^'ed the Lord in obtaining 
it; and more was I drawn inwards to look to Him, and to owe to His 
liand and power than to any other way. I have so obtained and 
desire to keep it, that I may not be unworthy of His love, but do 
tliat which may answer His kind providence and people." 

In choosing a form of government he was much perplexed. He 
had thought the government of England all wrong, when it bore so 
heavily upon him and his friends, and he, doubtless, thought in his 
earlier years, that he could order one in righteousness; but when it 
was given him to draw a form that should regulate the atiairs of tlie 
future state, he hesitated. " For particular frames and models, it 
will become me to say little. 'Tis true, men seem to agree in the 
end, to wit, happiness; but in the means, they differ, as to divine, so 
to this human felicity; and the cause is much the same, not always 
want of light and knowledge, but want of using them rightly. Men 
side with their passions against their reason, and their sinister in- 
terests have so strong a bias upon their minds that they lean to them 
against the things they know. I do not find a model in the world, 
that time, place, and some singular emergencies ha,ve not necessarily 
altered; nor is it easy to frame a civil government that shall serve 
all places alike. I know what is said of the several admirers of 
Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Democracy, wdiich are the rule of one, of 
a few, and of many, and ai'e the three common ideas of government, 
when men discourse on that subject. But I propose to solve the 
controversy with this small distinction, and it belongs to all three; 
any government is free to the people under it, whatever be the 
frame, where the laws rule, and the people are a party to those laws, 
and more than this is tyranny, oligarchy, and confusion." 

" Put when all is said, there is hardly one frame of government in 
the world so ill-designed by its first founders, that in good hands 
would not do well enough; and story tells us, the best in ill ones can 


do nothing that is great and good; witness the Jewish and the 
Roman states. Governments, lilve clocks, go from the motion men 
give tlieni, and as governments are made and moved bj men, so by 
them are they mined too. Wherefore governments rather depend 
upon men, than men upon governments. Let men be good, and the 
government cannot be bad, if it be ill, they will cure it. But if men 
be bad, let the government be never so good, they will endeavor to 
warp and spoil to their turn." 

'' I know some say let us have good laws, and no matter for the 
men that execute them; but let them consider, that though good 
laws do well, good men do better; for good laws may want good men, 
and be abolished or invaded by ill men; but good men will never 
want good laws, nor sufler ill ones. 'Tis true, good laws have some 
awe upon ill ministers; but that is where they have not power to 
escape or abolish them, and the people are generally wise and good; 
but a loose and depraved people, which is to the question, love laws 
and an administration like themselves. That, therefore, which makes 
a good constitution, must keep it, viz., men of wisdom and virtue, 
qualities that because they descend not with worldly inheritances, 
must be carefully propagated by a virtuous education of youth, for 
which after ages will owe more to the care and prudence of founders, 
and the successive magistracy, than to their parents for their private 

These considerations, which stand as a preface to his frame of 
government, are given at some length here, in order to show the 
temper of mind and heart of Fenn, as he entered upon his great work. 
He seems like one who stands before the door of a royal palace, and 
is loth to lay his hand upon the knob, whose turn shall give him en- 
trance, for fear his tread should be unsanctified by the grace of 
Heaven, or lack favor in the eyes of his subjects. For he says in 
closing his disquisition : " These considerations of the weight of 
government, and the nice and varied opinions about it, made it un- 
easy to me to think of publishing the ensuing frame and conditional 
laws, forseeing both the censures they will meet with from men of 
differing humours and engagements, and the occasion they may give 
of discourse beyond my design. But next to the power of necessity, 
this induced me to a compliance, that we have (with reverence to 
God, and good conscience to men), to the best of our skill, contrived 
and composed the frame and laws of this government, to the great 
end of all government, viz.: To support in reverence with the peo- 
ple, and to secure the people from the abuse of power ; that they may 
be free by their just obedience, and the magistrates honorable for 
their just administration; for liberty without obedience is confusion, 
and ol)edience without liberty is slavery. To carry this evenness is 
partly owing to the coiistitiitjon, and partly to the magistracy; where 

HISTORY OF oi:ekt^e county. fi'J 

either of these fail, government will be subject to confusion; but 
where both are wanting, it must be totally subverted; then where 
both meet, the government is like to endure. Which I humbly pray 
and hope God will please to make the lot of this of Pennsylvania. 

In sucli temper, and with such a spirit did our great founder ap- 
proach the work of drawing a frame of government and laws for his 
jjroposed community, iusigniticant in numbers at tirst; but destined 
at no distant day to embrace millions. It is not to be wondered at 
that he felt great solicitude, in view of the future possibilities. AVitli 
great care and tenderness for the rights and privileges of the in- 
dividual, he drew tlie frame or constitution in twenty-four sections, 
and the body of laws in forty. And who can estimate the power for 
good to this people, of the system of government set up by this pious, 
God fearing man, every provision of wliich was a subject of Ills 
])rayers, and tears, and tlie deep yearnings of a sanctified heart. 

The town meeting works the destruction of thrones. Penn's 
system was, in effect, at the outset, a free Democracy, where the in- 
dividual was supreme. Had King Charles foreseen, when lie gave his 
charter, what principles of freedom to the iiulividual would be em- 
b()die<l in tlie government of tlie new colony, and would be nurtured 
in the breasts of tlie oncoming generations, ifhe had held the purpose 
of keeping this a constituent and obedient part of his kingdom, he 
would have witheld liis assent to it, as elements were implanted there- 
in antagonistic to arbitrary, kingly rule. But men sometimes con- 
trive better than they know, and so did Charles. 

When finished, the frame (if government was published, and was 
sent out, accompanied with a description of the country, and especial 
care was taken tliat these should reach the members of tlie society of 
Friends. Many of the letters written home to friends in England 
by those who had settled in the country years before, were curious 
and amusing, and well calculated to excite a desire to emigrate. Two 
years before this, Mahlon Stacy wrote an account of the country, 
which the people of our day would scarcely be able to match. " I have 
seen," he says, "orchards laden with fruit to admiration; their very 
limbs torn to pieces with weight, most delicious to the taste, and 
lovely to behold. I have seen an apple-tree, from a pippin-kernel, 
yield a barrel of curious cider, and jieaches in such plenty that some 
yjeople took their carts a ]ieach-gatliering. I could not but smile at 
the conceit of it; they are very delicious fruit, and hang almost like 
our onions, that are tied on ro])es. I have seen and know, this sum- 
mer, forty bushels of bold wheat of one bushel sown. From May 
to Michaelmas great store of very good wild fruit as strawberries, 
cranberries and hurtleberries, which are like our bilberries in Eng- 
land, only far sweeter; the cranberries, much like clierries for color 


and bigness, which may be kept till fruit comes again; an excellent 
sauce is made of them for venison, turkeys, and other great ibwl, 
and they are better to make tarts of than either gooseberries or 
cherries; we have them brought to our houses by the Indians in great 
plenty. My brother Robert had as many cherries this year as would 
have loaded several carts. As for venison and fowls we have great 
plenty; we have brought home to our countries by the Indians, seven 
or eight fat bucks in a day. We went into the river to catch her- 
rings after the Indian fashion. We could have tilled a three-bushel 
sack of as good large herrings as ever I saw. And as to beef and 
pork, here is a great plenty of it, and good sheep. The common 
grass of the country feeds beef very fat. Indeed, the country, take 
it as a wilderness, is a brave country." 

If the denizens of England were to accept this description as a 
true picture of the productions and possibilities of the New World, 
they might well conclude with the writer that "for a wilderness" it 
was a " brave country," and we can well understand why they flocked 
to the new El Dorado. But lest any might be tempted to go with- 
out sufhcient consideration, Penn issued a pronunciamento, urging 
every one who contemplated removal thither to consider well the in- 
conveniences of the voyage, and the labor and privation required of 
emigrants to a wilderness country, "that so none may move rashly 
or from a fickle, but from a solid mind, having above all things an 
eye to the providence of God in the disposing of themselves." 

And that there should be no deception or misunderstanding in 
regard to the rights of property, Penn drew up "Certain Conditions 
and Concessions" before leaving England, which he circulated freely, 
touching the laying out of roads and highways, the plats of towns, 
the settling of comnjnnities on ten thousand acre tracts, so that 
friends and relatives might be together; declaring that the woods, 
rivers, quarries and mines are the exclusive property of those on 
whose purchases they were found; for the allotment to servants; that 
the Indians shall be treated justly; the Indians' furs should be sold 
in open market; that the Indian shall be treated as a citizen, and 
that no man shall leave the province without giving tliree weeks' 
public notice posted in the market-place, that all claims for indebted- 
ness might be liqiiidated. These and many other matters of like' 
tenor form the subject of these remarkable concessions, all tending to 
show the solicitude of Penn for the interests of his colonists, and 
that none should say that he deceived or overreached them in the 
sale of his lands. He foresaw the liability that the natives would be 
under to be deceived and cheated by the crafty and designing, being 
entirely unskilled in judging of the values of things. He accordingly 
devotes a large proportion of the matter of these concessions to secniv 
and defend the rights of the ignorant natives. If it was possible to 


make a liuinaii being eoiifurm to tlie riglits and ju'ivileges ul' civilized 
society, and make him truly an enlightened citizen, Penn's treatment 
of the Indian was calculated to make him so. He treated the natives 
as his own people, as citizens in every important particular, and as 
destined to an immortal iidieritance. He wrote to them: "There is 
a great Goil and power that hath m;ide the world and all things 
therein, tu whom you and 1 and all peojile owe their being and well- 
being; and to whom you and I must one day give an account for all 
that we do in the world. This great God hath written His law in 
our hearts, by which we are taught and commanded to love, and help, 
and do good to one another. Kow the great God hath l)een pleased 
to make me concerned in your part of the world, and the king of the 
country where I live hath given me a great jiroviuce therein; but I 
desire to enjoy it w'ith your love and consent, that we may always 
live together as neighbors and friends; else what would the great 
God do to us, who hath made us not to devour and destroy one 
another, but to live soberly and kindly together in the world? Now 
I would have you well observe that 1 am very sensible of the un- 
kindness and injustice that have been too much exercised towards 
you by the people of these parts of the world, who have sought them- 
selves, and to make great advantages by you, rather than to be ex- 
amples of goodness and patience unto you, which I hear hath been a 
matter of trouble to you, and caused great grudging and animosities, 
sometimes to the shedding of blood, which hath made the great God 
angn'. But I am not such a man, as is well known in my country. 
I have great love and regard toward you, and desire to gain your 
love and friendship by a kind, just and peaceable life, and the people 
1 send are of the same mind, and shall in all things behave them- 
selves accordingly; and if in anything any shall offend you or j-our 
people, you shall have a full and speed}' satisfaction for the same by 
an equal number of just men on both sides, that by no means vou 
may have just occasion of being offended against them. I shall 
shortl}' come to you myself, at which time we may more largely and 
freely confer and discourse of these matters. In the meantime I 
have sent my commissioners to treat with you about land, and form 
a league of peace. Let me desire you to be kind to them and their 
people, and receive these tokens and presents which I have sent you 
as a testimony of my good will to you, and my resolution to live 
justly, peaceably and friendly with you.'' Such was the mild and 
gentle attitude in which Penn came to the natives. 

Had the Indian character been capable of being broken and 
changed, so as to have adopted the careful and laborious habits which 
Europeans possess, the aborigines might have been assimilated and be- 
come a constituent part of the population. Such was the expectation 
of Penn. They could have become citizens, as every other foreij>-n 


race have. But tlie Indian could no more be tamed than the wild 
partridge of the woods. Fishing and hnnting were his occupation, 
and if any work or drudgery was to be done, it was shifted to the 
women, as being beneath the dignity of the free savage of the forest. 
Two hundred and lifty years of intercourse with European civiliza- 
tion and customs have not in the least changed his nature. He is 
essentially the savage still, as he was on the day -when Columbus 
lirst met him, four hundred years ago. 

But this fact does not change the aspect in which we should view 
tlie pious and noble intents of Penn, and they must ever be regarded 
with admiration, as indicative of his loving and merciful purposes. 
He not only provided that they should be treated as hnman beings, 
on principles of justice and mercy, but he was particular to point 
out to his commissioners the manners which should be preserved in 
their presence: "Be tender of offending the Indians, and let them 
know that yon come to sit down lovingly among them. Let my 
letter and conditions be read in theii- tongue, that thej' may see we 
have their good in our eye. Be grave. They love not to be 
smiled on." 



Markham First Governor — Sails for New York and is Accokded 
Permission to Assume Control on the Delaware — Puechase 
Land of the Indians — Seek a Site of a Great City — Penn 
Sails for America — Advice to Wife and Children on Leav- 
ing — Love of Rural Life — Thirty Passengers Die on the 
Voyage — Calls an Assembly and Enacts Laws — Civil and 
Religious Liberty — Visits Site of the New City — Satisfied 
AViTH It — Visits Governor of New York and Friends in Loncj 
Island and Jersey — Discusses Boundary With Lord Balti- 
more — The Great Treaty — Method of the Indians — Terms 
OF the Treaty — Speeoh of Penn — Le(;al Forms Observed — 
"Treaty Tree" Preserved — Walking Purchase — Consider- 
ation OF Penn — Injustice of Later Governor — Rapid Increase 
— Penn Describes the New City — Distances From the 
Chief Cities — Latitude and Longitude — Designs River Bank 
for a Public Park — Disregarded — Names His City Phila- 
delphia — Growth of the Coi.oxv — Cojipared With Other 

NOT being in readiness to go immediately to his province, Penn 
issued a uoinmission bearing date March 6, 1681, to his cousin, 
AVilliam Markham, as Lieutenant Governor, and sent him forward 
with three ship-loads of settlers to take possession of his province. 
Markham sailed directly to New York, where he exhibited liis com- 
mission to the acting governor of that province, who made a record 
of the fact, and gave Gov. Markham a letter addressed to the civil 
magistrates on the Delaware thanking them for their zeal and iidelity, 
and directing them to transfer their allegiance to the new Proprietary. 
Armed now with complete authority, Markham proceeded to the 
Delaware, where he was kindly received and all allegiance promptly 
accorded to him as the rightful governor. Markham was accompanied 
by four commissioners, who wei-e first to establish friendly relations 
with the Indians and acquire land by purchase, and second to select 
and survey and lay out the plot of a great city. Penn liad received 
a complete grant and deed of transfer of these lands, and had he fol- 
lowed the example of the other colonists he would have taken arbi- 
trary possession without consulting the natives. But he held that 
their claims to righti'ul ownership by possession for immemorial 


time, must first be satisfied. Accordingly, following the pacific in- 
structions of Penn, the commissioners found no difficnlty in opening 
negotiations with the simple inhabitants of the forest, and in pur- 
chasing long reaches of land on the south and west bank of the Del- 
aware and far beyond the Schuylkill. 

But it was not so easy to find a site for a great city to completely 
fill all the conditions which the founder had imposed. It must be 
on a stream navigable, where many boats could ride in safety and of 
sufficient depth so that ships could come up to the wharf and load 
and unload without " boating and lightening of it." " The situation 
must be high, at least dry and sound, and not swampy, wiiich is best 
known by digging up two or three earths and seeing the bottom." 
The site was to contain a block of 10,000 square acres in one square, 
and the streets to be regularly laid out. " Let every house be placed, 
if the person pleases, in the middle of its plat, as to the breadth- 
way of it, that so there may be ground on eacii side for gardens or 
orchards or fields, that it may be a green country town, which will 
never be burned, and always wliolesome." 

These instructions of Penn were most carefully observed, and for 
many weeks the commissioners searched for such a site as he had 
pictured, their investigations extending far up the Delaware. They 
finally fixed upon the present site of Philadelphia, which was settled, 
and has grown as then surveyed. It was between two navigable 
streams; it was dry, being one vast bed of sand and gravel and hence 
easily drained; and so high as not to be liable to overflow; it had 
ten thousand square acres; but there was not distance enough between 
the two rivers to allow it to be in a square block. ILrvever, as there 
was room for indefinite extension up and down the str^^ams, this was 
not regarded as fatal to the choice. The streets were laid with exact 
regularitj', crossing each other at right angles. Through the center, 
Market street extended from river to river, and so wide that origi- 
nally, and until within the memory of many now living, long, low 
market houses, or sheds stretched along its middle, and at its center 
it was crossed by Bi'oad street, a magnificent avenue. At their in- 
tersection a park was left, upon which the city has recently erected 
a structure of marble for the purposes of the city government, which, 
for beauty of architecture, convenience and solidity of structure is 
scarcely matched anywhere in the world. 

Having settled all things at home to his satisfaction, Penn pre- 
pared to depart for his new country. But before departing he ad- 
dressed farewell letters to his friends, and to his wife and children. 
From these we can gather what was really in his heart of hearts, 
what was his true character and the tenor of his inmost thoughts. 
To his fellow laborer, Stephen Crisp, he wrote, "Stephen, we know 
one another, and I need not say much to thee. * * * The Lord 

-O ccJl f ^r^-/^^ --J^g^TT 


will bless that ground (Pennsylvania). '^ * * And truly, Stephen, 
there is work enougii, and here is room to work in. Surely God 
will come in for a share in this planting-work, and that leaven shall 
leaven the lump in time." As he was now about to depart on a voy- 
age over the treaciierous ocean, he wrote to his wife and children as 
though he might never return to them again. To his wife he said, 
" God knows and thou knowest it, I can say it was a match of 
.Providence's making, and God's image in us both was the first 
thing." In counselling her not to become involved in debt, he says, 
" My mind is rapt up in a saying of thy father's, 'I desire not riches, 
but to owe nothing;' and truly that is wealth, and more than enough 
to live is attended with many sorrowes." Of his children he says, 
"I had rather they were homely, than finely bred, as to outward be- 
havior; yet I love sweetness mi.xed with gravity. Religion in the 
heart leads into this true civility. * * * For their learning be 
liberal. Spare no cost; for by such parsimony all is lost that is 
saved; l)ut let it be useful knowledge, such as is consistent with truth 
and godliness, not cherishing a vain conversation or idle mind, but 
ingenuity mixed with industry is good for the body and mind too. 
I recommend the useful part of mathematics, as building houses or 
ships, measuring, STirveying, dialing, navigation; but agriculture is 
especially in my eye — let my children be husbandmen and house- 
wives; it is industrious, healthy, honest, and of good example; like 
Abraham and the holy ancients, who pleased God and obtained a 
good report. This leads to consider the works of God ar^d nature of 
things that are good, and diverts the mind from being taken up with 
the vain arts and inventions of a luxurious world. - * * Of 
cities and towns of concourse beware; tlie world is apt to stick close 
to tiiose who have lived and got wealth there; a country life and 
estate I like best for my children." To his children lie said, " First 
love and fear the Lord, and delight to wait on the God of your father 
and mother. * * * Next be obedient to your dear mother, a 
woman whose virtue and good name is an honor to you; for she hath 
been exceeded by none in her time for her plainness, integrity, in-- 
dustry, humanity, virtue, good understanding; qualities not usual 
among women of her worldly condition and quality. * * * Be- 
take yourselves to some honest, industrious course of life. * * * 
And if you marry, mind neither beauty nor riches, but the fear of 
the Lord, and a sweet and amiable disposition; and being married, 
be tender, affectionate and meek. * * * Be sure to live within 
compass; borrow not, neither be beholden to any. * * * Love 
not money nor the world; use them only, and they will serve you; 
but if you love them you serve them, which will debase your spirits 
as well as offend the Lord. * * * Be humble and gentle in your 
conversation; of few words, but always pertinent when you speak. 


hearing ont before you attempt to answer, and then speaking as if 
you would pursuade not impose. Affront none, neither revenge the 
affronts that are done to you; but forgive and yon shall be forgiven 
of your heavenly father. In making friends consider well first; and 
when you are fixed be true. Watch against anger; neither speak 
nor act in it, for, like drunkenness, it makes a man a beast. Avoid 
flatterers, for they are thieves in disguise. '" ■" '•" They lie to 
flatter, and flatter to cheat. * * * Be temperate in all things; 
in your diet, for that is physic by prevention; it keeps, naj', it makes 
people healthy, and their generation sound. * * * Avoid pride, 
avarice and luxury. Make your conversation with the most eminent 
for wisdom and piety, and shun all wicked men, as you hope for 
the blessing of God, and the comfort of your father's living and dying 
prayers. * * * Be no busy bodies. In your families remember, 
Abraham, Moses and Joshua, their integritj' to the Lord. * * * 
Keep on the square for God sees you." 

Of this remarkable letter, which is worthy to lay to heart and be 
made a frequent study l)y the rising generation, only a few brief 
extracts are given above, yet enough has been adduced to show the 
pious intent of the founder of our noble Commonwealth. In June, 
1682, Fenn set sail for America in tlie ship " Welcome," with some 
hundred passengers, of whom thirty died of small-pox on the voyage. 
He landed at JS'ew Castle, where he took formal possession of the 
country. At a public meeting called at tlie court-house he explained 
his object in coming, his plan of government, and renewed the com- 
missions of the magistrates. Proceeding to Uplands, which he named 
Chester, he called an assembly composed of an equal number from 
the province and territories, (afterwards Delaware), and proceeded to 
enact a frame of government and a body of laws. The convention 
was in session but three days, as it was in harvest, and the 
farmers could not afford to spend much time; but in that brief period, 
which in these days would scarcely sufiice for the speaker to make up 
his committees, the constitution was considered article by article, 
amended and adopted, and the laws in like manner, so that when they 
adjourned, after this brief session, it could be said that the great ship 
of State, Pennsylvania, was fairly launched, and the government, 
which, in this simple way, was there adopted in the town of Chester, 
has formed the basis of that system which has guided the State in 
safety through the more than two centuries of its growth, and brought 
it safely on in the voyage of empire, with its more than four millions 
of people. 

Penn's first and chief care was to establish civil and religious 
liberty so firmly, that it should not be in the power of future rulers 
to alter or destroy it. As he himself declarecl, " For the matter of 
liijerty and privilege, 1 purpose that which is extraordinary, and 


leave myself and successors no power of doing miscliief, that the will 
of one man may not hinder tlie good of a whole country.". Having 
suffered sore persecution himself, as well as his religions associates, 
he ciierished a bitter hatred of any system which could impose or 
even suffer such injustice, and accordingly he placed at the head of 
his Fundamentals this, in that age, remarkable provision: "In 
reverence to God, the Father of light and spirits, the author as well 
as object of all divine knowledge, faith and worship, I do for me and 
mine, declare and estaldish for the lirst fundamental of the govern- 
ment of my province, that every person, that doth and shall reside 
therein, shall have and enjoy the free possession of his or her faith 
and exercise of worship towards God, in such way and manner as 
every such person shall in conscience believe is most acceptable to 

It would seem as if the new world was opened at a time when 
persecution in the old world was rife, that the oppressed people of 
all nations might have an asylum, where civil and religious liberty 
should forever be preserved. Having thus settled his form of gov- 
ernment, and set it fairly in operation, be began to make journeys 
into the distant parts of his country. He first visited the site which 
had been selected for the new city, proceeding in a barge from 
Chester, and landed at the mouth of Dock Creek, now Dock street. 
Forests covered the site, conies burrowed in the bank, and wild ani- 
mals dashed past iiim as Penn was pulled up the side. The situation- 
pleased him, and the conntry was even more inviting than he had 
been led to believe. " I am very well and mnch satisfied with my 
place and portion. * * * As to outward tilings we are satisfied; 
the land good, the air clear and sweet, the springs plentiful, and 
provision good and easy to come at, an innumerable quantity of wild- 
fowl and fisii; in fine, here is what an Abraham, Isaac and Jacob 
would be well contented with, and service enough for God; for the 
fields are white for harvest. Oh how sweet is the quiet of these parts, 
freed from the anxious and troublesome solicitations, heresies and 
perplexities of woful Europe." 

Penn understood well the proprieties of social life, as well as the 
advantage of politeness to good fellowship. He took early occasion 
to visit New York, and pay his respects to the Governor and his 
associates there. But wherever he went, he never divested himself 
of his character as a laborer in the vineyard of the Lord. Accord- 
ingly, after having taken his leave of the Governor, he paid visits 
to the members of the society of Friends living on Long Island, and 
in east New Jersey, which had previously come into the possession of 
a company of which he was one, and everywhere did " service for the 
Lord." He also visited Lord Baltimore, in Maryland, that they 
might confer together upon the subject of the boundaries of the two 


colonies. As the weather became intensely cold, precluding the 
possibility of taking stellar observations or making the necessary 
surveys, it was agreed to adjourn the conference to the milder weather 
of the spring. 

The founder took great care to secure the friendship and interest of 
the Indians in the new State. He accordingly took early occasion to 
summon a council of all the neighboring tribes, that he might make 
a formal treaty of peace with them, and secure a legally executed 
deed for their lands. The meeting was held beneath the shade of a 
giant elm at Kensington, ever after known and held in veneration as 
the " Treaty tree." The Indians from far and near had come, as it 
was an event that had been widely heralded, and the desire on the part 
of the natives to see and liear the great founder, who had addressed 
them the year before in such loving words, was doubtless intense. 
Penn came with his formal treaty all drawn up, and engrossed on parch- 
ment, as well as a deed for their lands. In his letter to friends in Eng- 
and lie describes the manner of the Indians in council, which was 
doubtless the method observed on the occasion of concluding the great 
treaty. " I have had occasion," he says, " to be in council with them 
upon treaties for land, and to adjust the terms of ti-ade. Their order 
is thus: the king sits in the middle of a half-moon, and has his 
council, the old and wise on each hand. Behind them, or at a little 
distance, sit the younger fry in the same figure. Having consulted 
and resolved their business, the king ordered one of them to speak to 
me. He stood up, came to me, and in the name of his king saluted 
me; then he took me by the hand, and told me that he was ordered 
by his king to speak to me, and that now it was not he but the king 
who spoke, because what he should say was the king's mind. Hay- 
ing thus introduced his matter, he fell to the bounds of the land they 
had agreed to dispose of, and the price; which now is little and dear, 
that which would have bought twenty miles, not buying now two. 
During the time that this person spoke, not a man of them was 
observed to Avhisper or smile, the old grave, the young reverent, 
in their deportment. They speak little but fervently, and with ele- 
gance. I have never seen more natural sagacity, considering them 
without the help (I was going to say, the spoil of tradition) and he 
will deserve the name of wise, who outwits them in any treaty about 
a thing they understand." Penn now responded to them in a like 
sober and reverent spirit, assuring them that the red man and the 
white man are equally the care of the Great Spirit, and that it is his 
desire to live in peace and good fellowship with them. " It is not 
our custom," he says, " to use hostile weapons against our fellow 
creatures, for which reason we have come unarmed." Penn now 
unrolls his parchment, and reads and explains the force of each article, 
all of which is interpreted into their own language, — though it should 


here be stated that Penii learned the Indian language, and was able 
to speak to them in their own tongue. " I will not do," he continued, 
"as the Marylanders did, eall you children or brothers only; tor 
parents are apt to whip tlieir clijldren too severely, and brothers 
sometimes will diti'er; neither will I compare the friendship between 
us to a chain, for the rain may rust it, or a tree may fall atid break 
it; but I will consider you as tlie same tiesh and blood as the Christians, 
and the same as if one man's body were to be divided into two parts." 
In response to this declaration the spokesman for the king again 
comes forward and makes great promises and declares that " tlie 
Indians and the English must live in love as long as the sun doth 
give its light." Another speaker now turns to the Indians and ex- 
plains to them what had been said and done, and counsels them " to 
love the Christians, that many Governors had been in the river, but 
that no Governor liad come himself to live and stay here before, and 
having now such an one that had treated them well they should 
never do him nor his any wrong," all of whicli was received by the 
entire assemblage with accents of approval. 

Penn took special pains to have all his purchases of the Indians 
executed in due legal form, and recorded in the otfices of his govern- 
ment, so that if any question concerning the conditions should arise 
there should be the exact evidence of the bargain at hand. The 
Indians themselves had no method of recording their agreements, but 
their memory of such transactions was remarkably exact and tena- 
cious. They had some arbitrary way by which they were able to 
recall their knowledge of events. The Indian missionary and his- 
torian says, "They frequently assembled togetlier in the woods, in 
some shady spot, as nearly as possible similar to those where they 
used to meet tlieir brother Miquon (Penn), and there lay all his words 
and speeches, with those of his descendants on a blanket or clean 
piece of bark, and- with great satisfaction go successively over the 
whole. * * * This practice, which I have repeatedly witnessed^ 
continued until 1780 (a period of a hundred years), when disturl)- 
ances which took place put an end to it probably forever." 

The venerable elm tree under which this noted (Conference was 
held was carefully guarded and preserved. Even while the city of 
Philadelphia was in possession of the enemy during the Eevolution- 
ary war, and firewood was scarce, the Treaty Tree, this venerable elm, 
was preserved from mutilation. The British General Simcoe sta- 
tioned a guard over it. It stood till 1810, when it fell a victim to 
the storms, and was found to be 283 years old, showing that at the 
time of the treaty it was 155. The Penn Society of Philadelphia 
have marked the spot where it stood by erecting a durable monu- 
• Of Penn's purchases of the Indians two deeds are on record. 


executed in 1683, one of thein bearing the signature of the renowned 
chieftain Taniinend. In one of these the method of measurement 
was unique. The terms were that the tract should embrace the ter- 
ritory between two rivers and " shall extend as far back as a man can 
walk in three days." It does not provide whether the days are to be 
from sun to sun, nor at what season of the year the walk is to be 
made, nor whether a day shall be reckoned at twenty-four hours, or 
whether the walk shall be executed by an experienced walker at the 
top of his bent, or be walked leisurely. But Penn, actuated by a 
sense of simple justice, construed entirely to the advantage of the 
Indians, that he might show them that he was actuated by none but 
the most exalted motives. Accordingly, Penn, himself, with a num- 
ber of his friends, accompanied by a gay party of the natives, made 
the walk. They did not turn it into a race, but treated 'it as a pleasure 
party, proceeding leisurely, sitting down at intervals to "smoke their 
pipes, eat biscuit and cheese, and drink a bottle of wine." Com- 
mencing at the mouth of Neshaminy Creek they proceeded on up 
the shores of the Delaware. At the end of a day and a half they 
reached a spruce tree on the bank of Baker Creek, about thirty miles, 
when Penn, thinking that he had as much land as he would want for 
the present, agreed with the Indians to stop thei-e and allow the re- 
maining day and a half of space to be walked ou.t at some future 
time. The execution of the balance of the contract was in marked 
contrast to the liberal interpretation of the founder. It was not 
made till 1733, when the then Governor offered a jjrize of 500 acres 
of land and £5 in money to the man who would make the greatest 
walk. There were three contestants, and one, Edward Marshall, won 
the prize, making a distance of eighty-six miles in tlie single day 
and a half, an unprecedented feat. The advantage taken by the 
Governor in this transaction gaVe great offense to the Indians. " It 
was the cause," says Jenney, "of the first dissatisfaction between thejn 
and the people of Pennsylvania; and it is remarkable that the first 
murder committed by them in the province, seventy-two years after 
the landing of Penn, was on this very ground which had been taken 
from them by 'fraud. " 

The excellence of the country, the gentleness of the government, 
and the loving society of Friends, caused a good report to go out to 
all parts of Europe, and thither came flocking emigrants from inany 
lands, from London, Cheshire, Lancashire, Ireland, Scotland, Ger- 
many, and from Wales a company of the stock of Ancient Britons. 
For the most part they were of the Society of Friends, and were 
escaping from bitter persecution for their religion. They were, con- 
sequently, people of pure hearts, good elements for the building of a 
colony. On landing they would seek the sheltei' of a tree with their 
household goods, and there they would live till they could secuil 


their land and erect a rude shelter. JSoine betook themselves to the 
river's bank and dng caves for temporary shelter. In one of these 
caves the iirst child, John Key, was born in the new city, known 
long after as Penny-pot, near Sassafras street. He lived to his 
eightj'-tifth year, dying in 1768. It will be seen that many priva- 
tions had to be endured, and so great was the influx uf settlers that 
food was sometimes scarce. But tliey were patient, accustomed to 
toil, and devoted in their worship, so that tlie colony had wonderful 
prosperity and increase. 

Penn's own impressions are conveyed in a letter to iiis friends in 
England. •' Philadelpliia, the expectation of those who are con- 
cerned, is at last laid out to the great content of tliose liere. Tlie 
situation is a neck of land, and lieth between two navigable rivers, 
Delaware and Schuylkill, whereby it hath two fronts upon the water, 
each a mile, and two from river to river. * ■•■ '"■ This I will say 
for tlie good providence of God, of all the places I ha\e seen in the 
woi'ld I remember not one better seated; so that it seems to me to 
liave been appointed for a town, whether we regard the rivers, or th(! 
conveniency of the coves, docks and springs, the loftiness and sound- 
ness of the land, and the air, held by the people of these parts to be 
very good. I bless God I am fully satisfled with the country and 
entertainment 1 got in it." By the course of tiie I'iver tlie city is 
120 miles from tlie ocean, but only si.xty in direct line. It is eighty- 
seven miles from New York, ninety-five from Baltimore, 136 from 
Washington, 100 from Ilarrisburg, and 300 from Pittsburg, and is 
in latitude north 39°, 56', 54". and in longitude west from Green- 
wich 75°, 8', 45". The Delaware at this time was nearly a mile 
wide opposite the city and navigable for siiips of the greatest tonnage. 
The tide here has a rise of about six feet and flows liack to the falls 
of Trenton, some thirty miles. The tide in the Schuylkill flows 
only about six miles above its confluence with the Delaware. The 
purpose of Penn was that the land along the river bank should be a 
public park, holding in his mind's eye its future adornment with 
walks and fountains and statues, trees and sweet smelling shrubs 
and flowers; for when pressed to allow warehouses to be built upon it 
he resolutely declared, " The bank is a top common, from end to end; 
the rest next to the water belongs to front-lot men no more than 
back-lot men. The way bounds them." But Penn, at this early day, 
in the simplicity of his nature had little conception of the necessities 
which commerce would impose, when the city should grow to the 
million of population, which it now has, so that the cherished design 
of the founder has been disregarded, and great warehouses where a 
vast tonnage is constantly moving, embracing the commerce from the 
remotest corners of the globe, cumber all the bank. Penn had cher- 
ished the purpose of founding a great city from his earliest years. 


and had adopted the name Philadelphia (brotherly love) before he 
had any reasonable prospect of coming to America. So that the 
name was not a matter of question. 

The growth of the province was something wonderful, and caused 
Penh to say in a sjjirit of exultation unusual to him, " I must, with- 
out vanity say, I have led the greatest colony into America that ever 
anj' man did upon a private credit." Bancroft ver^' justly observes, 
" There is nothing in the history of the human race like the con- 
fidence which the simple virtues and institutions of William Penn 
inspired. The progress of his province was more rapid than that of 
New England. In Aiigust, 1683, Philadelphia consisted of three or 
four litile cottages. The conies were yet undisturbed in their heredi- 
tary burrows; the deer fearlessly bounded past blazed trees, uncon- 
scious of foreboded streets; the stranger that wandei-ed from the 
river bank was lost in thickets of interminable forest ; and two years 
afterward the- place contained about six hundred houses, and the 
schoolmaster and the pirinting-press had begun their work. In three 
years from its foundation Philadelphia had gained more than JNew 
York had done in half a century. It was not long till Philadelphia 
led all the cities in America in population, though one of the latest 
founded. By the census of 1800 Pennsylvania led all the other 
States in the number of white population, having 586.095; New 
York, 557,731; Yirginia, 514,280; Massachusetts, 416,393; North 
Carolina, 337,764; Connecticut, 244,721; Maryland, 216,326; South 
Carolina, 196,255; New Jersey, 194,325; New Hampshire, 182,998; ' 
Kentucky, 179,873; Yermont, 153,908; Maine, 150,901: Georgia, 
102,261; Tennessee, 91,709; Ehode Island, 65,438; Delaware, 
49,852; Ohio, 45,028; Indiana, 5,343; Mississippi, 5,179. 

^c^i^ ^^{^X^ 




— Penn Visits Loud EAi/rrMoiiK — P^vi.timoke Makes Excuses — 
Ambicu'ities in Both Ciiaktehs — Baltimoke Offers Disi'I'ted 
Lands for Sale and I)ri\'es Oft Pennsylvania Owners — 
Summons to Quit — Resi-onse — Penn Offers to Purchase — 
Penn Carries the Controversy Before ti[e Rovai. CoiUMissioN 
— Letter to His Frienhs on Quittinc His Coi.f)NY — Found 
Officers Sour and Stern — New King Friendly, but Ministry 
Hostile to Dissenters — Claims Compromised — Elaborate 
Treaty of 1760 — Line Described — Local Surveyors Ap- 
pointed — Mason and Dixon Appointed — ^Native Surveyors' 
Work Found Correct — Sample of Work — Delaware Line 
Established — Extracts from Notes — "Visto" Cleared — 
Horizontal Measurement — Stone Pillars Set — Indians View- 
Astronomical Observations \vrni Awic — War Path in Greene 
County Survey Stops — Tedious Labors of Surveyors — Boun- 
dary' Stones Cut in Ench.axi) — Cost of Survey* for Pennsyl- 
vania, $171,000— End Not Yet. 

THOUGH feeling a just pride in the prosperity and wonderful 
growth of his colony, Penn was not free from tribulations. 
Language could not be made more explicit than that employed to fix 
the boundaries of his province. That there might be no mistaking 
the place which it occupied upon the continent the stars were called 
to stand as sentinels, and science was invoked to fix the places which 
they marked. But the ink was scarcely dry upon the parchment 
which recorded the gift before the wliisperings of counter claims 
were heard. Markham, who was sent forward by Penn as Lieutenant- 
Governor to take possession of tlie land and commence surveys upon 
it, had hardly shaken the salt spray from his locks before he was 
visited at Chester by Lord Baltimore from Maryland, who presented 
his claim to all that country. 

On the 20th of June, 1632, just fifty years before Penn received 
his patent^ the King had granted to Lord Baltimore a charter for 
Maryland, named for Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henry IV. and 
wife of Charles I., bounded by the ocean, the 40° of north 
latitude, the meridian of the western fountain of the Potomac, the 


river Potomac from its source to its mouth, and a line drawn east 
from Watkius Point to the Atlantic, the place of beo;inning. This 
territory was given to him, his heirs and assigns, on the payment of 
a yearly rent of two Indian arrows. Lord Baltimore exhibited his 
claim to Governor Markham, and to satisfy the latter that his claim 
was valid, he made an observation of the heavens, which showed that 
the latitude of Cljester was twelve miles south of the 41° 
north to which he claimed. Had this claim been allowed, the 
whole of Delaware bay and river, the three lower counties, now 
the State of Delaware, tiie city of Philadelphia, Yoi'k, Chambers- 
bui'g, Gettysburg, indeed the whole tier of soiithern counties would 
have been cut oif from Pennsylvania. As it will be seen the allow- 
ance of this claim would have swallowed all the settlements wliich 
had been made for three quarters of a century, and all the wonder- 
ful emigration and growth which had now set in, including the great 
city wliich Penn had founded with so much satisfaction, and cherished 
with his pains and his prayers, as well as the fairest section of his 

Markham, on his part, exhibited the Pennsylvania charter, whicli 
explicitly provides that the southern boundary shall be the " begin- 
ning of the 40th degree of northern latitude." But this would have 
included Baltimore, and even as far sonth as the city of Washington, 
embracing all the growth of the Maryland colony for half a century, 
and would have only left for Maryland a modicum of land west of 
the Potomac and south of the 40° north along either shore of 
the lower Chesepeake, about equal to the present State ot Delaware. 
This Lord Baltimore regarded an unendurable hardship, and as his 
charter ante dated that of Penn by fifty years, he held that the 
charter of the latter was invalidated, and that his own claim could 
be maintained. 

In this condition matters rested until the coming of Penn. As 
we have already seen the new proprietary made it his biisiness to 
visit Lord Baltimore very soon after his arrival upon the Delaware, 
and for two days the claims of the two governors were talked over 
and canvassed. But as the weather became cold so as to preclude 
the possibility of taking observations to fix accurately the latitude 
and longitude of the place, it was agreed to postpone further con- 
sideration of the question for the present. A true picture of these 
two eminent men in this opening controversy would be one of great 
historical interest. But we can well imagine that while the rep- 
resentative of Pennsylvania preserved tiiroughout this conference a 
demeanor that was " childlike and bland," there was in the brain, 
which tlie broad-brim sheltered, and in the heart which the shad- 
bellied coat kei)t warm, an unalterable purpose not to yield the best 
portion of his heritage. 


Early in the spring I'eiin invited Lord Jjaltimore tu come to the 
Delaware for the settlement of their diti'erences; but it was late in 
the season before he arrived. Penn proposed that the heai'ing be 
had before them in the natui-e of a legal investigation with the aid 
of counsel and in writing. But this was not agreeable to Baltimore, 
and now he complained of the sultryness of the weather. Before it 
was too cold, now it was too hot. Accordingly the conference again 
broke up without anything being accomplished. It was now plainly 
evident that Baltimore did not intend to corns to any agreement 
with Penn, but would carry his cause before the royal tribunal in 

Penn now well understood all the conditions of the controversy, 
and that there were grave difficulties to be encountered. In the lirst 
place his own charter was explicit and would give him, if allowed, 
three full degrees of latitude and live of longitude. On the other 
hand the charter of Baltimore made his northern boundary the for- 
tietii degree, but whether the beginning or the ending was not 
stated. If the beginning, then Maryland wouhl be crowded down 
nearly to the city of Washington, and Pennsylvania would embrace 
the city of Baltimore and the greater portion of what is now Mary- 
land and part of Virginia. On the other hand, if the ending of the 
fortieth degree, then Philadelphia and all the southern tier of counties 
would have to be given up. By the usual interpretation of language 
the charter of Baltimore would only give him to the beginning of 
the fortieth degree. But he had boldly assumed the other interpre- 
tation, and had made nearly all his settlements above that line. 
Again it was provided in the charter of Lord Baltiinoi-e that the 
boundaries prescribed should not include any territory already 
settled. But it was well known that the settlements along the right 
bank of the Delaware, from the lirst visit of Hudson in 1609, long 
before the charter of Baltimore was given, had been made on the 
territory now claimed by him. On the other hand there were 
difficulties in construing one portion of the charter of Penn, 
doubtless caused by the ignorance of the royal secretaries, who 
drew it, of the geography of the country, there having been no 
accurate maps showing latitude made at this time. Consequently 
when they commenced to describe the southern boundary of Penn- 
sylvania they said, "and on the south by a circle drawn at twelve 
miles distance from New Castle, Northwards and AVestwards unto the 
heginnimj of the fortieth degree of Northern Latitude; and then by 
a straight line westwards to the limitt of Longitude above men- 
tioned," that is to the Panhandle line, as now ascertained. But this 
circle which is here described at twelve miles distant from New 
Castle northwards and westwards, to reach the beginning of the for- 
tieth, would not only have to bo extended northward and westward, 


but southward, and tlie radius of twelve miles soutliward would by- 
no means reach the beginning of the fortieth degree, and hence would 
have to be extended on an arbitrary line still further southward, not 
provided for in the charter. The royal secretaries seemed to have 
labored under the impression that New Castle town was about on the 
beginning of the fortieth parallel, whereas it was nearly two-thirds of 
a degree to the north of that line. 

It must be confessed that there were many grave difficulties in 
the way of a satisfactory adjustment of these counter claims, and it 
is reported that Lord Baltimore, on his first visit' to Markham, after 
having found by observation the true latitude of New Castle, and 
heard the provisions of Penn's charter read, dolefully but very per- 
tinently asked: "If this, be allowed, where then is my pi-ovince?" 
Baltimore, from the very moment that he discovered what the claims 
of Penn were, had evidently resolved not to make any effort to come 
to an agreement with Penn, which is abundantly shown by his frivo- 
lous excuses for not proceeding to business in their several inter- 
views; but had determined to pursue a bold policy in pushing the 
sale of lands on the disputed tract, constantly assuming that his in- 
terpretation was the true one, and even opening an aggressive policy, 
trusting to the maintenance of his claims before the officers of the 
crown in England. 

Accordingly, Baltimore issued proposals for the sale of lands in 
the lower counties, now the State of Delaware, territory which Penn 
had secured by deed from the Duke of York, after receiving his 
charter from the King, offering cheaper rates than Penn had done. 
Penn had also learned that Lord Baltimore had sent a surveyor to 
take an observation and find the latitude of New Castle, had prepared 
an ex f arte statement of his case and was actually, by his agents, 
pressing the cause to a decision before tlie Lords of the Committee of 
Plantations in England, without giving any notice to Penn. Be- 
lieving in the strong point of possession, Baltimore was determined 
to pursue a vigorous policy. He accordingly drew up a summons to 
quit, and sent a messenger. Colonel Talbot, to Philadelphia to "de- 
mand of William Penn all that part of the land on the west side of 
the said river that lyeth to the southward of the fortieth degree of 
north latitude." Penn was absent at the time, and the summons was 
delivered to the acting Governor, Nicholas Moore. But upon his 
i-eturn the Proprietary made answer in strong but earnest terms, 
showing the groiinds of his own claim and repelling any counter 
claim. The conduct of Baltimore alarmed him, for he saw plainly 
that if settlers from Maryland entered his province under claim of 
protection from its Governor, it would very soon lead to actual con- 
flict for possession. What he feared came to pass sooner than he had 
anticipated ; for in the spring of 1684, in time to put in their crops, 


a company from Maryland came in force into the lower counties, 
drove off the peaceable Pennsylvania settlers, and took possession of 
their farms. Taking the advice of his council, Penn sent a copy of 
his reply to the demand tliat Talbot had brought, which he ordered 
to be read to the intruders, and ordered Wiiliani AVelcli, sherili" of 
the county, to reinstate the lawful owners. He then issued his 
proclamation reiterating and defending his claims, and warning all 
intruders to desist in future from such unlawful acts. 

As has been previously observed, if Penn should tamely submit 
to the claim of Baltimore, his entire colony would have been swal- 
lowed up, and all his labor would have been lost. This result Balti- 
more seemed determined to effect. To the peaceful, quiet and loving 
disposition of Penn this contention was exceedingly distasteful. As 
for quantity of land, he freely declared that he would have had 
enough if he had retained only the two degrees which would have 
remained after allowing Baltimore all that he claimed. But he was 
imwilling to give up the rapidly growing city and colonies which he 
had founded, and more than all to yield possession of Delaware Bay 
and ri\er, his only means of communication with the ocean. He 
foresaw that if the two shores of tliis noble stream were in the pos- 
session of hostile States, how easy it would be to make harrassiiig 
regulations governing its navigation. But Penn was a man of just 
and benevolent instincts, and he was willing to make reasonable con- 
cessions and compromises to secure peace and satisfy his neighbor in 
Maryland. Accordingly, at one of their interviews Penn asked Balti- 
more what he would ask per square mile for the territory south of 
the Delaware and reaching to the ocean, though he already had the 
deed for this same land from the Duke of York, secured by patent 
from the King, and Baltimore's own patent expressly provided that 
he could not claim territory already settled. But this generous offer 
to repurchase what he already owned, was rejected by the proprietor 
of Maryland. 

Penn now saw but too plainly that there was no hope of coming 
to a peaceful and equitable composition of their differences in this 
country, and that if he M'ould secure a decision in his interest he had 
no time to lose in repairing to London, and personally defending his 
rights before the royal commission. There is no question but that 
he came to this decision with unfeigned regret. His colony was 
prosperous, the settlers were happy and contented in their new homes, 
the country itself was all that he could wish and he no doubt fondly 
hoped to live and die in the midst of his people. But the demand 
for his return to England was imperative, and he prepared to obey 
it. He accordingly empowered the Provincial Council, of which 
Thomas Lloyd was president, to act in his stead, and on the 6th of 
June, 1684, sailed for England. From on board the vessel, before 


leaving the Delaware, he sent back an address to the council, in 
which he unbosoms himself freely : "Dear PViends: — My love and 
m}' life is to you and with you; and no water can quench it, nor dis- 
tance wear it out, nor brirfg it to an end. I have been with you, 
cared over you, and served you with unfeigned love; and you are 
beloved of me and near to me bej'ond utterance. * * * Ob, 
that you would eye Him in all, tiirough all, and above all the works 
of your hands; for to a blessed end are you brought hither. * * * 
You are now come to a quiet land; provoke not the Lord to trouble 
it, and now that liberty and authority are with you, and jn your 
hands, let the government be upon his shoulders, in all your spirits; 
that you may rule for Him, under whom the princes of this world 
will one day esteem it their honor to govern and serve in their 
places. * * * And thou Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of 
this province, named before thou wert born, what love, what service 
and travail has thei'e been to bring thee forth, and preserve thee from 
such as would abuse and defile thee!" 

Upon his arrival in England, on the 6tli of October, he took an 
early opportunity to pay his respects to the King, and the Duke of 
York, " who received me," he says, " very graciously, as did the min- 
isters very civilly. Yet I found things in general with another face 
than I left them — sour and stern, and resolved to hold the reins of 
power with a stitfer hand than before." In a letter to Lloyd, of the 
16tli of March, 1685, he says: "The King (Charles I.) is dead, and 
the Duke succeeds peaceably. He was well on the First-day night, 
being the iirst of February so called. About eight next morning, as 
he sat down to shave, his head twitched both ways or sides, and he 
gave a shriek and fell as dead, and so remained some hours. They 
opportunely blooded and cupped him, and plied his head with red 
hot frying-pans. He returned and continued till sixth day noon, but 
mostly in great tortures. Pie seemed very penitent, asking pardon 
of all, even the poorest subject he had wronged. * * * He was 
an able man for a divided and troubled kingdom. The present King 
was proclaimed about three o'clock that day." 

The new king being a personal friend of Fenn, he had hopes of favor 
at court, and did secure many indulgences for his oppressed Friends 
in the kingdom; but the ministry was bitterly hostile to dissenters, 
and he found his controversy with Lord 'Baltimore very diflScult of 
management. Fenn now pressed his controversy with Lord Balti- 
more to a final settlement, and in November, 1685, a decision was 
made in the English court, compromising the claims of the two 
Governors, and providing that the portion of territory between the 
Delaware and Chesapeake baj's should be divided by a line through 
the centre, and that the portion bordering upon the Delaware should 
belong to Fenn, and that upon the Chesapeake to Lord Baltimore. 


This settled the dispute for tlie time; bat upon attempting tu measure 
and run the dividing line, the language of the act was so indefinite 
that tlie attempt was abandoned, and the old controversy was again 
renewed. JN'ot wishing to press his suit at once, while tlie memory 
of the decision already made was green, Lord Baltimore suffered the 
controversy to rest, and each parly laid claim to the territory ad- 
judged to him in theory by the royal decree, but without any division 

On the 28th of April, 1707, the goverment of Maryland presented 
to the Queen an address asking that an order should be made requiring 
the authorities of the two colonies, Maryland and Pennsylvania, " to 
run the division lines and ascertain the boundaries between them, 
for the ease of the inhabitants, who have been much distressed by 
their uncertainty. It would appear that the controversy, — after 
William Penn in 1685 had secured the lands upon the right bank of 
the Delaware, — was left to work out its own cure, as a deliiiite 
agreement was entered into in the life time of the founder that tlie 
authorities in neither colony should disturb the settlers in the other, 
and as the colonies were substantially located originally with a dividing 
line where the line was subsequently run, the portion of territory on 
this disputed belt which each was to give up settled itself, and only 
needed to be specitically defined, surveyed and marked. Repeated 
conferences were held, and lines run ^ but nothing satisfactory was 
accomplished until the -tth of July 1760, when Frederick, Lord Baron 
of Baltimore, and Thomas, and Kichard Penn, sons of the founder, 
entered into an elaborate and formal treaty by which the limits of the 
two provinces were provided. The boundary lines were made mathe- 
matically exact, so that there could by no possiljility be further con- 
troversy, provided surveyors were found who had the skill and the 
instruments necessary for determining them. 

The line was to commence at Cape llenlopen on the Atlantic 
coast. This cape as originally located was placed on the point oppo- 
site Cape May at the entrance of Delaware Bay, and Cape Heni-ietta 
was fitteen miles down the coast. By an error in the map used by 
the parties, the names of two capes had been interchanged, and 
Ileidopen was placed fifteen miles down the coast. At this mis- 
taken point, therefore, the division commenced. When this was 
discovei'ed, a complaint was made l)efore Lord Ilardvvick; but in a 
formal decree, promulgated in 1750, it was declared " that Cape 
Henlopen ought to be deemed and taken to be situated at the .place 
where the same is laid down and described in the maps or plans an- 
nexed to the said articles to be situated." 

This point of beginning having been settled the dividing lines 
were to be substantially as follows: Commencing at Henlopen on 
the Atlantic, a due westerly line was to be run to the shores of the 


Chesapeake Bay, found to be 69 miles 298 perches. At the middle of 
this line a line was to be run in a direction northwesterly till it should 
form a tangent to the circumference of a circle drawn with a radius 
of twelve miles from the spire of the Court House in New Castle. 
From this tangent point a line was to be run due north until it should 
reach a meridian line 15 miles south of the most southern extremity 
of Philadelphia, and the point thus reached should be the northeast 
corner of Maryland. If the due north line from the tangent point 
should cut oii" a segment of a circle from the twelve mile circuit, 
then the slice thus cut off should be adjudged a part of New Castle 
County, and consequently should belong to Pennsylvania. The 
corner-stone at the extremity of the due north line from the tangent 
point was to be the beginning of the now famous Mason and Dixon's 
line, and was to extend due west to the western limit of Maryland. 

This settled the long dispute so far as it could be on paper, but 
to execute its provisions in practice was more difficult. The primeval 
forest covered the greater part of the line, stubborn mountains stood 
in the waj', and instruments were imperfect and liable to variation. 
Commissioners were appointed to survey, and establish the lines in 
1739, but a controversy having arisen, whether' the measurement 
should be horizontal or superficial, the commission broke up and noth- 
ing more was done till 1760, when loc'al surveyors were appointed, 
John Lukens and Archibald McLean on the part of Pennsylvania, 
Thomas Garnett and Jonathan Hall for Maryland, who commenced 
to lay off the lines as provided in the indenture of agreement entered 
into by the proprietaries. Their lirst care was to clear away the 
vistas or narrow openings eight yards wide through the forest. 
Having ascertained the middle point of the Henlopen line, they ran 
an experimental line north until opposite New Castle, when they 
measured the radius of twelve miles and fixed the tangent point. 
There were so many perplexing conditions, that it required much 
time to perfect their calculations and plant their bounds. After these 
surveyors had been three years at their work, the proprietaries in 
England, thinking the reason of their long protracted labors 
indicative of a lack of scientific knowledge on their part, or lack of 
suitable instruments, employed, on the 4th of August, 1763, two 
surveyors and mathematicians to go to America and conduct the 
work. They brought with them the best instruments procurable at 
that time — an excellent sector " six feet radius which magnified 
twenty-five times, the property of tlon. Mr. Penn, the first which 
ever had the plumb line passing over and bisecting a point at the 
centre of the instrument." They obtained from the Royal Society a 
brass standard measure, and standard chains. These surveyors were 
none other than Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, names forever 
blazoned upon the political history of the United States, magnates at 

r -7. 

— *^ 

-^^Sd^ ;^.^^^^. 



home, but no more skilled nor more accurate in their work, over 
mountains and valleys, through the tangled and interminable forests 
of the American continent, than our own fellow-citizens, McLean 
and Lukens, and Garnett and Hall, who had preceded them. 

The daily held notes of Mason and Dixon commence November 
loth, 1763; and the tirst entry is, "Arrived at Philadelphia;" 16th, 
" Attended meeting of the commissioners appointed to settle the 
bounds of Pennsylvania;" 22d to 28th, "Landed and set up instru- 
ments, and found they had received no damage;" December 5th, " Di- 
rected a carpenter to build an observatoj-y near the point settled by 
the commissioners to be the south point of the city of Philadelphia," 
which was to be one of the initial points of the line. When the 
observatory was finished the instruments were mounted and observa- 
tions taken to fi.x: the latitude of the place. That the reader may 
observe the painstaking accuracy with which these surveyors con 
ducted their work, there is subjoined a table of one night's observa- 













^ a --^ 







.a o 

q M 0) 







CO ^ 

03 . 



h ' 

. , ,.. „ |, „ 

o , ,, 



-5' 31. 

cr. a |Cygni 

20 34 



(8 36 L 
•/8 20 " 



30 I6.O1N. faint. 

V Androm 



( ' 48+L 
(8 7 j" 



14 49.3 


B Persei 


( 8 33i^L 
■(8 7 " 


5 36.3 


8 Do. 



451^ „ 
7 38 " 



4 15.5 





( 7 371.^ 3 
■( 10 43 "* 



47 18.5 


B Aurige 



(11 14J^o 
"(8 41 J^^ 



57 9.3 




7 19 



(8 9-1 
^6 ^il4 



33 31.8 N. 

Cha; Mason. 
Jere: Dixon. 

Nearly one whole year was spent in ascertaining the middle point 
of the Henlopen line across the peninsula, and running the line 
northward to find the tangent point on the twelve mile periphery 
from the steeple of New Castle Court House, and on the 13th of 
November, 1764, they make the following entry in their notes, 


" From data in minute of ye 27th of August, we computed how far 
the true tangent line would be distant from the Post (shown us to be 
the tangent point), and found it would not pass one inch to the west- 
ward or eastward. On measuring the angle of our last line, with 
the direction from New Castle, it was so near a I'ight angle that on 
a mean from our lines, the above mentioned post is the true tangent 
point." Thns it was shown that with all the difficulties our native 
surveyors had to contend with, the English surveyors found, after a 
year's carefi^l labor, that the work of their predecessors was correct. 

On the 18th of June, 1765, Mason and Dixon make this entry 
in their notes, "We set seven stones, viz: one at the tangent point, 
four in the periphery of the circle round New Castle, one in the 
north line from tangent point, and one at the intersection of the north 
line (from ye Tangent Point) and the Parallel 15 Miles South of the 
Southermost Point of the City of Philadelphia, The Gent: Com- 
missioners of both provinces present." On the 27tli of October, 
17(d5, the ibllowing entry was made, " Capt. Shelby again went with 
us to the summit of the mountain (when the air was very clear), 
and shewed us the Northermost bend of the Kiver Potowmack at 
the Conoloways; from which we judge the line will pass about two 
miles tu the North of the said River. From hence we could see the 
Alleghany Mountains for many miles, and judge it by its appearance 
to be about 50 miles distance in the direction of the Line." On the 
26th of September, 1766, the following important entry was made, 
" From any eminence in the Line, where 15 or 20 Miles of the Yisto 
can be seen (of which there are manj^) the said line, or Visto, very 
apparently shews itself to form a parallel of Northern Latitude. The 
line in measured horizontal: the Hills and the Mountains with a 16^ 
Feet Level. And beside the Mile Posts we have set Posts in the 
true Line (marked W on the west side) all along the Line opposite 
the Stationary Points, where the Sector and Transit Instruments 
stood. The said Posts stand in the middle of the Visto, which in 
general is about 8 yards wide. The number of Posts in the West 
Line is 303." 

It will be understood that this " visto" or vista pi-operly, was a 
straight east and west belt of eight yards in width, cleared by the 
axmen through the dense forest for the purpose of the survey. The 
view from these eminences to which they i-efer, mnst have been 
grand, the forest for the most part resting undisturbed, as it had 
been for ages, the two sides of the clearing seeming in the distance 
to approach each other and join, the silver current of the river show- 
ing liere and there, and the noisy brook tumbling down the moun- 
tain side. In the spi-ing-time, the surveyors were often awakened in 
the morning by the gobbling of the wild turkeys, and tlic rattle of 


their chain chimed melodiously with the distant dnunming of the 

On the 14th to 18th of July, 1767, they make the following 
entries: "At 168 miles, 78 chains is the top of the great dividing 
Ridge of tlie Alleghany Mountains. At 169 m. (]() cli., crossed a 
small branch of the Little Yochio Geni. The head of Saxage River 
south, distant about a mile. This day (16th) we were joined by 14 
Indians deputied by the chiefs of the Six IS'ations to go with us on 
the line. With them came Mr. Hugh Crawford, Interpreter. At 
171 m. 5 ch., crossed a branch of ye Little Yc^chio Ceni, 171 m. 63 
ch., crossed do. the last time (in the whole 6 or 7 times)." August 
17, " At this station, Mr. John Green, one of the Chiefs of the Mo- 
hock Nation, and his Nephew, left us, in order to return to their own 
country." August 31, "At 204 m. 11 ch., crossed a small run run- 
ning southward. Here, by information, the Big Meadows are north, 
distant about 5 miles." " At 217 m. 13 ch. is the foot of the Laurel 
Hill, on the west side." "At 219 m. 22 ch. 25 Iks. crossed the Cheat 
river obliquely." "At 222 m. 24 ch. 12 Iks. is the top of a very high 
Bank, at the foot of which is the River Manaungahela," September 
27th are the following notes: " Aljout a mile and a half north of 
where the Sector stands, the Rivers ('heat and Manaungahela joyn. 
The mouth of Redstone creek, by information, bears due north from 
this station, distant 25 miles. Fort Pit is supposed to be due north 
distant about 50 miles." September 30, " At 222 m. 34 chains, 50 
Links, the east bank of ye River Manaungahela at 222 m. 40 ch. 
25 links the west bank, breadth about 5 chaines." 

In all the work of the surveyors, the Indians had preserved an 
attitude of awe and superstitious dread. They could not understand 
what all this peering into the heavens, and always in the dead of the 
night (as all astronomical observations must be made at that time of 
night when the particular star desired came into view) portended. 
They looked with special distrust on those curious little tubes cov- 
ered with glass, through which the surveyors stood patiently watch- 
ing somebody in the far off heavens. The Six Nations, who were 
supreme in these parts, had given permission by treaty to run this 
line; but when they heard of the methods adopted, we may well 
imagine their speculations in the native council chambers, in the 
deep shadows of the wood, touching the purpose of these nightly 
vigils. They entertained a suspicion that the surveyors were hold- 
ing communication with spirits in the skies, who were pointing out 
the track of their line. So much had their fears become wrought 
upon, that when Mason and Dixon had reached the summit of the 
Little Alleghany, the Six ^^'ations gave notice upon the departure of 
their agents, that the survey must cease at that point. But, by the 
adroit representations of Sir William Johnson, the Six Nations were 

L OF C. 


induced to allow the survey to proceed. No further interruption 
was experienced until they reached the bottom of a deep, dark val- 
ley on the border of a sti-eam, marked Dunkard Creek, on their map, 
where they came upon an ancient Indian war-path winding through 
the dense forest; and here the representatives of the Six Nations de- 
clared that this was the limit of the ground which their commission 
covered, and refused to proceed further. In the language of the 
field notes, " This day the Chief of the Indians which joined us on 
the 16th of July, informed us that the above mentioned War Path 
was the extent of his commission from the Chiefs of the Six Na- 
tions, that he should go with us to the line, and that he wonld not 
proceed one step further." 

For some days previous, the Indians had been giving intimations 
of trouble, and when arrived at the banks of the Manaungahela, 
" twenty-six of our Men left us," say the notes. " They M'ould not 
pass the River for fear' of the Shawnees and Delaware Indians. But 
we prevailed upon 15 ax men to proceed with us; and with them we 
continued the Line Westward." There wonld be no safety to the 
surveyors without the Indian escort, as they would be at the mercy 
of wandering bands of savages, who knew not the meaning of the 
word compassion or mercy; but who could dash the brains out of a 
helpless infant, and tear the scalp from the head of a trembling 
and defenceless female with as keen a relish as they ever sat down to 
a breakfast of hot turtle soup. Therefore, there was no alternative; 
and although they were now within 36 miles of the end of the line, 
and in a few days more would have reached the limit, they were 
forced to desist: and here, on the margin of Dunkard Creek, on the 
line of this famous Avar-path, in Greene Connty, Mason and Dixon 
set up their last monumental stone, 233 m, 13 ch. 68 links from the 
initial point of this now famous line which bears their name, and 
ended the survey. Eeturning to Philadelphia they made their final 
report to the commissioners, and' received an honorable discharge on 
the 26th of December, 1767. 

The woi'k of those surveyors was tedious and toilsome, being 
conducted in the primeval forest through which a continuous vista, 
twenty-five feet wide, had to be cleared as they went, and in which 
they were obliged to camp out in all weathers of a changeable cli- 
mate. To keep on a due east and west line they were exclusively 
guided by the stars, and their rest at night must constantly be 
broken by these necessary vigils. 

By the terms of the agreement of 1732, and the order of the 
Lord High Chancellor Ilardwick, every fifth mile of this line was 
to be marked by a stone monument engraved with the arms of the 
Proprietaries, and the intermediate miles by smaller stones marked 
by a P on the side facing Pennsylvania, and an M on the side facing 


Maryland. These .stones were some twelve inches square, and 
four feet long, and were cut and engraved in England, and sent 
over ready for setting. The tixingthe exact location of these stones 
gave no little vexation to the surveyors. This formal marking, as 
directed, was observed till the line reached Sidelong Hill; but here, 
all wheel transportation ceasing for lack of roads, the further mark- 
ing was by the "visto" "eight or nine yards wide," "and marks 
were set up on the tops of all the Pligh liidges and Mountains." Their 
entry on the 19th of November, 1767, was " Snow twelve or four- 
teen inches deep; made a pile of stones on the top of Savage Moun- 
tain, or the great dividing ridge of the Alleghany Mountains. 
West of this mountain to ye end of ye line, the Mile Posts are five 
feet in length, twelve inches square and set two feet in the ground, 
and round them are heaped Earth and Stone eight feet Diameter at 
bottom and two and one half feet high." At tiie end of their line 
in Greene County, at Dunkard Creek, they say, "we set up a Post 
marked W on the West side, and heaped round it earth, etc., three 
yards and a half in Diameter at Bottom, and five feet High — the 
heap nearly coiaical," making an extra large mound here, as if to 
emphasize it, and make a period to their work, until it should be re- 
sumed again, but which proved to be the final termination of their 
labors. Mason and Dixon were paid twenty- one shillings per day 
for their labor, the entire expense to Pennsylvania being £34,200, 
or $171,000. 

Nothing further was done towards completing the survey of this 
line until 1779, in the very midst of the Revolutionary war. So far 
as Maryland was concerned the controversy Was at an end, as its 
western boundary termimxtes with the meridian marking the source 
of the Potomac River. But on the above mentioned date, Patrick 
Henry, then Governor of Virginia, addressed a letter to the Governor 
of Pennsylvania, and enclosed a resolution of the House of Del- 
egates of that State respecting commissioners to be appointed for 
fixing the boundary between Virginia and Pennsylvania. But, as this 
opens an entirely new subject of controversy, involving the inter- 
pretation of the Virginia Charter, and the rights of the Ohio Land 
Company, the consideration of this topic will be reserved to the proper 
place in the narrative. 



Fkench Claim tiik Extike Vall-ey of the Mississiri'i — The Peace 
OF Ryswick — The Peace of Utrecht — The Fia-e Nations Sub- 
ject TO the English — Feance Still Confirmed in Possession 
OF THE Mississippi Valley' — Claim of the English — The Peace 

PANY" Formed — The Boy Washington — Ohio Company to 
Locate 200,000 Acres — French Jealous — Send Celeron to 
BuEY- Plates — Pass Over Chataunqua Lake — The Route by 
Peesque Isle and Le Boeuf Subsequently- A7)opted — Indians 
ON the Watch — Plate Bueied at Waeren — Insceiption Upon 
Plate — Plate Dug Up and Caeeied to Sie William Johnson 
— Go^'EENOR Clinton Communicates Contents to Lords of 
Teade, and to Governor PLvmilton — Speech of Indian Chief- 
tain and Inteepretion of Inscription — Reply' of Chieftain 
— Celeeon Plants Another Plate at Indian God — Anothee at 
LoGSTcnvN — Expels English Teadees — Sends Lettee to Gov- 
ernor Hamilton Waening Him — Othee Plates at Mouth of 
Muskingum, Geeat Kanawha, and Geeat Miami — Ascends the 
Miami and Down the Maumee — Plates Found — Peopeietary' 
Disturbed — Notes of Ceoghan — BuiLDixci a Fort Contem- 

AS has been previously observed, it was held as a principle of the 
law of nations that the discovery of and occupancy of the mouth 
of a river, entitles the discoverer to all the land drained by that 
river and its tributaries, even to their remotest sources. By reason 
of the discoveries of Marquette and La Salle, and the formal posses- 
sion taken of the Mississippi River by them under the French fl&g, 
France laid claim to all the territory drained by this river. Had 
this claim been allowed all that portion of New York, Pennsylvania 
and Virginia lying west of the water-shed formed by the Alleghany 
Mountains, would have been given up to the French, and Greene 
County would have been settled by a Fi-ench speaking people, the 
subjects of the French King. 

In the early settlement of the North American continent b}' 
Europeans, the French showed by far the greater spirit and enter- 
prise, and in numbers were superior. In 1688, France commenced 


a wasting war against England and her allies, which was finally con- 
cluded by the treaty of Ryswick, by which France was confirmed in 
the possession of Hudson I'ay, Canada and the valley of the Mis- 
sissipjsi; but it was provided that neither party should interfere with 
the Indian allies of the other. Both parties laid claim to the Six 
Nations as allies. Jesuit priests were active in endeavoring to win 
these Indians over to the French, which induced the New York legis- 
lature, in 1700, to jiass an act " to hang every popish priest that 
should come voluntarily into the province." In 1G98, through the 
ofiices of Count Ponchartrain, D'Iberville was appointed governor, 
and his brother, De Bienville, intendant of Louisiana, and were sent 
with a colony direct to the mouth of the Mississippi, to make a settle- 
ment there. 

Peace between France and England was of short duration, and in 
1701 war broke out between them, which was waged along the 
border in America with sanguinary ferocity and cruelty. It was 
concluded by the peace of Utrecht, in 1713, by which England 
obtained control of the fisheries, Hudson Bay and its borders, New- 
foundland and Nova Scotia, or Acadia, and it was expressly stipulated 
that " France should not molest the Five Nations, subject to the 
dominion of Great Britain, whose possessions embraced the whole 
of New York and Pennsylvania, though the French did not allow 
them that much territory. But the valley of the Mississippi still re- 
mained to the French, the English embassadors not being alive to the 
importance of this magnificent stretch of country. William Penn 
had advised that the St. Lawrence should be made the boundary line 
to the north and that the English claim should include the great 
valley of the continent. It "will make a glorious country" said 
Penn. The failure to fix definitely the bounds, caused another half 
century of bitter contention and bloody strife, in which the ignorant 
savages were used as agents by either party. In 1748, a four years' 
war was concluded between the old enemies, French and English, 
by the peace of Aix La-Chapelle, by which England was confirmed 
in her possessions in North America. lUit the boundaries were still 

France claimed the Mississippi valley in its entirety; that is, all 
the land drained by the tributaries of the great river. The British 
crown claimed the territory on the uppei- Ohio on the ground of a 
treaty executed at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1744, at which the 
share paid by Virginia was £220 in goods, and that paid by Mary- 
land £200 in gold. On this purchase the claim of the Iroqnois as 
allies, and the claim of the settlements on the Atlantic coast of ter- 
ritory westward from ocean to ocean, rested the right of the English 
to this imperial valley. The fact is, however, that the party which 
could show most strengtli in men and money was destined to hold 


it. By the middle of tlie eigliteentli century the English, in respect 
to force, had greatly the advantage. As early as 1688 a census of 
French North America showed a population of 11,249, while the 
English population at this time was estimated at a quarter of a 
million. During the next half century both nationalities increased 
rapidly, but the' English mucli the faster. 

Previous to the treaty of Chapelle adventurous traders from 
Pennsylvania had explored the passes of tlie Alleghany Mountains, 
and pushed on to the borders of the Monongahela and the Ohio. 
By the good offices of the colonial governors of JSTew York and 
Pennsylvania, the Six Nations had been kept in firm alliance witli 
the English. The French liad sought to win them over to their 
power, and had distributed many showy presents. Thinking that 
the simple natives would never know the difference, the French had 
made a large gift of bright looking hatchets, but which, instead of 
being made of fine steel, were only soft iron. The Indians soon dis- 
covered the diiference, and were more incensed than ever against the 
French. Lest the latter, who were active and vigilant, might gain 
an advantage on the Ohio, Conrad "Weiser was sent ont to Logstown, 
a few miles below Pittsburg on the Ohio, in 1748, with valuable 
and usefid presents to win the favor of the natives. It was seen, 
however, that the valuable trade with the Indians at this time was 
. in the hands "of unprincipled men, half civilized, half savage, who, 
through the Iroquois, had from the earliest period penetrated to the 
lakes of Canada, and competed everywhere with the French for skins 
and furs." More with the purpose of controlling and legitimizing 
this trade than of effecting permanent settlements, it was proposed in 
the Virginia colony to form a great company which should hold 
lands on the Ohio, build forts for trading posts, import English 
goods, and establish regular traffic with the Indians. Accordingly, 
Thomas Lee, president of the council of Virginia, and twelve other 
Virginians, among whom was John Hanbury, a wealthy London 
merchant, formed in 1749 what was known as the " Ohio Company," 
and applied to the English government for a grant of land for this 
purpose. The request was favorably received, and the Legislature 
of Virginia was authorized to grant to the petitioners a half million 
acres of land within the bounds of that colony, " west of the Allegh- 
anies, between the Monongahela and Kanawha rivers; though part 
of the land might be taken up north of the Ohio should it be deemed 

It was at about this period, in March, 1748, that a boy of sixteen 
years set out from the abodes of civilization with his theodolite to 
survey wild lands in the mountains and valleys of the Virginia 
colony. In a letter to one of his yoiing friends lie says: "I have not 
slept above three or four nights in a bed, but after walking a good 

f^e*^ M &c^/ H (J^-'^m/ 



deal all day 1 have lain down before the fire upon a little straw or 
fodder, or a bear skin, whichever was to be had, with man, wife and 
children, like dogs and cats; and happy is he who gets tlie liertli 
nearest the lire." Tins yoiitli, tlius early inured to hardsliip and 
toil, was none other than George Washington, destined to great 
labors for his country, and a life of patriotism and unbending devo- 
tion scarcely matched in the annals of mankind. 

A condition of the grant of the " Ohio Company" was that two 
hundred thousand acres should be located at once. This was to be 
held for ten years free of rent, ])rovided the company would put 
there one hundred families within seven years, and build a tort 
sufficient to protect the settlement. Tiiis the company prepared to 
do, and sent a ship to London for a cargo of goods suited to the 
Indian trade. Upon the death of Thomas Lee, the president of the 
Ohio Company, wliicli soon took place, Lawrence Washington, a 
brother of George, was given the •' cliief management" of the com- 
pany, a man of enliglitened views anti generous spirit. 

But the organization of tliis company, and the preparations to 
take possession of the Ohio country, did not escape the vigilant eye 
of the French, and if they would liold the territory claimed by them 
they must move at once, or the enterprising English would be tliere, 
and" would have sucli a footliold as would render it impossible to 
rout them. 

Accordingly, early in 1749, the Marquis de la Galisonniere, 
Governor General of Canada, dispatched Celeron de Bienville with a 
party of some two hundred French and fifty Indians to take formal 
possession of the Ohio country, the Alleghany being designated by 
the French by that name. Fatlfer Bonnecamps acted as cha{)lain, 
mathematician and historian of the party. The expedition started 
on the loth of June, 171U, from La Chine on the St. Lawrence. 
Passing up the river through the net work of islands and along the 
shore of Ontario to Niagara Falls, they commenced the labor of 
debarking and transporting their entire outfit around the cataract. 
In this work tliey were engaged for nearly a week; but by the 13th 
of July they were again afioat on the waters of Lake Erie. At a 
point nearest to Chautauqua Lake they landed and commenced trans- 
porting their boats and stores overland a distance of eight miles, and 
over a water-shed more than eight hundred feet above the waters of 
Lake Erie. The party was accompanied by the two sons of Joncaire 
(Jean Coeur) who had lived with the Indians in this locality, and 
knew every path and water course. To them Celeron looked for 
guidance in this novel voyage over land. When surveyors had 
marked the track, pioneers cut and cleared a road, over which the 
whole was transported to the shores of Chautauqua, wiiere they again 
embarked, and passing down the Conewango Creek, the outlet ot the 


lake, made their way to its confluence with the Allegheny River, near 
the town of Warren. Here tliey paused to commence the work of 
possessing the country. 

It may be proper to observe in this connection tliat this experi- 
ence of reaching the Chautauqua Lake with all their impedimenta 
over the high ridge was so toilsome that in future expeditions they 
abandoned this route and Avent by the way of Presque Isle (Erie) 
and Waterford, where tliey struck French Creek or the Venango 
Kiver, down which they passed to the Allegheny Kiver at Franklin. 
In the deposition of one Stephen Coflin before Colonel Johnson, of 
New York, he says: " From Niagara fort we set off by water, being 
April, and arrived at Chadakoin (Chautauqua) on Lake Erie, where 
they were ordered to fell timber and prepare it for building a fort 
there according to the Governor's instructions; but M. Morang, 
coming up with five hundred men and twenty Indians, put a stop to 
erecting a fort at that place, by reason of his not liking thfe situa- 
tion, and the river of Chadakoins being too shallow to carry any 
craft with provisions to Belle Riviere. The deponent says there 
arose a warm debate between Messieurs Babeer and Morang there- 
on, the first insisting on bnilding the fort there agreeable to his in- 
structions, otlierwise on Morang's giving him an instrument in 
writing to satisfy the Governor in that point, which Morang did, 
and then Monsieur Mercie, who was both commissary and engineer, 
to go along said lake and look for a good situation, which he found 
in three days. They were then all ordered thither; they fell to work 
and built a square fort of chestnnt logs, and called it Fort Le Presque 
Isle. * '■•' '•'" As soon as the fort was finished they marched 
southward, cutting a wagon road through a fine level country twenty- 
one miles |15J to the river aux Boeufs [Waterford]." Thus, thougli 
the distance to Chautauqua Lake was not so great as to Waterford, 
the road to tlie latter was " through a fine level country" and not 
over a rugged ridge as at the former- 
Celeron and his party had not left the shores of Chautauqua, where 
he had encamped, probably in the vicinity of Lakewood, before he 
discovered that his movements were being watched by the natives. 
Parties were sent out to intercept them and cnltivate their friend- 
ship, but were unsuccessful. Having reached the Allegheny River at 
or near Warren, as we have seen, Celeron with religious ceremony 
took possession of tlie river and country, and buried a leaden plate, 
on the south bank of the Allegheny River, opposite a little island at 
the mouth of the Conewango, in token of French possession. Upon 
this plate was the following inscription in French: " L'an 1749 dv 
regne de Lovis XV Roy de France novs Celoron commandant don 
de tachement envoie par monsieur le mis de la Galissoniere com- 
mandant General de la nonvelle France povr retablir la tranquillite 


dans quelques villages sauvages de ces cantons avous euterre cette 
plaque a leutru de 1' riviere Chinodabichetha le 18 Aonst pres de la 
riviere i)yo aiitrement Belle riviere pour nionuinent du renovvelle- 
inent de possession que nous avous pris de la ditte riviere Oyo et de 
toutes celles (|ui }' tombnt et de toves les terres des deux cotes jusque 
aux sources des dittes rivies vinsi que out Jovy ou du Jovir les pre- 
cedents Roys de France et quils sisont niaintenus par les armes et 
par les trattes specialenient parceuxde Risvuick d' Utrcht et d' Aix- 

In English, " In the year 1749, of the reign of Louis XIV., King 
of France, We Celeron, commander of a detachment sent by Monsieur 
the Marquis de la Galissoniere, Governor General of New France, to 
re-establish tran(juility in some Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate of lead at the conliuence of the Ohio with the Chau- 
tauqua, this 29th day of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise Belle 
Riviere, as a monument of the renewal of the possession we have 
taken of the said river Ohio, and of all those which emj)ty into it, 
and of all the lands on both sides as far as the sources of the said 
river, as enjoyed, or ought to have been enjoyed by the King of 
France preceding, and as they have there maintained themselves by 
arms and by treaties, especially those of Ryswick, Utrecht and Aix- 

All the men and otHcers were drawn up in military order when 
the plate was buried, and Celeron proclaimed in a strong tone, " Vive 
le Roil" and declared that possession of the country was now taken 
in behalf of the French. A plate with the lilies of France inscribed 
thereon was nailed to a tree near by. All this officious ceremony 
did not escape the keen eyes of the evei- vigilant and superstitious 
natives, and scarcely were Celeron and his party well out of sight in 
their course down the Allegheny, before that leaden missive with the 
mysterious characters engraved thereon was pulled from its place of 
concealment, and fast runners were on their way to the home of the 
Iroquois chiefs, who immediately dispatched one of their number to 
take it to Sir William Johnson, at Albany. Mr. O. H. Marshall, in 
his admirable historical address on tliis subject, says: "The first of 
the leaden plates was brought to the attention of the public by Gov. 
George Clinton to the Lords of Trade in London, dated New York, 
December 19, 1750, in which he states that he would send to their 
Lordships in two or three weeks a plate of lead full of writing which 
some of the upper nations of Indians stole from Jean Coeur, the 
French interpreter at Niagara, on his way to the River Ohio, which 
river, and all the lands thereabouts, the French claim, as will appear 
by said writing. He further states 'that the lead plates gave the 
Indians so much uneasiness that they immediately dispatched some 
of the Cayuga chiefs to him with it, saying that their only reliance 


was on him, and earnestly begged lie would coram nnicate the con- 
tents to them, which he had done, much to their satisfaction and the 
interests of the English.' The Governor concludes by saying that 
'the contents of the plate may be of great importance in clearing up 
the encroachments which the French have made on the British empire 
in America.' The plate was delivered to Colonel, afterward Sir Will- 
iam Johnson, on the 4th of December, 1750 (49), at his residence on 
the Mohawk, by a Cayuga sachem." 

Governor Clinton also wrote to Governor Hamilton of Pennsyl- 
vania, as shown by the minutes of council, as follows: "* * * I 
send you a copy of an inscription on a leaden plate stolen from Jean 
Coeur, some months since, in the Senecas' country, as he was going 
to the river Ohio, which plainly demonstrates the French scheme by 
the exorbitant claims therein mentioned; also a copy of a Cayuga 
Sachem's speech to Colo. Johnson, with his reply." The Cayuga 
sachem's speech was as follows: "Brother Corlear and War-ragh-i- 
ya-ghey ! I am sent here by the Five ISTations with a piece of writing 
which the Senecas, our brethren, got by some artifice from Jean 
Coeur, earnestly beseeching you will let us know what it means, and 
as we put all our confidence in you, onr brotlicr, we hope yon will 
explain it ingeniously to us." (The speaker here delivered the square 
leaden plate and a wampum belt, and proceeded.) "I am ordered 
further to acquaint yon that Jean Coeur, the French interpreter, 
when on his journey this last summer to Ohio River, spoke thus to 
the Five Nations and others in our alliance: 'Children: — Your 
Father, having, out of a tender regard for you, considered the great 
difficulties you labor under by carrying your goods, canoes, &c., over 
the great carrying place of Niagara, has desired me to acquaint you 
that, in order to ease you all of so much trouble for the future, he is 
resolved to build a house at the other end of said carrying place, 
which he will furnish with all necessaries requisite for your use.' 
* * * He also told us that he was on his way to the Ohio River, 
where he intended to stay three years ; * * * that he was sent 
thither to build a house there; also at the carrying place between 
said river Ohio and Lake Erie (Presque Isle and Waterford), where 
all the western Indians should be supplied with whatever goods they 
may have occasion for, and not be at the trouble and loss of time of 
going so far to mai-ket as iisual (meaning Oswego). After this he 
desired to know our opinion of the affair, and begged our consent to 
build in said places. He gave us a large belt of wampum, thereon 
desiring our answer, which we told him we would take some time to 
consider of." 

Assuring the Indian chieftains of the unalterable friendship of 
the English towards their people, and the enmity and duplicity of tlie 
French, of which many examples were cited, Sir William Johnson 


said: "Their scheme now laid against you and yours, at a time 
when they are feeding you up with line promises of serving you 
several shapes, is worse than all the rest, as will appear by their own 
writing on this plate." Here Johnson translated the French writing 
on the plate, commenting as he proceeded on the force and intent of 
the several parts, and explaining the purpose of the French in bury- 
ing the plate. Proceeding he said, "This is an affair of the greatest 
importance to you, as nothing less than all your lands and best hunt- 
ing places are aimed at, with a view of secluding 3'ou entirely from 
us and the rest of your brethren, viz: the Philadelphians, the Vir- 
ginians, who can always supply you with the necessaries of life at a 
much lower rate than the French ever did or could, and under whose 
protection you are and ever will be safer, and better served in every 
respect, than under the French. These and a hundred other stib- 
stantial reasons I could give you to convince you that the French 
are your implacable enemies; but, as I told you before, the very in- 
strument you now lirought me of their own writing is sufficient of 
itself to convince the world of their villainous designs; therefore I 
need not be at the trouble, so shall only desire that you and all tlie 
nations in alliance with you seriously consider your own interest and 
by no means submit to the impending danger which now thi'eatens 
you, the only way to prevent which is to turn Jean Coeur away im- 
mediately from Ohio, and tell him that the French shall neither 
build there, nor at the carrying place of Niagara, nor iiave a foot of 
land more from you. Brethren, what I now say I expect and insist 
upon it being taken notice of and sent to the Indians of the Ohio, 
that they may immediately know the vile designs of the P^rench." 

Having presented a bell of wampum, by way of emphasis, and to 
convince the natives of the honesty and fidelity with which he spoke, 
the sachem replied: "Brother Corlear and War-ragh-i-ya-ghey, I 
have with great attention and surprise heard you repeat the substance 
of the devilish writing which I brought you, and also with pleasure 
noticed your just remarks thereon, which really agree with my own 
sentiments on it. I return you my most hearty thanks in the name 
of all the nations for your brotherly love and cordial advice, which I 
promise you sincerelj', by this belt of wampuiu, shall be coinmuni- 
cated immediately and verbatim to the Five Nations by myself, and, 
moreover, shall see it forwarded from the Senecas' castle with belts 
from each of our own nations to the Indians at Ohio, to strengthen 
your desire, as I am thoroughly satisfied you have our interest at 

Returning to Celeron and his party, whom we left upon the deep, 
rapid current of the Allegheny River, where they found rest at night 
beneath the sombre forest that skirted its bank, and floated by day 
leisurely upon its current, we see them passing Indian villages and 


the mouths of Oil Creek and Yenaugo River (Les Boeufs), without 
making any considerable pause, though the latter point, now Frank- 
lin, was then a station of importance. But at the Indian God, some 
nine or ten miles below the latter point, they paused, and beneath the 
shadow of an immense boulder, on which had been cnt rude figures 
held in superstitious awe by the natives, on the south bank, opposite 
a bald mountain, the second of these leaden plates were buried, ac- 
companied with the usual formal ceremonies which Avas continued 
at each burial. Resuming their journey they passed Chartiers Town, 
a Shawneese village, now deserted, and passed the mouth of the 
Monongahela River without pausing; but at Logstown, some twelve 
miles below, an Indian town, now a place of importance as the coun- 
cil house of the sachems of surrounding tribes, they made a landing. 
Here the agents of the English colonies upon the Atlantic were ac- 
customed to meet them and make their formal talks, smoke tlie pipe 
of peace, distribute the high piled presents, and ratify solemn treaties 
which were not to be broken so long as the sun and the moon go 
round the earth. Here, too, the traders brought their goods and 
bartered them for valuable skins and furs, and, shame to say it, here 
these conscienceless traders brought kegs of fire-water, and when the 
poor Indians were made drunken were clieated and abused. Here 
Celeron buried another of his plates, and discovering a number of 
the English trading with the Indians his wrath was kindled. He 
expelled these intniders, as he called them, and made a speech to the 
assembled Indians of many tribes, telling them that all the country 
along the Beautiful River belongecj to the French, and that they 
would supply the Indians with all the goods they needed. He for- 
bade them to trade with the English, and said he was now on his 
way down the river to whip the Wyandots back to their homes. The 
absolute manner of Celeron, more than his words, gave offense to the 
Indians, who had not been accustomed to be spoken to in that way. 
Determined to effect the purpose of his expedition he sent from 
this point the following curt letter to Governor Hamilton, of Penn- 
sylvania: "Sir: Having been sent with a detachment into these 
quarters by Monsieur the Marcjuis de la Galissioniere, commandant 
general of New France, to reconcile among themselves certain savage 
nations who are ever at variance on account of the war just termin- 
ated, I have been much surprised to find some traders of your gov- 
ernment in a country to which England never had any pretensions. 
It even appears that the same opinion is entertained in New Eng- 
land, since in many of the villages I have passed through, the English 
who were trading there have mostly taken flight. Those whom I 
first fell in with, and by whom I write you, I have treated with all 
mildness possible, although I would have been justified in treating 
them as interlopers and men without responsibility, tlieir enterprise 


being contrary to the preliminaries of peace signed five months ago. 
I hope, Sir, for the futnre you will carefully prohibit this trade, 
which is contrary to treaties, and give notice to your traders tliat 
they will expose themselves to great risks in returning to tliese 
conntries, and that they must impute to themselves the misfortunes 
they may meet with. I know that our commandant-general would 
be very sorry to have recourse to violence, but he has orders not to 
permit foreign traders in his government." 

Continuing his journey down the Ohio, Celeron and his party 
took formal possession of the country by burying plates at the mouth 
of the Muskingum Kiver, anotiier at the mouth of the Great Kan- 
awha, and the sixth and last at the mouth of the Great Miami. Be- 
lieving that he had now covered all the territoi'y that was likel}', for 
the present, to be claimed by tlie English, Celeron paused in his 
course, and toilsomely ascended the JVIiami till he reached the port- 
age, where he burned his boats, and procuring ponies, crossed over 
to the Manmee, down which he moved to Lake Erie, l)y which and 
Ontario he returned to Fort Frontinac, arriving on the Gth of No- 

These metal plates, planted with so much formality, regarded as 
symbols of French power, which they were to defend with force of 
arms, remained for a long time where they were originally planted 
with the exception of the iirst, which, as we have seen, was immedi- 
ately disinterred and sent to Sir William Johnson. That buried at 
the month of the Muskingum was washed out by the changing of the 
banks in the flood-tides, and was discovered in 1798 by some boys 
who were bathing at low water in the summer time, and having no 
idea of its nse, or the purport of the characters cut on its surface, they 
cut off a portion of it and run it into l)ullets. The remaining por- 
tion was sent to Governor DeWitt Clinton, of New York, and is still 
preserved at Boston, Mass. That which was buried at the month of 
the Kanawha was found in 18-46 by a son of J. W. Beale, of Point 
Pleasant, Virginia. In playing along the river bank he saw the 
edge of it protruding from the sand a little below the surface, where 
it had been carried by the current. It was dug out and has been 
preserved in its original form. 

As may be well imagined the intelligence of this expedition of 
Celeron in considerable force down the Ohio, with the design of 
taking formal possession of the territory which the river drained was 
viewed with concern by the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, and 
especially ])y those in England interested in the colony of Virginia. 
They saw that if this claim was maintained by the French their ter- 
ritories would be vastly curtailed, and the claims of the Massachusetts 
and Virginia colonies from ocean to ocean would become abortive. 
The then proprietary of Pennsylvania wrote to Governor Hamilton 


in these terms, as preserved in tlie Oolunial Kecords: " The account 
you give of a party of Frencli having come to i^llegheny and laid 
claim to that country, and the tribes of Indians with whom we have 
lately entered into treaty, a good deal alarms me; and I hear the 
party has returned to Canada, threatening to return with a great 
force next year. I have communicated the French commandant's 
letter and paper, with an account of the aifair to the Duke of Bed- 
ford and Lord Halifax, and 1 think something should be done im- 
mediately, if it can be by consent of the Indians, to take possession. 
This, I think, you shoidd advise with the Council and Assembly 
about, as it is of great import to the trade of the Province to have a 
settlement there, and a house a little more secure than an Indian 
cabin. I make no doubt the Indians would consent to such a settle- 
ment; and if there is stone and lime in the neighborhood, I think a 
house of thick walls of stone, with small bastions, might be built at 
no very great expense, as it is little matter how rough it is inside; or 
a wall of that sort perhaps fifty feet square, with a small log house 
in the middle of it, might perhaps do better. The command of this 
might be given to the principal Indian trader, and he be obliged to keep 
four or six men at it, who might serve him in it, and the house be a 
magazine for goods. If something of this sort can be done, we shall 
be willing to be at the expense of four hundred pounds currency for 
the building of it, and of one hundred pounds a year for keeping 
some men with a few arms and some powder; this, with what the 
assembly might be induced to give, will in some measui-e protect the 
trade, and be a mark of possession. However few the men are, they 
should wear an uniform dress, that though very small it may look 
fort like." 

This recommendation looked to the building of a Fort on the 
Ohio, as was afterwards done at Fort Pitt, and was a wise provision, 
if the encroachments of the French were to be met by force. Gov- 
ernor Hamilton was a wise and politic man, and instead of moving 
ofiiciallyin the matter he held several conferences with the Speaker 
and members of the House with a view to carrying into effect the 
proposal of the Proprietaries. But the ruling sentiment of the As- 
sembly was averse to assuming a warlike or force attitude, the Quaker 
element in the council and the provident members opposed to the 
spending of public money, being in the ascendant. As may be seen 
by the above communication, the Proprietaries had no religious scru- 
ples against warlike preparations, the sons of Penn having forsaken 
the religion of their father, John Penn, the grandson, and subse- 
quently Governor, showing a vigorous war spirit against the Indians, 
and even going so far as to offer, without scruple, graduated bounties 
for their capture, scalping, or death. 

Accordingly, Governor Hamilton gave instructions to the State 


ageuts, George Croglian and Andrew Montour, who had heen sent 
ont to distribute presents to the Indians, and who made Logstown 
their headquarters, to ascertain the temper of tlie natives towards the 
building of such a fort as the letter of the Proprietary suggested. 
In compliance with this instruction, Crogan dispatched a lettei- dated 
on the 16th of December, 1750, couched in these words: ''Sir, — 
Yesterda}' Mr. Montour and I got to this town, where we found 
thirty warrioi's of the Si.x Nations going to war against the Catawba 
Indians. They told us that they saw John Coeur about one hundred 
and fifty miles up the river at an Indian town, where he intends to 
build a fort if he can get liberty from the Ohio Indians. He has iive 
canoes loaded with goods, and is very generous in making presents 
to all the chiefs of the Indians he meets with. lie has sent two 
messengers to this town, desiring the Indians here to go and meet 
him, and clear the road for him, [that is, secure the consent of the 
Indians to his coming], to come down the river; but they have so 
little respect for his message that the}' have not tlnuight it woi-th 
while to send him an answer as yet." 

It will be observed from this note, that the French recognized 
the Indian friendship as an important factor in holding the country, 
and that they were willing to spend money fruely in furnishing 
presents in order to buy it over to their cause. Their agent, Jean 
C'oeui', was skilled in all the arts of Indian diplomacy, and had lived 
much among them; but he was not successful in his first essays with 
these Ohio Indians. On the 20th of May, 1751, Croghan records in 
his journal, " Forty warriors of the Six Nations came to Logstown, 
from the head of the Ohio, with M. Jean Coeur, and one Frenchman 
more in company.'' On the following day he records that Jean 
Coeur made a talk to the Indians, telling them that Onontio, (gov- 
ernor of New France, directed that they send away the English and 
deal wholly with the French. The words of Jean (loeur failed of 
their effect upon the natives; for their chieftain made answer that he 
would not send the English away, but would trade with them as long 
as he lived, and that " if he had anything to say, and was the man he 
pretended to be, he should say it to that man," pointing to Croghan. 

On the 25th of May, Croghan again records: " I had a conference 
with Monsieur Jean Coeur; he desired I would excuse him, and not 
think hard of him for the speeches he made to the Indians, request- 
ing them to turn the English traders away, and not to suffer them 
to trade; for it was the Governors of Canada who ordered him, and 
he was obliged to obey them, though he was very sensible which way 
the Indians would receive them, for he was sure the French would 
not accomplish their design with the Six Nations, without it could 
be done by force, which he said he believed they would find to be as 


difficult as the method they had just tried, and would meet with the 
like want of success." 

It will be seen from the temper of this conversation that Jean 
Coenr was convinced that the Indians were not in a temper to be won 
over by fair words or showy French presents; but that force would 
be necessary, and in that they would fail. But he had been sent on 
this mission by liis government, and it was necessary for him to 
carry out his instructions. Accordingly, having exhausted his diplo- 
macy with the Indians, he sent the following missive to Governor 
Hamilton, and returned to Canada: "Sir, — Monsieur the Marquis 
de la Galissoniere, Governor of the whole of- New France, having 
honored me with his orders to watch that the English make no 
treaty in the conntry of the Ohio, I have directed the traders of your 
Government to withdraw. You cannot be ignorant, sir, that all the 
lauds of this region have always belonged to the King of France, 
and that the English have no right to come here to trade. My su- 
perior has commanded me to apprise you of what I have done, in 
order that you may not affect ignorance of the reasons of it; and he 
has given me this order, with so much the greater reason becaiise it 
is now two years since Monsieur Celeron, by order of the Marquis 
of Galissoniere, then Commandant-general, warned many English 
wlio were trading with the Indians along the Ohio against so doing, 
and they promised him not to return to trade on the lands, as Mon- 
sieur Celeron wrote you." 



Activity of the "Oiiiu Company" — Explokations ok Gist — Prki-- 


Half Kino Warns the French — Insoi-ent Reply — Earl 
HoLDERNESs Warns G<jVERNORS OF THE Colonies — War Vessel 
Sent to Viroinia — Washington Commissioneo to Visit French 
Commander — Perilous Journey — Selects Site of Four Pitt 
— Provisions Sent from New Orleans — "Where Does the 
Indian's Land Lie?"^-JeanCoeur at Franklin — Received .\r 
LeBoeuf isY' Leoardeur St. Pierre — Answer — Politeness of 
THE General — Refers to the Marquis DuQuesne — Return 
OF Washington — TREAiniERous Indian Fikks at Him — Suf- 


DiNwiDDiE — Journal Widely Circulated — The Intention of 
THE French to Hold tiii; Ohio Valley dv Fori k Ci,i;ai!ly 

rpiIE goodly lands along the " Beautiful River," and its many tribii- 
J_ taries, seemed now more attractive tlian ever, and tfie ne.xt few years 
succeeding the planting of plates by Celeron, witnessed a vigorous 
and sanguinary struggle for their occupancy. And now commences 
the active operations of the Ohio Company, chartered by the Vir- 
ginia Legislature by authority of the English government, previously 
detailed, for the settlement and permanent occupancy of this coveted 
country. How Virginia could lay claim to this section, so clearly* 
embraced in the charter of Penn, is ditHcult to comprehend; but the 
grounds of the claim will lie stated in a succeeding chaptci-. 

Boldly assuming the right, the company sent out from \ irginia, 
in 1750, as its agent, Christopher Gist, with instructions to explore 
the territory, and sound the temper of the Indians towards its set- 
tlement by the whites. During this and the following year, he 
traversed the country on either bank of the Ohio, as far down as the 
present site of the city of Louisville, going even further than Celeron 
had done with his pewter plates, and making a far more extensive 
and thoi'ough exploration of the country. In 1752 he was present 
at Logstown as commissioner with Colonel Fry in concluding the 
treaty with the chiefs of the Six Nations, which secured rights of 
settlement in this country. The French were ever watchful, and the 
provisions of this treaty were not unknown to them as well as the 
explorations of Gist. 


The evidences of activity on the part of the French to seize and 
hold this country by force were not wanting. Early in May an ex- 
pedition was sent out from Canada, prepared to assert their claims. 
The commanding officer at Oswego, sent the following intelligeiice 
to Col. Johnson, dated May 15, 1753: " Yesterday passed by here 
thirty odd French canoes, part of an army going to Belle Riviere, 
to make good their claim there. The army is reported to consist of 
six thousand French." On the 21st of May, as shown by the Colonial 
Records, " the Governor laid before the board several letters from 
Governor Clinton, inclosing accounts from Col. Johnson, and from 
the commanding officer at Oswego, that a large armament of French 
and Indians, had passed by that Fort, destinated as was suspected 
for Ohio, in oi'der to take possession of that country, and to build 
forts on that river; whereupon he had dispatched messengers to the 
governors of Maryland and Virginia, and likewise Mr. West was 
sent to Susquehanna, there to procure and send away two messengers, 
one by Potowmack, and the other by Juniata, to give the Indians 
notice of this and put them on their guard." 

The forces of the French who were thus reported as on their way 
to the Ohio, though greatly exaggerated, were of considerable 
strength, learned by other sources to consist of " exactly twenty-four 
hundred men and eight pieces of brass cannon." This foi-ce com- 
pleted and manned the forts at Presquils, Le Boeuf and Venango, 
and were preparing to descend the river in force in the following 
spring. On hearing of these aggressive movements of the French, 
the Virginia authorities became much alarmed and sent to the Indians 
on the Ohio, who were known to be unwavering in their friendship 
for the English, " one hundred small arms, powder, shot, and some 
clothing," to be distributed by their agents Gist, Montour and Trent. 
The rumors of fort building by the French, and of their threatening 
to come as an army with banners, greatly agitated the minds of the 
simple natives. Their chief, the old Half King, Tanacharison, who 
repi'esented the Iroquois here, set out to meet the French at Venango 
and Le Boeuf, to remonstrate with them and to warn them away. 
But he was received with no consideration, "and was discharged home, 
and told that he was an old woman, and that all his nation was in 
their favor only him, and if he would not go home, he would be 
put in irons." So strongly had the imperious manner of the com- 
mandant worked upon the old chief, that upon his return he begged 
with tears in his eyes that the English would go off "for fear they 
should be hurt." To subsequent messages from the Half King, the 
commandant returned this message: " But this I will tell you, I am 
commanded to build four strong houses, viz: at Weningo, Monon- 
galio Forks, Logs Town and Beaver Creek, and this I will do." 

The Half King still persisting in his demands to leave the conn- 


try, the commandant became offensive and scurrilous. '• Now, my 
child, I have heard your speech; you spoke first, and it is my time 
to speak now. This wampum I do not know, which you have dis- 
charged me ofi' the land with; but you need not put yourself to the 
trouble of speaking, for I will not hear you. I am not afraid of 
flies or mosquitoes, for Indians are such as those; I tell you that 
down the river I will go, and bnild upon it, according to my com- 
mand. If the river was blocked up, I have forces sufficient to burst 
it ojjen, and tread under my feet all that stand in opposition; for my 
force is as the sand upon the sea shore; therefore here is your wam- 
pum; 1 sling it at you. Child you talk foolish; you say this land 
belongs to you, but there is not the black of my nail yours. I saw 
the land sooner than you did. It is my land, and I will have it, let 
who will stand up for, or say against it." 

The systematic operations of the French in building a line of 
forts, and providing cannon and a strong military force at each, sub- 
stantially on the same line that Celeron had formally taken possession 
of with his plates, finally aroused the attention of the British gov- 
ernment, and the Secretary of State, Earl Holderness, addressed the 
governors of the several colonies urging that they be put in a state 
of defense. The communication to the governor of Virginia was 
considered of so much importance as to be sent by a government 
ship. It reached its destination in Octolier, 1753, and the matter of 
the dispatch was of such pressing import, as to require the sending 
of a special messenger to the French commandant on this side of 
the great lakes, to remonstrate with him in an official capacity for 
intruding upon English territory, but probably more especially to 
ascertain precisely what had been done and with what forces the 
French were preparing to contest their claims. 

Robert Dinwiddie, then Lieutenant-governor of A irginia, made 
no delay in selecting a suitable person for this embassage, and his 
choice fell upon George Washington, the Adjutant General of the 
Northern Division of the Virginia militia, and only twenty-one years 
of age. It should here be observed that Lawrence Washington, the 
brotlier of George, who was president and a leader of the Ohio Com- 
pany, had died July 26, 1752, and that by his will a large share of 
his estates and interests had fallen to George. He consei^uently liad 
a pecuniary interest in holding the lands of the Ghio Company, in 
addition to the patriotic one of discharging a public trust. It should 
also be observed that Dinwiddie was a large stockholder in the Ohio 

The youthful Washington made no delay in accepting the trust 
imposed on him, and though now the inclement season of the year, 
he quickly had his preparations completed for his departure. It ap- 
pears from the following note to the Lords of Trade, that the gov- 


ernor had previously sent a messenger on a similar errand: "The 
person [Capt. William Trent] sent as a commissioner to the com- 
mandant ot'tlie French forces, neglected his duty, and went no further 
tlian Logstown, on the Ohio. He reports the French were then one 
hundred and fifty miles further up the river, and I believe was afraid 
to go to them." But there was no fear on the part of George Wash- 
ington, though then hut a mere boy, and he was soon on his way. 
Tliat we may understand precisely the nature of his mission we pre- 
sent the commission and instructions which he received: "Whereas, 
I have received information of a body of French forces being as- 
sembled in a hostile manner on the river Ohio, intending by force 
of arms to erect certain forts on said river within this territory, and 
contrary to tlie dignity and peace of our sovereign, the King of 
Great Britain, These are, therefore, to require and direct you, the 
said George Washington, forthwith to repair to Logstown, on the 
said river Ohio, aiid, having there informed yourself where the French 
forces have posted themselves, thereupon, to proceed to such place, 
and, being there arrived, to present your credentials, together with 
my letter, to the chief commanding officer, and in the name of his 
Britanic Majesty, to demand an answer, thei'eto. On your arrival at 
Logstown, you are to address yourself to the Half King, to Mon- 
acatoocha, and the other Sachems of the Six Nations, acquainting 
them with your orders to visit and deliver luy letter to the French 
commanding officer, and desiring the said chiefs to appoint you a 
sufficient number of their warriors to be your safeguard, as near 
the Fi-ench as you may desire, and to await your further direc- 
tion. You are diligently to inquire into the numbers and force of 
the French on the Ohio and the adjacent country, how they are 
likely to be assisted from Canada, and what are the difficulties 
and conveniences of that communication, and the time required for 
it. You are to take care to be truly informed what forts the 
French have erected, and where; how they are garrisoned and ap- 
pointed, and what is their distance from each other, and from Logs- 
town, and from the best intelligence you can procure, you are to 
learn what gave occasion to this expedition of the French; how they 
are likely to be supported, and what their pretensions are. When the 
commandant has given you the required, and necessary dispatches, 
you are to desire of him a proper guard to protect you as far on your 
return, as you may judge for your safety against any straggling 
Indians or hunters that may be ignorant of your character and molest 

It will be observed that the ship bearing the royal dispatch 
reached Virginia in October. This letter of instructions was dated 
October 30th, 1753, and on tlie same day the youthful envoy left 
William sburg, reaching Fredericksburg on the 31st. Here he engaged 

iii.sTOKY OF gi:ei;np: county. 123 

his old " master of fence," one Jacob Van Branm, a soldier of fur- 
tune, as interpreter, though as Irving observes, " the veteran swords- 
man was but inditferently versed either in French or English." 
Purchasing horses and tents at Winchester, he bade good-bye to the 
abodes of civilization, and pushed on over mountain and across 
stream, through the wilderness, on his important and perilous mis- 
sion. At Will's Creek, now Cumberland, he engaged Mr. Gist, 
who had been the agent of tlie Ohio Company in exploring ail that 
region and negotiating with the natives, to pilot him on, and secured 
the services of John Davidson as Indian interpretei-, and four fron- 
tiersmen. With this escort he set out on the 15th of Novemljer, but 
found his way impeded by storms of rain and snow. Passing Gist's 
cabin, now Mount Braddoclc, and Jolin Frazier's place at the moutli 
of Turtle Creek on the Monongahela Piver, and finding the river 
swollen l)y recent rains, he placed his luggage in a canoe, thus re- 
lieving the horses, and himself rode on to the coniluence of the 
Monongaliela with the Ohio. " As I got down before the canoe" 
he writes in his journal, " I spent some time in viewing the rivers, 
and the land at the Forkjjnow Pittsburg], which I think extremely- 
well suited for a fort, as it has the absolute command of. both rivers. 
The land at the point is twenty or twenty-five feet above the com- 
mon surface of the water, and a considerable bottom of flat, well 
timbered all around it, very convenient for building. The rivers are 
each a quarter of a mile or more across, and run here very nearly at 
right angles; Allegheny hearing northeast, and Monongahela south- 
west. The former of these two is a very rapid and swift running 
water, the other deep and still without any perceptible fall." 

It had been proposed, by the agents of the Ohio ('ompany, to 
build a fort two miles below the forks on the south side, where lived 
Shingiss, chief Sachem of the Delawares. But Washington says in 
his journal, -'As I had taken a good deal of notice yesterday of the 
situation at the fork, my curiosity led me to examine this more 
]iarticularly, and I think it greatly inferior, either for defence or ad- 
vantages." The good judgment of Washington in preferring the 
forks for a fort was subsequently confirmed by the French engineers, 
who adopted the site at the forks. At Logstown, which was twelve 
miles below the forks, Washington met ten Frenchmen, deserters 
from a party of one hundred, who had been sent up from New 
Orleans with eight canoe loads of provisions 'to this place, where they 
expected to meet a force from Lake Erie. This showed unmistak- 
able evidence that the Fi-ench were determined to take forcible pos- 
session of the country. The wily chieftains asked Washington why he 
wanted to communicate with the F'rench commandant, and lieing 
naturally suspicious that they had not fathomed all the purposes, and 
bearings of this mission, th6y delayed him by their maneuvres. 


Indeed, an old Indian Sachem had previously propounded, to Mr. 
Gist, while surveying the lands south of the Ohio, this question, 
" The French claim all the land on one side of the Ohio, the En- 
glish claim all the land on the other side — now where does the 
Indian's land lie ?" There was, undoubtedly, a suspicion in the 
minds of these dusky kings that the English as well as the French 
were preparing to occupy this delectable country. " Poor savages !" 
exclaims Mr. Irving, " Between their 'fathers', the French, and tlieir 
'brothers,' the English, they were in a fair way of being most loving- 
ly shared out of the whole country." 

Finally, after having been detained about a week by Indian 
diplomacy, "Washington set out on the 30th of November, with an 
additonal escort of three of the Indian chiefs, Half King, Jeskakake 
and White Thunder, and one of their best hunters. A toilsome 
journey of five days brought the party to Venango, at the mouth of 
the Venango Eiver, or French Creek, where the French flag was 
floating upon a cabin which had been occupied by the same John 
Frazier visited on the Monongahela, where he had plied the trade of 
a gunsmith; but from which he had been driven by the Frencli. 
Captain Jean Coeur was in command her*, who said he was in com- 
mand on the Ohio, but he advised Washington to present his creden- 
tials for an answer, to a general officer who had his headquarters at 
" the near fort." " He invited me to sup with them " the journal 
proceeds, "and treated us with the greatest complaisance. The wine 
as they dosed tliemselves pretty plentifully with it soon banished the 
restraint Avhich at flrst appeared in their conversation, and gave a 
license to their tongues to reveal their sentiments more freely. They 
told me that it was their absolute design to take possession of the 
Ohio, and by G — d they would do it; for that thougli they were 
sensible the English had two men for their one, yet they knew their 
motions were too slow and dilatory to prevent any undertaking of 
theirs." But the French had yet something to learn of the temper 
and steady endurance of the English in America. Washington 
ascertained that there had been some " fifteen hundred men on this 
side of Ontario lake. But upon the death of the General all were 
recalled to about six or seven hundred, who were left to garrison 
four forts, one on a little lake at the head waters of French Creek, 
now Waterford, another at Erie, fifteen miles away." Jean Coeur 
was adroit in his influence over the Indians, and used his best arts 
to win the chiefs, who had accompanied AVashington, from their 
allegience to him, plying them with liquor, and refusing to receive 
back the wampum belt which the Half King ofl'ered as a token of his 
tribe's allegiance to the French. But after long parleying they 
finally got oif on the 7th. Washington records in the journal: 
"We passed over much good land since we left Venango, and 

^^^t/f-tr^-ije^in C^ 

^-r?-i-e<'7 Cy^ ^st/'^'-'i'X'^^ 


through several very extensive and ricli meadows, one of which, I 
believe, was nearly four miles in length, and considerahly wide in some 
places." This passage undoubtedly refers to the valley where is now 
spread out the city of Meadville. 

At the fort at LeiSoenf, now Waterford, Washington was courte- 
ously received by the General in command of all the forces south 
of the lakes. "The commander," proceeds the Journal under 
date of December 12, "is a knight of the military order of St. Louis 
and named Legardeur de St. Pierre. He is an elderly gentleman, 
and has much the air of a soldiei*. He was sent over to take the 
command immediately upon the death of the late general and arrived 
here about seven days before me." In the letter which Dinwiddle 
had entrusted to AVashington, the claim of the English to all this 
Ohio territory was reiterated, and a demand made that the French 
should depart from it, and no more molest its peaceful occupancy. 
The answer of the Chevalier was courteous, but firm, lie said that 
the question of the rightful occupancy of this territory was not one 
which he could i^i'ojjcrl}' argue, that he was an officer commanding 
a detachment of the French army in America, but that he would 
transmit the letter of the Governor to his General, the Marquis Du 
Quesne, "to whom it better belongs than to me to set forth the 
evidence and reality of the rights of the king my master upon the 
lands situated along the river Ohio, and to contest the pretensions 
of the King of Great Britain thereto. His answer shall be law to 
me. * * * As to the summons you send me to retire, I do not 
think myself obliged to obey it. AVhatever may have been your 
instructions, I am here by virtue of the orders of my general; and 
I entreat you, sir, not to doubt one moment but that I am de- 
termined to conform myself to them with all the e.xactness and reso- 
lution which can be expected from the best otticcr." 

Governor Dinwiddle had added to the business part of his com- 
munication the following request: "I persuade myself you will 
receive and entertain Major Washington with the candor and polite- 
■ ness natui-al to your nation, and it will give me the greatest satis- 
faction, if yon can return hitn with an answer suitable to my wishes 
for a long and lasting peace between us." In his response the Chevalier 
added in reply to this clause: "I made it my particular care to re- 
ceive Mr. Washington with a distinction suitable to your dignity, as 
well as his own quality and great merit. I Hatter myself that he 
will do me this justice before you, sir, and that he will signify to 
j'ou, in the maimer I do myself, the profound respect with which I 
am, sir," etc. 

His mission over, he sent his horses on in advance, and himself 
and party took to canoes in which they floated down French Creek 
to Fort Venango. Finding his horses jaded and reduced, he gave 


up his own saddle liorse for transporting the baggage. Equipped 
in an Indian hunting dress he accompanied the train for three days. 
Finding the progress very slow, and the cold becoming every day 
more intense, he placed the train in charge of Van Bi'aam, and taking 
his necessary papers, pulled off his clothes, and tied himself up in a 
watch-coat. Tlieu with gun in hand, and pack on his back, he set out 
with Mr. Grist, to make his way on foot back to the Ohio. Falling 
in with a party of French and Indians, he engaged one of them for a 
guide, who proved treacherous, leading them out of their way, and 
linally turned upon and fired at Washington, "not fifteen steps off." 
But he missed, or the great spirit guided the bullet aside. Ridding 
themselves of him they traveled all night to escape pursuit. Being 
obliged to cross the Allegheny, with " one poor hatchet " they toil- 
somely made a raft. "Before we were half way over," proceeds the 
journal, "we were jammed in the ice, in such a manner that we ex- 
pected every moment our raft .to sink and ourselves to perish. I 
put out my setting pole to try to stop the raft that the ice might 
pass by, when the rapidity of the stream threw it with so much 
violence against the pole, that it jerked me out into ten feet water. 
Notwithstanding all our efforts we could not get to either shore, but 
were obliged, as we were near an island, to quit our raft and make to 
it. Tiie cold was so extremely severe, that Mr. Gist had all his 
fingers and some of his toes frozen, and the water was shut up so 
hard that we found no difficulty in getting off the island on the ice 
in the morning." 

Arrived at the Gist settlement, Washington bought a horse and 
saddle, and on the 6th of January, 1754, he records " we met seven- 
teen horses loaded with materials and stores for a fort at the fork of 
the Ohio, and the day following some families going out to settle. 
This day we arrived at Will's Creek, after as fatiguing a journey as 
it is possible to conceive, rendered so by excessive bad weather. 
From the first day of December to the fifteenth there was but one 
day on which it did not rain or snow incessantly; and throughout 
the whole journey we met with nothing but one continued series of 
cold, wet weather, which occasioned very uncomfortable lodgings, 
especially after we had left behind us our tent, which had been some 
screen from the inclemency of it. '•■' * * I arrived at Williams- 
burg on the 16th, when I waited upon his Honor, the Governor, 
with the letter I had brought from the French commandant, and to 
give an account of the success of my proceedings. This I beg leave 
to do by offering the foregoing narrative, as it contains the most 
remarkable occurrences which liappened in my joui-ncy. I hope 
what has been said will be sufficient to make your Honor satisfied 
with my conduct; for that was my aim in undertaking the journey 
and chief study throughout the prosecution of it." 


It luust be confessed that this embassage, undertaken in the dead 
of winter, through an almost trackless wilderness infested by hostile 
savages, by a boy of twenty-one, was not only romantic, but arduous 
and dangerous in the extreme, and in its execution showed a dis- 
cretion and persistent resolution remarkable for so youthful a per- 
son, and giving promise of great future usefulness. 

The infoi'mation which he obtained, and which was embodied in 
a modest way in his journal, was of great importance. The jounuil 
was published and widely circulated in this country and in England. 
It plainly disclosed the fact that the French, in building strong forts 
and providing cannon and a military force for garrisoning them, 
meant to hold this whole Ohio country by force of arms, and that if 
the English would foil them in this design they must lose no time 
in preparation to oppose force to force. The lateness of the season 
and the coming on of severe weather alone prevented the French 
from proceeding down the Allegheny and taking post on the Ohio, 
in the fall of 1753. The following spring would doubtless witness 
such a hostile movement. Which shall win? Thus far the French 
had shown mucn the greater military activity, and their strong points 
were selected by competent engineers detailed from the French army, 
who had superintended the erection of their strong forts. Arrived 
at the threshold of a great era, the near future will witness the 
decision, whether this tiiir land, in the midst of which is what is now 
the county of Greene, shall be peopled by the Frank, and be under 
the control of the lilies of France, or an English-speaking people 
shall spread over this broad domain — the whole Mississippi valley, the 
flower of the continent — whether the Catholic or the Protestant shall 
be the religion of its people. 



Troops Sent t<) Foet Pitt — French Capture It — The Summons — 
Washinivton M(jves Forward — Jumonville Skirmish — Takes 
Post at the Great Meadows — Surrender — Campaign with 
Four Objects — Braddock to Move Against Fort Du Quesne 
— Franklin Furnishes Wagons — Braddock Moves Leisurely — 
ORDEii OF March — Observation of Franklin — Sickness ov 
Washington — Indians in Camp — Bright Lightning — Indica- 
tions OF A Hostile Force — Menacing Inscriptions — Cross and 
Recross the Hivee — A Military Pageant — Army Put in 
Battle Order — Enemy Commanded by Beau.ieu — The War 
Whoop — Indians Gain the Flank by a Wooded Ravine — 
Eegulars Thrown Into Confusion — Braddock Mortally- 
Wounded — KiLLEj) and Wounded — AVashington Preserved — 
Great Spirit Protected Him — Braddock Buried — Dunbar 
Cowed - — Enemy's Strength — Washington's Losses — Gal- 
lantry Admired. 

CAPTAIN TRENT, who seems to have been mucli relied upon, 
was ordered by the Governor of Virginia to enlist a company of 
one hundred men and proceed without delay to the forks of Ohio 
and complete the fort there begun. Washington was empowered to 
raise a company of like number with which to collect supplies and 
forward to the working party at the fort. In the meantime Dinwiddle 
convened the Virginia Legislature and asked for money with whicli 
to conduct his military operations, and called upon the other colonies 
to join him. Lack of funds, want of royal authority to enter upon 
this warfare, and other e.xcuses, kept the other colonies from engag- 
ing inimediatel}'; but the Virginia Legislature voted money, and the 
number of troops authorized was increased to 300, to be divided into 
six companies, of which Washington was offered the command. 
But on account of his youth he declined it, and Joshua Fry was 
made Colonel and Washington, Lieutenant-Colonel. On the 2d of 
April, 1754, Washington set out with two companies of 150 men 
for the fort on the Ohio, Colonel Fry with the artillery, which had 
just arrived from England, to follow. But before Washington had 
arrived at Will's Creek intelligence, was received that Captain 
Contracoeur, acting under authority of the Governor General of New 
France, having embarked a thousand men with field-pieces, upon 


sixty batteaux aud three hundred canoes, at the flood-tide in the 
Allegheny River, had dropped down and captured the meagre force 
working upon the fort at the forks, both Trent and Fraziei', the two 
higiiest in command, being at the time absent. The garrison of about 
fifty men were allowed to depart with their working tools. 

Though bloodless, this was an act of hostility. The war was 
begun which was to greatly modify the map of the world. " Tlie 
seven years war," says Albach, "arose at the forks of the Ohio; it 
was waged in all quarters of the world; it made England a great 
imperial power; it drove the French from Asia and America, and 
dissipated their scheme of empire." Contrac(Knr immediately pro- 
ceeded with the building of the fort which the A^irginians had l)egiin. 
He had issued, before the surrender, what he was pleased to denomi- 
nate a summons, in which he "sirs" every sentence, and orders the 
English out of tlie Ohio country in the most absolute and authorita- 
tive way. "Nothing," he says, "can surprise me more than to see 
you attempt a settlement upon the lands of the King, my master, 
which obliges me now, sir, to send you this gentleman, Chevalier Le 
Mercier, Captain of tlie Artillery of Canada, to know of you, sir, by 
virtue of what authority you are come to fortify yourself within the 
dominions of the Iving, my master. * * * £et it be as it will, 
sir, if you come out into this place charged with orders, I summon 
you in the name of the King, my master, by virtue of orders which 
I got from my General, to retreat peaceably with your troops from 
off the lands of the King and not to return, or else I will find myself 
obliged to fulfill my duty, and compel you to it. ■'■' * ■•'• I pre- 
vent you, sir, from asking one hour of delay." 

Washington, though but a stripling, determined to move boldly 
forward, although his force was but a moiety of that of the Frencii, 
and intrench upon the Hedstone. To add to his perplexity, he re- 
ceived intelligence that a I'einforcement of 800 men was on its way 
up the Mississippi to join Contracceur at the forks. Sending out 
messengers to the governors of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Marj'- 
land, to ask for reinforcements, he pushed on to the Great Meadows, 
arriving on the 27th. Here he learned that a scouting party of the 
French was already in this neighborhood. Not delaying a moment, 
he started with forty picked men, and tiiougli the night was dark and 
the rain fell in torrents, he came up with the French before morning, 
encamped in a retreat shielded by rocks aud a broken country. 
Order of attack was immediately formed, the English on the right, 
and the friendly Indians on the left. The P'rench aroused, flew 
to arms, when a brisk firing commenced, which lasted for some- 
time, and the French, seeing no way of escape, surrendered. In 
this spirited skirmish, Juraonville, the commander, and ten of his 
men were slain, and twenty-two were taken prisoners. AVashington's 


loss was one killed and two wounded. This was the young com- 
mander's first battle, and if we may judge of it by the measure of 
success it was the presage of a brilliant career. He naturally felt a 
degree of pride and exultation. In a letter to his brother he added 
a postscript in these words, " I fortunately escaped without any 
wounds; for the right wing, where I stood, was exposed to and re- 
ceived all the enemy's fire; and it was the part where the man was 
killed and the rest wounded. I heard the bullets whistle, and, 
believe me, there is something charming in the sound." "When this 
was reported to the King, George II, he dryly remarked, " He would 
not say so, if he had been used to hear many." 

At the Great Meadows a fort was marked out and partially forti- 
fied, which was designated Fort Necessity. Supplies were scarce and 
could be brought up with difficulty. Not satisfied to stop here, 
Washington pushed on to Gist's at the head waters of the Redstone, 
where some intrenchments were thrown up. But learning that the 
French were approaching in force, and seeing that no sufficient sup- 
ply of provisions could be had, he was obliged to return to Fort 
Necessity, which he proceeded to strengthen. On the morning of 
the 3d of July, the French under Captain de Villiers, a brother-in- 
law of Jumonville, with a force 900 strong, commenced an attack 
upon the fort. Outnumbered nearly three to one Washington boldly 
accepted the wager of battle and all day long and until eight at night, 
made a gallant tight, when the French commander asked for a par- 
ley and demanded a suri'ender, which was refused; again the demand 
was made and again refused. Exhausted by the fatigues of the day 
and sufiPering for lack of provisions, Washington, on being offered 
the privilege of marching out with the honors of war, decided to 
accept the terms, and on the 4th of July, a day memorable in the 
future annals of the country, though of humiliation now, departed 
with drums beating and colors flying. In this engagement, of 300 
under Washington's command, twelve had been killed and forty- 
three wounded. The loss in Captain Mackay's independent com- 
pany of South Carolinians was not known, nor the loss of the 
French, which was believed to be much more serious. 

Returning to Will's Creek, a strong work, designated Fort Cum- 
berland, was constructed, which should be a rallying point. In the 
meantime Colonel Fry had died, and Colonel Inues, of North Caro- 
lina, had been promoted to chief command. The army which came 
under his orders was composed of the Virginia, North Carolina 
and Maryland militia, and independent companies of South Carolina, 
New York and Virginia, under the pay of the King, and officered 
by soldiers bearing his commission. And now succeeded months of 
negotiation carried on between London and Paris; but nothing was 
definitely settled, and in the early spring of 1755, it was decided 


in the British cabinet to prosecute an active campaign against the 
French in America, with four olijects in view, to eject the French 
from Nova Scotia, to drive tliem from Crown Point on Lake Cham- 
plain; to gain possession of Fort Niagara; and to recover the Ohio 
country. For the accomplishment of these purposes Major-General 
Edward Braddoclc, was dispatched to America with two regiments of 
the line, Forty-fourth and Forty-eighth, commanded by Sir Peter 
Halket, and Colonel Dunbar, with directions to take the supreme 
command of all the forces. Two ships of war and several trans- 
ports were in the Chesapeake. Alexandria was made the rall^-ing 
point, and here the regulars encamped. Commodore Keppel furn- 
ished four heavy pieces of ordinance with a detail of tars to man 
the prolongs in passing the streams and the mountains. Before 
starting on his campaign, the general held a conference at Alexan- 
dria with the governors of the several colonies: Shirley of Massachu- 
setts, Delaney of New York, Sliarpe of ^Vfaryland, Dinwiddle of 
Virginia, Dobbs of North Carolina and Morris of Pennsylvania. 
This conference considered little more than the question of furnish- 
ing troops and supplies for the expeditions. 

The force against Nova Scotia was earliest in the field, and was 
entirely successful, the country being reduced and placed under mar- 
tial law, and two French men-of-war were captured by the English 
Admiral Boscawen. Tiie force destined against the French on the 
Ohio, to be commanded l)y General Braddock in person, was slow 
in moving. Wagons and horses were not in readiness, and could 
not be procured. Two hundred wagons and two thousand horses 
must be had, or the general would not move, and when the expedition 
was on the point of failure for lack of them, Benjamin Franklin, 
then postmaster of Pennsylvan-ia, appeared and assured the General 
that he would provide the desired transportation if authorized to do 
so; that authority was quickly and joj'fully given, and the desired 
horses and wagons were soon forthcoming. It should be observed 
that Braddock had studied the military art as practiced in the open 
countries of Europe, where smooth, hard roads everywhere checkered 
the landscape, and he made his recjuisitions for baggage, artillery 
and amunition as though his expedition was to be made over such a 
country, instead of over one bristling with mountains and torrent 
streams, through a trackless wilderness. Had he gone in light 
marching order with amunition and provisions on pack-horses, he 
would have been better prepared to meet the obstacles which impeded 
his way. Instead, the imjiedimeyita of his little force, of less than 
three thousand men, was greater than was taken by a full army corps 
of 20,000 men in many of the campaigns of the late war. 

Before starting Braddock organized his force in two divisions. 
The first under Sir Peter Halket, was composed of the 44th regu- 


lars, Peyronie and Waggoner's Virginia companies, Dagworthj's 
Maryland company, Eutherford and Gates' New York companies, and 
Poison's i^ioneers. The second, under Colonel Thomas Dunbar, con- 
sisted of the 4:8th regulars, Dermaries' South Carolinians, Stephens, 
Hogg, and Cock's Virginians, Dobb's North Carolinians, and Mer- 
cer's pioneers. The field officers under Ilalket and Dunbar were, 
Lieutenant-Colonels Burton and Gage, Majors Chapman and Sparks, 
Brigade Major, Francis Halket; Quartermaster, John Sinclair; 
Assistant Quartermaster, General Matthew Leslie; Secretary to the 
General, "VYm. Shirley, and Aids-de-camp, Orme, Washington, and 
Morris. Christopher Gist and his son Nathaniel went as guides, 
and the Indian agents Ci'oghan and Montour, acted as interpreters. 
Orme's journal, which was about the only record of this ill-starred 
campaign which escaped destruction, records that the soldiers were 
required to be provided with " one new spare shirt, one new pair of 
stockings, and one new pair of shoes; and Osnabrig waist-coats and 
breeches were provided for them, as the excessive heat would have 
made the others insupportable; and the commanding officers of com- 
panies were desired to provide leather or bladders for the men's 

On the 9th of April, Sir Peter Ilalket, with six companies of the 
Forty-fourth, moved by way of Winchester for Fort Cumberland, at 
AVill's Creek, leaving Lieut. Col. Gage with four companies to escort 
the artillery. By the advice of Sir John Sinclair, who had been sent 
forward in advance to Winchester and Fort Cumberland, to prepare 
the way for the march, the second division under Col. Dunbar, 
accompanied with the artillery and heavy trains, moved by way of 
Frederick, Maryland. But though the roads were better approach- 
ing Frederick than by Winchester, there were absolutely none beyond 
there crossing the Alleghany Mountains, and accordingly this wing 
was obliged to recross the Potomac and gain the Winchester road. 
They now marched on with all the "pride and circumstance" of 
glorious war. "At high noon," says the chronicler, "on tlie 10th of 
May, while Ilalket's command was encamped at the common desti- 
nation, the Forty-eighth was startled by the passage of Braddock and 
his staff through their ranks, with a body of liglit horse, one gallop- 
ing on each side of his traveling chariot, in haste to reach Fort Cum- 
berland. The troops saluted, the drums rolled out the Grenadier's 
March, and the cortege passed by. An hour later they heard the 
booming of artillery which welcomed the General's arrival at Fort 
Cumberland, and a little later themselves encamped on the hillsides 
about the post." In place of this vain display, Braddock should by 
this time have been knocking at the gates of Fort Du Quesne. 

But arrived at Fort Cumberland, he sat down one whole month 
of the very best campaigning season, preparing for the execution of 


<l^.e^r/j. '=/o^^yf^ -y/^^y^ta./'Y^rf^-e^ A.yceJ/^'^cha- 

ItlSTOKV nl' (iKKKNK COirNTV. 187 

liis pliins after the methods of Euro[)eaii warfare. IIi> utter lack 
of appreciation of the kind of warfare he was to wage, is given in 
the Autobiography of Franklin: "In con\ersation with him one 
day, lie was giving me some account of his intended j^rogress. 
' After taking I'ort l)u Qviesne,' said he, ' I am to proceed to Niagara; 
and, liaving taken that, to Frontenac, if the season will allow time; 
and I suppose it will, for I)u Quesne can hardly detain me above 
three or four days; and then 1 can eee nothing that can oI)struct my 
march to Niagara.' Having before resolved in my mind," continues 
Franklin, "the Umg line his army must make in their march by a 
very narrow road, to i)e cut for them through the woods and bushes, 
and also of what 1 had heard of a former tlefeat of fifteen hundred 
French, who invaded the Illinois country, I had ci>iiceived some 
doubts and some fears for the event of the campaign; but I ventured 
onl^' to say, 'To be sure, sir, if you arrive well before Du Quesne 
with these fine troops, so well provided with artillery, t'le fort though 
completely fortified, and assisted with a very strong garrison, can 
|)robabl3' make but a short resistance. The only danger I apprehend 
of obstruction to your march is from the ambuscades of the Indians, 
who by constant practice, are dexterous in laying and executing 
them; and the slender line, nearly four miles long, which your army 
must make may expose it to be attacked by surprise on its flanks, 
and to be cut like thread into several pieces, which, from their dis- 
tance, cannot come u]) in time to sujiport one another.' 

" He smiled at my ignorance, and replied: 'These savages may 
indeed be a formidable enemy to raw x\merican militia, but upon the 
King's regular and disciplined troops, is impossibe they should 
make an impression!' I was conscious of an impropriety in my dis- 
puting with a military man in matters of his profession." 

It was June before the army was ready to set forward. The 
wagons and artillery were a great hindrance in crossing the moun- 
tains, and it was soon found necessary to send them back, especially 
the King's wagons which were very heavy. The horses became 
weakened by incessant pulling over rough and untraveled roads, and 
many died. The Little Meadows was not reached until the 18th of 
the month. Through the advice of Washington, the (General decided 
to change the order of march, and with a force of his picked men, 
with as little incumbrance of trains as possible, to ])ush foi'ward. 
Accordingly, with a force of twelve hundred men, IJraddock set out, 
leaving Colonel Dunbar with the balance of the command to bring- 
on the heavy artillery and trains. At the camp, near the crossing of 
Castleman's River, on the I'Jth, Washington was taken violently ill. 
^ '• Braddock,'' he said, in relating the circumstance afterward, "was 
both my General and my physician. I was attacked with a dangerous 
fever on the inarch, and he left a sergeant to take care of me, and 


James' fever powders, with the directions how to give them, and a 
wagon to bring me on when I would be able, which was only the day 
before the defeat." 

The army was attended on its march by a small body of Indians 
under command of Croghan. They had come into camp at Fort 
Cumberland, attended by their squaws. " These," says Irving, 
" were even fonder than the men of loitering about the British 
camp. They were not destitute of attractions; for the young squaws 
resemble the gypsies, having seductive forms, small hands and feet, 
and soft voices. Among those who visited the camp was one who 
no doubt passed for an Indian princess. She was the daughter of the 
Sachem, White Thunder, and bore the dazling name of Bright 
Lightning. The charms of these wild-wood beauties were soon ac- 
knowledged." " The squaws," writes Secretary Peters, " bring in 
money plenty; the officers are scandalously fond of them! The 
iealousy of the warriors was aroused; some of them became furious. 
To prevent discord, the squaws were forbidden to come into the 
British camp. Finally it became necessary to send Bright Lightning 
with all the women and children back to Aughquick." 

Washington was disappointed by the manner in which Braddock 
acted upon his advice to move rapidly with his best troops, and leave 
the heavy portion of the im,pedimenta to be moved more leisurely. 
Washington had given up his own horse for the uses of the trains, 
and traveled with his baggage half tilling a portmanteau. But the 
officers of the line could not bring themselves to this simplicity. 
"Brought up," says Irving, " many of them in fashionable and 
luxurious life, or the loitering indulgence of country quarters, 
they were so encumbered with what they considered indispen- 
sable necessaries, that out of two hundred and twelve horses gen- 
erally appropriated to their use, not more than a dozen could be 
spared by them for the public service." Nor was the progress even 
with these drawbacks at all in consonance with the wishes of Wash- 
ington. " I found," he says, " that instead of pushing on with vigor, 
without regarding a little rough road, they M-ere halting to level 
every mole-hill, and to erect bridges over every brook, by which 
means we were four days in getting twelve miles." He had been 
about a month in marching a hundred miles. Indeed, his move- 
ments were so sluggish as to cause impatience by his friends in 
Europe. " The Duke of Brunswick," M'ho had planned the cam- 
paign, writes Horace A¥alpole, " is much dissatisfied at the slowness 
of General Braddock, who does not march as if he was at all impatient 
to be scalped." 

Though still weak, Washington had come up with the advance; 
but on the 23d of June, at the great crossings of the Yougliiogheny, " 
he was unable to proceed. Here tiie General interposed his 


authority and forbade his young aid to go further, assigned him a 
guard, placed liim under the care of his surgeon, Dr. Craig, with 
directions not to move until the surgeon should consider him suf- 
liciently recovered to resume the march with safety, at the same time 
assuring him that he should be kept informed of the progress of the 
Column, and the portents of a battle. He was, however, impatient 
at the restraint, and regarded with distress the departure of the army 
leaving him behind, fearful lest he might not be up in time for the 
impending battle, which, he assured his brother aid-de-camp, "he 
would not miss for live hundred pounds." 

Indications of the presence of a hostile force of French and Indians 
hovering upon the flanks of the column hourly multiplied. On 
the 24th a deserted Indian camp of 170 braves was passed, 
where the trees had been stripped of bark, and taunting words 
in the French language, and scurrilous ligures were painted 
thereon. On the following morning three men venturing beyond 
the sentinels were shot and scalped. These hostile parties were often 
seen, but they always managed to elnde the parties sent out to cap- 
ture them. In passing over a mountain quite steep and precipitous, 
the carriages had to be raised and lowered by means of halyards and 
pulleys by the assistance of the sailors. Such was the nature of the 
iiurried march with his best troops which Braddock had consented to 
make. On the 2Gtli, only four miles were marched, and the half was 
at another Indian camp, which the warriors had but just left, the 
brands of their camp-tire still burning. " It had a spi'ing in the 
middle, and stood at the termination of the Indian patii to the Mo- 
nongahela. ■" * "■• The French had inscribed their names on 
some of the trees with insulting bravadoes, and the Indians ha<l 
designated in triumph the scalps they had taken two days pi-eviously. 
A party was sent out with guides, to follow their tracks and fall on 
them in the night, l)ut without success. In fact, it was the Indian 
Ijoast, that througliout this march of I'raddock, they saw him every 
day from the mountains, and expected to lie able to shoot down his 
soldiers ' like pigeons.' " 

8till the column went toiling on, in one whole day making barely 
two miles, men and officers alike all unconscious of the fact that a 
])itfall was being jtrepared for them into which they would plunge to 
<lestruction, and laying no adequate ])lans to guard and shield tliem- 
selves from such a fate. 

On the 8th of July, Washington found himself sufficiently recov- 
ered to join the advance of the army, at its camp about two miles 
from the Monongahela and fifteen from Fort Du Quesne. Though 
they were now on the same side of the river as the fort, yet not far 
in advance, a preeipit(?us bluff extended down close in upon the river 
)jank, leaving little room for the march, and where a column wuiiki 

140 iiistoi:y of geeene county. 

be exposed for a distance of two miles to sudden attack from the 
heights. Accordingly, it was determined to cross to the left bank of 
the river by a ford, move down five miles, recross to the right bank, 
and then move on to the attack of the fort. According to orders, Gage, 
witii two companies of grenadiers, the company of Capt. Gates, and 
two six pounders, before daylight on the morning of the 9th, crossed 
and recrossed tlie river, as planned, and took up a position favorable 
for covering tlie moving of tlie remainder of the column. A party 
of some fifty Indians rushed out upon them but were soon put to 
flight. Knowing the nature of the ground upon which they had now 
come, and realizing the hazards from a covert attack to which they 
were exposed, having come in sucli close proximity to the enemy, 
and doubtless recalling the buzz of the bullets and buck-shot about 
bis ears in liis fight at Fort Necessity, Washington ventured to sug- 
gest, that as the Virginia rangers were accustomed to Indian warfare 
that they be given the advance. But the proposition was received 
with a sharp rebuke by the General, believing, no doubt, that the 
young provincial aid was ignorant of the principles of high art in 
warfare, and indignant tiiat any subordinate should pretend to advise 

Eraddock was now near enough to the fort to anticipate tlie battle 
at any moment. lie accordingly prepared to make a fine show. At 
sunrise the main body under his immediate command, turned out in 
full uniform. Their arms had been brightened the night before, and 
at the beating of tiie general were charged with fresh cartridges. 
At the crossings of the stream, where it was supposed that the 
enemy would be on the watcli to observe them, in order that they 
might make the greatest show of power and strengtli, they moved 
with fixed bayonets, coloi's gayly given to the breeze, the trumi:)et 
sounding, and the fife and drum marking the measured tread. 
" Washington," says Irving, " with iiis keen and youthful i-elish for 
military afi'airs, was delighted with their perfect order and equipment, 
so difiperent from the rough bush-fighters to which he had been accus- 
tomed. Roused to new life, he forgot his recent ailments, and broke 
forth in expressions of onjoyment and admiration, as he rode in 
company with his fellow aids-de-camp, Orme and Morris. Often 
in after life, he used to speak of the effect upon him of the first sight 
of a well-disciplined European army marching in high confidence and 
bright array, on the eve of a l)attle." 

Having now all crossed to the right bank, and being, as was sup- 
posed, within nine miles of the fort, the column was put -in battle 
order. Gage, with his force preceded by the engineers and guides, and 
six light horsemen leading; St. Clair, with the working party fianked 
with soldiers, and the wagons and two six-pounders following; then 
the General with tlic main body, and the provincial troops bringing 


up the rear. Along the track tliey Avere to pursue was a plain for 
some distance, then rising ground Hanked on either side by wooded 
ravines. At two o'clock tiie advance under Gage having crossed 
tliis plain was ascending the rise, the (leneral Iiiinself liaving 
given the order to the main body to marcli, and being now under 
way, suddenly a heavy tiring was heard at the head of the column, 
accompanied by uiu>arthly yells. Colonel Burton was immediately 
ordered forward to the support of Gage, who had been attacked by an 
unseen foe lurking in ambush, but drawn out in. most advantageous 
oi'der for extending their attack upon the tlanks of the advancing 
English. They were commanded by a Frenchman, Jieaujeu, attired 
in a " gayly fringed hunting shirt,"' who led them on and directed 
the light. The Indians observed no order, but, extending rapidly 
down the ravine on the flank of the column, poured in a murderous 
tire upon the regulars and pioneei'S, wlio stood out boldly presenting 
themselves as targets for the concealed foe, who used their rifles with 
deadly effect. Tiie tiring on both sides was brisk. The Indian 
was accustomed to see his foe dodge behind trees and seek cover 
wherever lie could. Jle ha<l never seen such tine sport befoi'c, where 
his victim stood up boldly, giving a fair chance to shoot him down. 
The Indian war-whoop was something appalling, and the regulars 
syemed to dread it more than the l)ullets. Gage ordered his men to 
fix bayonets and form for a charge up a hill wIkmicc was the heaviest 
tire; but all to no ])urpose. They were bcMug surrounded by an un- 
seen foe, which crept stealthily alijng the hills an<l ravines, keeping 
up a most deadly tire. A panic seize<l the pioneers and many of the 
soldiers. Bi'addock and his fitficers behav(vl in the most gallant man- 
ner, exposing themselves to the tii-e of their dusky foes in their at- 
tempts to reform the shattered ranks and advance them to tlie attack. 
Washington suggested that the Indian mode of skulking be resorted 
to. Eut Braddock would listen to no ailvice, being reported to have 
said upon the occasion, " WhatI a \'irginia colonel teach a J>ritish 
general how to tight!" I!ut that young \'irginian counselled wisely 
in this dire necessity. For three long hours Braddock saw the work 
of slaughter go on, while he attempted to form his ti-oojis in platoons, 
ill the open ground, and advance' them u|)oii the conceahMl f(jc. The; 
provincial troi>ps, in spite (jf the (ieneral, shiel(le<l themselves behin<l 
trees and did greater execution upon the foe than all the tii'ingof Uw. 

regulars. The latter weve thrown into ci'eat confusion by this sav- 

<age style of warfare, where no foe could be seen, and where tliey 

were only guided in directing their tire by the flashes and smoke from 

the rifles of the skulking enemy. They huddled together and fired 

at random, sometimes shooting down theii-own iViends. The carmigc 

on the pai't of the English was terriV)le, nearly one-half of all those 

who liad marched forth in faultless uniforms, and whose bright 


armour had reflected tlie morniug sunlight, before night-fall lay 
stark and stifl' in death, or were suffering from ghastly wounds. The 
foe was largely made np of Indians, and only about half the number 
of the English, who were utterly defeated. Finally, General Brad- 
dock himself was mortally wounded, and immediately gave orders 
for the troops to fall back. Fortunately the Indians fell to plunder- 
ing, and neglected to pursue the retreating army. 

General Braddock had Ave horses shot under him before receiving 
his death wound. It has been currently reported that he was shot 
by Thomas Faucett, one of the independent rangers. Braddock 
liad given ox'ders tliat none of his soldiers should take shelter behind 
trees or cover. Faucett's brother had sheltered himself, when Brad- 
dock to enforce his order struck the refractory soldier to the earth 
with his sword. Seeing his brother fall, Faucett shot the General in 
the back, and thereafter the provincials fought as they pleased and did 
good execution. Sir Peter Halket was instantly killed, Shirley was 
shot through the head, Col. Burton, Sir John St. Clair, Col. Gage, 
Col. Orme, Major Sparks and Major Halket were wounded. Five 
captains were killed, and Ave wounded; fifteen lieutenants were 
killed and twenty-two wounded. The killed and wounded of the 
jirivates amounted to seven hundred and fourteen. Over four hun- 
dred wei'e supposed to have been killed. The very large and unu- 
sual number killed outright can only be accounted for on the 
supposition that the badly wounded who were unable to get away 
were murdered by the Indians when they came upon the field, as all 
were stripped and scalped. 

When the two aids, Orme and Sparks, were wounded all orders 
upon the iield had to be eai-j-ied by Washington, who was conspicu- 
ous upon evei-y part, Ijehavingin tlie most gallant manner. He had 
two horses shot under him and four bullet holes through his coat. 
In a letter to his brother he said: "As I liave lieavd, since my ar- 
rival at this place, a circumstantial account of my death and dying 
speech, I take this opportunity of contradicting the first and of 
assuring you that I have not composed the latter. By the all-pow- 
erful dispensations of Providence I have beoi protected beyond all 
human ]n-obability or expectation; for I had four bullets through my 
coat, and two horses shut under me, and escaped unhurt, although 
death was leveling my companions on every side of me." Many of 
tlie remarkable stories told of eminent men are of doubtful authen- 
ticity; but the following is niK]ii('stionably ti-ue. Dr. Craig, the in- 
timate friend of Washington, who had -attended him in his sickness 
and was present in this battle, I'elates that some hfteen years after- 
ward, " while traveling with Washington near the junction of the 
Great Kanawha and Ohio Rivers in exploring wild lands, they were 
met by a party of Indians with an interprutei', headed by a venera- 

iiistoi;y (IF (!i;I';f,\k coitxtv. 143 

ble chief. The old Sachem said lie had coiue a long way to see Colo- 
nel Washington, for in the battle of the Moiiongahela he had singled 
him out as a conspicuous object, had fired his ritle at him fifteen 
times, and directed his young warriors to do the same, but not one 
could hit him. A superstitious dread seized him, and he was satis- 
fied that the Great Spirit protected the young hero, and ceased firing 
at him." It is a singular circumstance that in all his campaignings 
Washington was never wounded. 

Of tlie conduct of the regulars in this battle some diversity of 
opinion e.xists. Washington, in a letter to his mother, which he 
never suspected would be made public, and in which he would be 
expected to tell his real sentiments, says: " In short, the dastardly 
behavior of those they call regulars, exposed all others who were in- 
clined to do their duty to almost certain death; and at last, in despite 
of all the efforts of the officers to the contrary, they ran as sheep 
pursued by dogs, and it was imi)0ssible to rally them." 

Eraddock, though mortally wounded, was still able to give orders. 
After having brought ofi' the remnant of his force and recrossed the 
river, he posted his command in an advantageous position and put 
out sentinels, in the hope of still making a successful advance, 
when his reinforcements under Dunbar should come up; but before 
an hour had elapsed most of his men had stolen away, and tied to- 
wai-ds Fort Cumberland. Indeed, the teamsters had, trom the begin- 
ning of the battle, taken out the best horses from their teams, and 
rode away. Seeing that no stand could be made the retreat was con- 
tinued, and Colonel Cage coming up with eighty men whom he had 
rallied gave some show of order. Washington was directed to pro- 
ceed to Dunbar's camp, forty miles away, and order forward trains 
and supplies for bringing off' the wounded. This was executed. At 
Gist's plantation he met Gage escorting Braddock and a portion of 
the wounded. At Dunbar's camp a halt of one day was made, when 
the retreat was resumed, and at the Great Meadows on the night of 
the 13th Braddock breathed his last. He had been heard to mutter, 
"Who would have thought it!" and "We shall better know how to 
deal with them another time," as if he still hoped to rally and tight. 
Lest the Indians should be watching and know of his death and 
burial place the ceremony of his interment took place just before 
dawn in the morning. The chaplain had been wounded, and Wash- 
ington read the burial service over his grave. He was buried in the 
road-way, and the trains were driven over the grave, so that the 
savages should n6t discover his last resting-place. The grave is a 
few yards north of the present National Road, between the tifty-third 
and fifty-fourth mile-stone from Cumberland, and about a mile west 
of Fort Necessity, at the Great Meadows. " Whatever may have 
been his [Braddock'sJ faults and errors," says Irving, " he, in a man- 

144 ttlSTOltY 01<' GREENE COUNTY. 

iier, expiated them by the hardest lot that can bei'all a brave soldier, 
ambitious ol; i-enowu — an uiihonored grave in a strange land." 

Dunbar seems to have been completely cowed by the misfortunes 
of the day, and the death of his general. lie hastily burst all the 
cannon, burned the baggage and gun carriages, destroyed the ammu- 
nition and stores, and niade a hasty retreat to Fort Cumberland. 
AVhen all were got together he found he had fifteen hundred troops, 
a sufficient number to have gone forward and taken the fort. But 
the war-whoop of the savage seemed to be still ringing in his ears, 
and the fear of losing his scalp overshadowed all. He continued to 
fall back and did not seem quite at ease till he liad reached Philadel- 
phia, where the population could afford him entire security. The 
result of tiie campaign was humiliating to British arras, and Frank- 
lin observed in his autobiography, " The whole transaction gave us 
the first suspicion that our e.valted ideas of British regular troops 
had not been well founded." Had Braddock moved in light march- 
ing order, using pack-horses for transportation, and taken only so 
much baggage as was necessary for a short campaign, or had he 
when attacked taken shelter and raked the ravines with his artillery, 
the fort would have been his with scarcely a struggle. 

It has since been disclosed with how slender a force Ijraddock 
was defeated. "The true reason," says Irving, '' why the enemy 
did not pursue the retreating army was not known until sometime 
afterwards, and added to the disgrace of the defeat. They were not 
the main force of the French, Init a mere detachment, 72 regulars, 
146 Canadians, and 637 Indians, 855 in all, led by Captain de 
Beaujeu. De Contrecceur, the commander of Fort Duquesne, had 
received information, through his scouts, that the English, three 
thousand strong, were within six leagues of his fort. Despairing of 
making any effectual defence against s^icli a superior force, he was 
balancing in his mind whether to abandon his fort without av^'aiting 
their arrival, or to capitulate on honorable terms. In this dilemma 
Beaujeu prevailed on him to let him sally forth with a detachment 
to form an ambush, and give check to the enemy. De Beaujeu was 
to have taken post at the river, and have disputed the passage at the 
ford. For that purpose he M'as hurrying forward when discovered 
by the pioneers of Gage's advance party. He Avas a gallant officer 
and fell at the beginning of the fight. The whole number killed 
and wounded of Frencli and Indians did not exceed seventy. Such 
was the scanty force which the imagination of the panic stricken 
array iiad magnified into a great host and from which they had fled 
in breathless terror, abandoning the whole frontier. No one could 
be more surprised than the French commander himself, when the 
ambuscading party returned in triumph with a long train of pack- 
horses laden with booty, the savages uncouthly clad in the garments 


>t»'<:U-/ - 



of tlie slain, — grenadier caps, officers' gold-laced coats, and glittering 
epaulettes, — flourishing swords and sabres, or tiring ofl' muskets, and 
uttering liend-like yells of victory. But when L)e Contreconir was 
informed of the utter rout and destruction of the much dreaded 
British army, liis joy was complete, lie ordered the guns of the 
fort to be tired in triumph, and sent out troops in pursuit of the 

Braddock lost all his papers, orders and correspondence, even 
to his own commission, his military chest containing £25,000 
in money, and one hundred beeves. Washington lost his journal 
and the notes of his campaign to Fort Necesity of the year before. 
Indeed, with the exception of Orme's journal and a seaman's diary, 
no papers were saved. In a letter to his brother Augustine, Wasli- 
ington recounted his losses and privations in his several public 
services, in a repining strain. '• I was employed to go a journey in 
the winter, when I believe few or none would have undertaken it, 
and what did I get b}' it? — my expenses borne. I was then ap- 
pointed, with trifling paj-, to conduct a handful of men to the Ohio. 
What did I get by that? Why, after putting myself to a consider- 
able expense in equipping and providing necessaries for the cam- 
paign, 1 went out, was soundly Ijeaten, and lost all! Came in and 
had my commission taken from me; or, in other words ray command 
reduced, under a pretence of an order from home (England). I then 
went out a volunteer with General Braddock, and lost all my horses, 
and many other things. But this being a voluntary act, I ought not 
to have mentioned it; nor should I have done it, were it not to show 
that I have been on the losing order ever since I entered the service, 
which is now neai-ly two years." 

Ah! George, this does look like a sad case to you now! You did 
lose a few horses with their trappings; you did suffer on a winter 
tramp through the forest and were tired at by the savage, and hurled 
into the icy current of the river. You did get entrapped at Fort 
Necessity, and on Braddock's tield innumerable bullets were aimed 
at you, when pale with sickness you rode up and down that bloody 
ground. But, my young friend, did you ever cast up your gains in 
these campaignings? You did suft'er some losses in horses and 
bridles and the like. But there was not a true breast in all America 
that did not swell with pride when it knew of the tidelity and reso- 
lution you displayed in the trusts imposed upon you, and the gallant 
manner in which you acted on that fatal tield, when all around you 
seemed stricken with terror and dismay, and your General was 
bleedfng with a mortal hurt. Y^ou did indeed lose some sleep, and 
disease preyed upon your system in consequence of exposure; but 
there was not an Englishman anywhere in the civilized world who 
was not touched with some share of your anguish when the story ot 


your heroism was rehearsed; not a Christian in all the land who 
could not join with the President of Princeton College, the Kev. 
Samuel Davis, who referred in a sermon preached not long after the 
event to "that heroic youth. Colonel Washington, whom I cannot 
but hope Providence has hitherto preserved in so signal a manner 
for some important service to his country." 


Seven Years' Wae Opened — Indians Inspired by Defeat op Bead- 
dock — Teeeible Wae Upon Settlers — French Offer Re- 
wards foe Scalps — Line of Forts Along the Kittatinny Hills 
— Franklin in Command — Armstrong at Kittanning — Lord 
Loudon Unsuccessful — William Pitt Comes to Power — Aber- 


Lost by the French — General Forbes at Foet du Quesne — 
Moravian Post Sent to the Indians — The Vicegerent of the 
Lord — ^Indians Superstitious — Indian Methods — E'ort du 
Quesne Occupied — Amherst in ■ Command — Ticonderoc^a and 
Crown Point and Niagara Taken — Wolf on the Plains of 
Abraham — Quebec Defended — Montreal Captured — The 
French Expelled From North America East of the Missis- 
sippi — Pitt's Vigorous Policy Everywhere Crowned with 
Success — Bi't at a Cost of 1^560,000,000 — English Speaking 

THOUGH some advantages had been gained at Nova Scotia and at 
Fort William Henry in New York, yet the great disaster to 
Braddock, on whose success towering liopes had been formed, spread, 
gloom thi'ough the colonies and touched the pride of the British 
nation. Seeing that the claims of the French to the country west of 
the Alleghany Mountains as well as the northern frontiers of the colo- 
nies M'ere likely to be vigorously pushed, the English government 
determined to assert counter claims with even greater vigor. Ac- 
cordingly war was declared against France on the 17th of May, 1756, 
and General Abercrombie was sent to take active command in the 
field in place of Shirley, who had succeeded to the command on the 
fall of Braddock, and Lord Loudon, who had been appointed Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, was placed in supreme command of all the armies 
in America. The plan of campaign of 1756 was a vigorous one. 


Ten thousand men were to attack Crown Point, six tliousand were to 
advance upon Niagara, three thousand were to constitute tiie eohiinn 
to luove against Fort da Quesne, and two thousand were to descend 
from the Kennebec upon the French upon the Cliaudiere IJiver. 
But before any movement could be made, the French, under Mont- 
cabn, crossed Lake Ontario, captured Fort Ontario, kiUing the com- 
mander, Colonel Mercer, took fourteen hundred prisoners, a quantity 
of arms and stores, and several vessels, and having destroyed the forts, 
returned to Canada without serious loss. This threw the whole 
frontier of JS'ew York and the Si.\ Nations, who had remained loyal 
to the English, open to the French. 

Previous to the expedition of Braddock, tlie Indians along the 
upper Ohio, the Shawneese and Delawares, had been kept by frei^uent 
friendly messages from their Fathers, tlie Governors of the colonies, 
but more by high piled up pi'esonts, true to their allegiance to the 
English. Indeed so much confidence had the triendship of the tribes 
inspired that several families had settled along the valley of the 
Monongahela, in Pennsylvania. But the coming of a detachment 
of the French army with their great guns, dressed in showy uniforms, 
the officers bedecked with gold lace and nodding plumes, and taking 
possession unopposed of the strong fort the English were building, 
changed all this. They concluded that the French had established 
themselves permanently here, and consequently they were easily won 
over, and induced to iight with what they judged was the stronger 
party. When Braddock came they were seized with fear at the ap- 
pearance of strength, and were with great difficulty induced to go 
out with Beaujeu to otfer fight. But when they found how easily 
this great force of English was overcome, and what a harvest of 
scalps and booty they gathered with little loss to themselves, they 
were inspired with great contempt for the red coats, and a corres- 
ponding admiration for the French. That battle aroused all the 
bloody instincts that are common to the savage breast. So confident 
did the French become that they could hold the country by the aid 
of the natives, that instead of reinforcing the fort with additional 
troops, they actually sent away a portion of those who were there to 
Venango and other posts beyond. 

Wben, therefore, Braddock's column retreated out of the Monon- 
gahela valley, the settlers, knowing their insecurity, fled to the 
nearest forts for safety. The savages had now the taste of blood, and 
like wild beasts would not be satisfied until they were gorged. Not 
two months from the time when the English retired, the warrior 
chieftain, Shingiss, with a band of warriors from the Delawares and 
Shawneese, had moved out to the Alleghanies and crossed the sum- 
mits. Being now upon the war-path, with stealthy step he came 
upon the unsuspecting settler, and his stony heart was untouched by 


the cries for pity. Tlie tender infant and trembling age were 
mercilessly tomahawked and scalped, and their cabins burned. On 
the 4th of October, wrote to Col. Burd: "Last night came to the. 
Mill at Wolgomoth's, an Express going on to the Governor of Mary- 
land with an account of the inhabitants being out on Patterson's 
Greek; and about the fort the esjjress says, there is forty killed and 
taken, and that one whole family was burned to death in a house. 
The Indians destroyed all before them, firing Houses, Barnes, Stack- 
yards and everything that will burn." Governor Sharpe, of Mary- 
land, writes a few days later to the Governor of Pennsylvania, " I 
have received several letters advising me that the Indians have 
since the Ist inst. (Oct.) cut otf a great n-\any families who lived near 
Fort Cumberland, and on both sides of Potowmack some miles east- 
ward of the fort. It is supposed that near one hundred persons have 
been murdered, or carried away prisoners by these barbarians, who 
have burnt the houses, and ravaged all the plantations. Parties of 
the enemy appear within sight of Fort Cumberland every day, and 
frequently in greater numbers than the garrison consists of. As I 
presume it will not be long before these people pay a visit to your 
borders, I take this opportunity of intimating what I think may be 

And now the torch of savage warfare lighted up all the border, 
and even penetrated far into the older settled portions of the coimtry. 
AVeiser, the Indian trader, sent word to Governor Morris of a mas- 
sacre which had taken place on John Penn's Creek, which flows into 
the S\isquehanna five miles above the confluence of the North and 
West branches. " Several people have been found scalped and twenty- 
eight are missing; the people are in great consternation, and are 
coming down leaving their plantations and corn behind them." A 
party who had been to Shamokin to ascertain where the enemy had 
come from who had perpetrated the outrages on Penn's Creek, were 
fired on by lurking savages on their return, and four were killed and 
four drowned in attempting to cross the river. Warned of their 
danger, the settlements for fifty miles along the river Susquehanna 
were abandoned. • "The people," says Governor Morris to the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, " are mostly without arms, and struck with such a 
panick that they flee as fast as they can from their habitations." 

The portents of Indian depredations now thickened on every side, 
and no doubt exaggerated reports of the coming of the French and In- 
dians helped to swell the consternation. The settlement at Great 
Cove, in Cumbei'land County, was attacked on Sunday morning, Nov. 
2d, when six were killed and seventeen borne away into a captivity 
more terrible than death, The town of Little Cove and Conoloways, 
on the following day were attacked, and the sheriff of the county, Mr. 
Potter, reported "that of ninety- three families which wej'e settled in 


tlie two Coves and tlie Coiioloways, forty-seven vi^ere either killed or 
taken and the rest deserted." Encouraged by their successes gained 
over defenseless settlers whom they stole upon and murdered, the 
Indians pushed on into Berks County, and on the 18tli of November 
the Governor informed the Mayor of Philadelphia, "that the Indians 
have fallen upon the settlements of Tnlpehoscon; that tiiey had 
slaughtered many of the inhabitants, and laid waste the country, 
and were moving towards the town of Reading, which is within sixty 
miles of this city. The Moravian settlement on the Lehigh was 
attacked, and their meeting-house, dwelling houses, barns, in which 
were hay, horses, and forty head of fat cattle, were destroyed. 

The Indians had now compassed the whole frontier east of the 
mountains, stretching from the Delaware Water Gap to the Potomac 
waters, a distance of 150 miles, and a breadth of twenty to thirty 
miles. In a report to the Couucil made on the 29th of JS^ovember, 
the Secretary said, the frontier " has been entirely deserted, the 
houses and improvements reduced to ashes, the cattle, horses, 
grain, goods, and effects of the inhabitants either destroyed, burned, 
or carried off by the Indians. All our accounts agree in this, that 
the French since the defeat of Gen. Braddock, have gained over to 
their interest the Delawares, Shawanees, and many other Indian 
nations formerly in our alliance, aiul on whom, through fear and their 
large promises of rewards for scalps, and assurances of reinstating 
them in the possession of the lands they have sold to the English, 
they have prevailed to take up arms against us, and to join heartily 
with them in the execution of the ground they have been long med- 
itating, the ])Ossession of all the country between the ri\er Ohio and 
the river Susquehanna, and to secure that possession by building a 
strong fort at Shamokin, which, by its so advantageous situation at 
tlie conflux of the two main branches of Susquehanna, one whereof 
interlocks with the waters of the Ohio, and the other heads in the 
center of the country of the Six iS'ations, will command and make the 
French entire masters of all that extensive, rich and fertile country, 
and of all the trade with the Indians, and from whence they can at 
pleasure enter and annoy our territories, and put an effectual stop to 
the future extension of our settlement on that quarter, not to mention 
the many other obvious mischiefs and fatal consequences that must at- 
tend their having a fort at Shamokin." 

So deadly had the Indian incursions become and so threatening 
to the peace and safety of the colony, that the Governor, on the 14th 
of April, issued his proclamation declaring war against the Dela- 
wares, and offering a reward for Indian scalps and prisoners. 
In Virginia the enemy showed a like activity hovering about the 
fort at Mills Creek, and even pushing forward till they had actually 
reached and invested the town of Winchester. AVhereupon tlie Gov- 


ernor called out the militia of the eleven contiguous counties. But 
the campaign iindertaken was fruitless, for when tiie Indians perceived 
a competent force opposed to them, dispersed and disappeared, or 
lured their pursuers on to destruction. 

To check the progress of these savage inroads upon the settle- 
ments troops were raised in Pennsylvania through the influence of 
Franklin, and a line of forts was erected along the Kittatinny Hills, 
extending from the Delaware to the Patoraac, at a cost of £85,000; 
those on the east bank of the Susquehanna being Depui, Lehigh, . 
Alien, Everitt, Williams, Henry, Swatara, Hunter, Halifax and 
Augusta, and those on the west bank Louther, Morris, Franklin, 
Granville, Shirley, Lyttleton and Loudoun. Much difficulty was 
experienced in overcoming the scruples of the Quakers; but Frank- 
lin issued and circulated a dialogue answering the objections to a 
legalized militia, and at the earnest solicitation of the Governor, he 
was put in command of the troops raised. As soon, however, as he 
had the requisite force and saw the work of locating and building the 
forts well under way lie retired to take his seat in the assembly, and 
Colonel Chipham was left in command. 

In July, 1756, King Shingiss, with a hostile band, appeared be- 
fore Fort Granville, now Lewistown, and finding it feebly manned, 
carried it by storm, killing some of its defenders, and carrying away 
captives a considerable number of inmates. The home of this form- 
idable chief was Kittanning, on the banks of the Alleglieny River. 
Here he had quite a town, and here dwelt Captain Jacobs, chief of 
the Delaware?. The French supplied them with arms and ammuni- 
tion and needed supplies, which were floated down the Venango and 
Allegheny Kivers. At the time of this attack upon tlie fort at 
Lewistown, Colonel John Armstrong was in command of the Second 
regiment of Pennsylvania troops, stationed west of the Susquehanna, 
and it was determined to send iiim in pursuit of these dusky warriors. 
Cautiously pushing forward from the point of rendeznous at Fort 
Shirley, now Huntingdon County, with a force of some three hun- 
dred men, sending forward scouting parties to prevent discovery, he 
fortunately came in close upon the town without discovery. From 
his ofKcial report dated at Fort Lyttleton (Bedford), September 14, 
he says: We lost much time "from the ignorance of our pilots, 
who neither knew the true situation of the town, nor the best paths 
that led tliereto; by which means after crossing a number of hills 
and valleys our front reached the river Allegheny about one hundred 
perches below the main body of the town a little before the setting 
of the moon, to which place, rather than by pilots, we were guided 
by the beating of the drum, and the whooping of the warriors at 
their dances. It then became us to make the best use of our moon- 
light; but we were aware an Indian whistled in a very singular 


manner, about thirty perches from our front in tlie foot of a corn- 
field, upon which we immediately sat down, and after passing silence 
to the rear, I asked one Baker, a soldier, who was our best assistant, 
whether that was not a signal to their warriors of our approach. He 
answered, -Mio;" and said it was the manner of a young fellow call- 
ing a squaw, after he had done his dance, who, accordi'ngly kindled 
a lire, cleaned liis gun, and shot it ofi' before he went to sleep." 

The night was warm and the Indians prepared to sleep in differ- 
ent parts of the corn field, building some light fires to drive away 
gnats. Sending a part of his force along the hills to tlie right to ciit 
off retreat in that direction, he himself led the larger part below and 
opposite the corn field where he supposed the warriors lay. At 
break of day the attack was made, advancing rapidly throuo-h tlie 
corn and sending a detachment to advance up .n the houses. "Cap- 
tain Jacobs then gave the warwhoop, and with sundry other Indians, 
as the English prisoners afterwards told us, cried, 'the white men 
were at last come, they would have scalps enough,' but at the same 
time ortlered the squaws and children to flee to the woods." The 
fire in tlie corn field was brisk, and frcni the houses, which were built 
of logs and loopholed, the Indians did some execution without expios- 
ing themselves. Accordingly the order was given to fire the houses, 
and as the flames spread the Indians were summoned to surrender, 
but one of them said: '-I am a man, and will not be a prisoner." 
He was told that he would be burned. To this he replied that he 
did not care for he would kill four or five before he died. " As the 
tire began to approach, and the smoke grow thick, one of the Indian 
fellows to show his manhood began to sing. A squaw in the same 
house, and at the same time, was heard to cry and make a noise; 
hut for so doing was severely rebuked by the men; but, by and by,' 
the fire being too hot for them, two Indian fellows and" a squaw 
sprang out and made for the corn field, who were immediately shut 
down; then surrounding the houses, it was thought Captain Jacobs 
tumbled himself out at the garret or cockloft window at which he 
was shot — our prisoners offering to be qualified to the powder-horn 
and pouch, there taken oft' him, which they say he had lately got 
from a French officer, in exchange for Lieutenant Armstrong's boots, 
which he carried from Fort Greenville, where the Lieutenant was 
killed. The same prisoners say they are perfectly assured of his 
scalp, as no other Indians there wore their hair in the same manner. 
They also say they know the squaw's scalp by a particular bob, and 
also know the scalp of a young Indian called the King's Son. Be- 
fore this time. Captain Hugh Mucer, who early in the action was 
wounded in the arm, had been taken to the top of the hill above the 
town, to where a number of the men and some of the ofticers were 


When all the liouses liad been lired Colonel Armstrong deter- 
mined to take to the hills before destroying the corn and beating up 
the savages probably lurking there, for fear of being surrounded and 
cut oft" by reinforcements from Du Quesne, or French coming down 
the river, as Indians had been seen crossing the river from above. 
"During the burning of the houses," says Colonel Armstrong, 
" which were nearly thirty in number, we were agreeably entertained 
with a quick succession of charged guns gradually firing off', as they 
were reached by the lire; but more so with the vast explosion of 
sundry bags and large kegs of gun powder, where with almost every 
house abounded. The prisoners afterwards informed us that the 
Indians had frequently said they had a sufficient stock of ammuni- 
tion for ten years, to war with the English. With the roof of Cap- 
tain Jacob's house, when the powder blew up, was thrown the leg and 
thigh of an Indian, with a child of three or four years old, such a height 
that they appeared as nothing, and fell into the adjacent corn field. 
There was also a great quantity of goods burnt, wliich the Indians 
had received but ten days before from the French." 

On the day before a party of twenty-four Indians had been sent 
out from Kittanning as the advance force that was to have followed, 
to destroy Fort Shirley, Croghan's fort on the Juniata. This scout- 
ing party fell in with a party of Armstrong's men, under Lieutenant 
Hogg, who had been left in charge of the horses and baggage, and a 
sharp skirmish ensued causing loss on both sides, but in which the 
savages were eventually put to flight. Lieutenant tlogg was mortally 

Though there was not so much accomplished as could have been 
desired, owing to the ignorance of the guides, and the difficulty of 
approaching so alert and wily a foe, yet it must be regarded as a 
signal success, brought aliout by a display of bravery and skill rarely 
excelled in conducting campaigns against Indians. The place had 
to be found by ways entirely unknown to them ; the log-houses were 
well provided with port-holes, from which the occupants could fli-e 
upon the troops approaching without exposing themselves, and the 
corn field gave cover to the skulking manner of savage warfare. In 
the face of these difficulties Armstrong boldly advanced till he found 
the town, skillfully posted his little force so as to cut oft" retreat, and 
after a stubborn fight put the savages to the sword, burned their 
town, destroyed their supplies of ammunition and French goods, and 
brought off" his force with but the loss of seventeen killed, thirteen 
wounded, and nineteen missing. The loss of the Indians was un- 
known, ""but on a inoderate computation, it is generally believed that 
thei'e cannot be less than thirty or forty killed or mortally wounded." 
The blow was sorely felt by tlie Indians. It called a halt in their 
ravages, and reminded them that there were blows to take as well as 

tl . 1 


G^^H^ ^a^^itd^O ^cS~ 


give. It caused them to ask themselves what tliey were gainincf by 
tlieir warfare upon tlie English, and wliat they were really receiving 
from the French beyond ammunition and guns with which to prose- 
cute the war. They found tiiemseives pushed forward to do the 
lighting wliile the French could lay back in their secure fortifications, 
and reap the advantages of their temerity. 

Great was tlie rejoicing in Philadelphia at the result-of this ex- 
pedition; the councils voted thanks for the success attending the 
enterprise, and the sum of £150, for the purchase of presents for the 
officers and for the relief of the families of the killed. On the com- 
mander was bestowed a medal bearing on one side the words, " Kit- 
tanning destroyed by Colonel Armstrong, September, 1756," and on 
tiie other, "The gift of the corporation of Philadelphia." 

The campaign of 1757 in America, was conducted on the part of 
the English with little judgment or vigor. Tlie dilatory, brainless 
Lord Loudoun was in supreme command in America, and confined his 
principal operation to an attack npon Louisburg. Put when ar- 
rived with a strong land force and a powerful fleet, being told that 
the enemy outnumbered him, he abandoned the enterprise and re- 
turned to New York without even showing a hostile front. In the 
meantime, the French under Montcalm, had struck a blow at Fort 
William Henry in norlliern New York, and compelled the garrison 
to surrender, three thousand strong. In marching off with the honors 
of war accorded them by Montcalm, the enraged Indians, not accus- 
tomed to see an enemy escape in that way, fell upon the retreating 
English and made a great slaughter, plundered their baggage, and 
]iursucd them to their shelter. 

At this juncture of disgrace (29th of June, 1757.) William Pitt 
was called to the head of the British ministry. Mortified by the 
failures of his country, he planned to prosecute the war in America 
in his peerless way. The heartless Lord Loudoun was recalled and 
General Abercrombie was placed in command of the land, and Ad- 
miral Boscawen of a strong naval force. Twelve thousand additional 
regulars were dispatched to America, and the colonies were asked to 
raise twenty thousand tnore, Pitt promising in the name of Parlia- 
ment to furnish arms and provisions, and to reimburse all the money 
expended in raising and clothing them. The word of Pitt was magi- 
cal, fifteen thousand volunteering from New England alone. Louis- 
burg, Tieonderoga, and Fort I)u Quesne, were to be the points of at- 
tack in the cainpaign 9f 1758. Admiral Boscawen arrived at Ilalifa.x in 
Maywith forty vessels of war and twelve thousand men.underGenerals 
Amherst and AVolfe. Louisburg was invested, and though a vigor- 
ous defence for fifty <lays was maintained, it was compelled to sur- 
rendei- with a loss of tivi' thousand prisonei-s, a large quantit}' of 


munitions of war, and tlie destruction of all the shipping in the 

But not so well fared the advance upon Ticonderoga, which was 
made by General Abercronibie and the young Lord Howe. With 
seven thousand regulars, nine thousand provincials, and a heavy 
artillery train, an advance was made upon the fort defended by Mont- • 
calm with scarcely four thousand French. The attack was vigorously 
made, but Lord Howe was killed in a skirmish with a scouting party, 
and after four hours of severe lighting and the loss of two thousand 
men, Abercrombie, finding the work stronger tlian he had anticipated, 
fell back discomforted, and after sending out a force under Colonel 
Bradstreet, who captured Fort Frontenac, and subsequently built 
Fort Stanwix, where Rome, New York, now stands, and garrisoned 
Fort George, he retired with the main body to Albany. The fall of 
Frontenac, with the loss of a thousand prisoners, ten armed vessels, 
fifty serviceable cannon, sixteen mortars, a large quantity of ammu- 
nition and stores, and valuable magazines of goods designed for 
trade with the Indians, was a heavy blow to the French, as it de- 
prived them of their great store-house for supplies. 

The campaign against Fort Du Quesne was entrusted to General 
John Forbes, with about nine thousand men, including the Virginia 
militia under Wasliington, stationed at Fort Cumberland. Forbes 
was a sick man, and was detained on that account in Philadelphia, 
while Boqnet, who was second, moved forward with his forces. 
Washington favored an advance by Braddock's road, but Boquet 
chose a line more direct, and further north. Tlie labor of cutting an 
entirely new road through the trackless forest and over craggy steeps 
was toilsome. 

In the meantime, that the Indians, who had thus far fought des- 
perately for the French, might be weakened in tlieir adherence, a 
messenger was sent to visit the tribes upon the Ohio, to show these 
dusky men of the forest how they were being used by their masters 
the French, for their own selfish purposes. The agent selected M'as 
a Moravian, Christian Post, a man who had spent much time among 
the Indians, and had married among them. He was a pious man 
speaking much in scripture phrase, and apparently sincerely believ- 
ing that he was under the special care of divine Providence, and it 
is a singular fact confirmatory of his belief, that although he made 
two journeys back and forth conveying messages from the Governor 
and from General Forbes, through a country everywhere infested liy 
hostile savages thirsting for scalps, he escaped unharmed, and was 
everywhere kindly received and his pious conversation treasured in 
their hearts. Flis broad brimmed hat was like a halo over him. In 
closing his journal after a safe return, he says, "The Lord has pre- 
served me through all the dangers and difficulties I have ever been 


under. He directed nie according to liis will, by Lis holy spirit. 1 
had no one to converse with but him. He brought me under a thick, 
heavy, and a dark cloud, into the open air; for wliich I adore, praise, 
and worship the Lord my God, that I know has grasped me in his 
liands, and has forgiven me all my sins, and has sent and washed my 
heart with his most precious blood; that I now live not for myself, 
but for him that made me; and to do his holy will is my pleasure." 

Sucli was the spirit in wiiich he went, and it was this spirit which 
inclined the most warlike and hostile Indians to listen. They would 
share with him their last morsel, would conduct him on his way, and 
watch patiently over him thi'ough the long hours of the gloomy night, 
that no evil should befall him. They were, therefore, disposed to 
listen to his message, and when he showed them that they were 
being put forward by the French to tight their battles, and tiiat the 
purpose of the French was to hold all this line country, and if they 
were successful in driving off the English, they would then turn upon 
the poor Indians and drive them off, they began to realize the truth 
of his words. 

The following fragment of a conversation recorded in Post's 
tirst journal will illustrate the nature of his mission: " Now Brother 
(Post), we (Pisquetumen, Tom Hickman, and Shingiss), love you, 
but cauTiot help wondering why the English and French do not make 
up with one another, and tell one another not to fight on our land.'' 
Post replied to them, " Brother, if the English told the French so a 
thousand times, they never would go away. Brother, you know so 
long as the world has stood there has not been such a war. You 
know when the French lived on the other side the war was there, 
and here we lived in peace. Consider how many thousand men are 
killed, and how many houses are burned since the French lived here; 
if they had not been here it would not have been so; you know we 
do not blame you; we blame the French; they are the cause of this 
war; therefore, wedo not come to hurt you, but to chastise the French." 

The effect which tiie words of the messenger had upon the In- 
dians, may be judged by the following answer which was made to a 
messenger of the French who had come with wampum to summon 
them to the fort, hy a party of chieftains who had assembled to con- 
fer with Post: "Give it (the wainpum) to the French captain and 
let him go with his young men; he boasted much of his fighting; 
now let us see his fighting. We liave often ventured our lives for 
him; and hardly a loaf of bread, when we came to him; and now he 
thinks we should jump to serve him." 

The Indian is naturally a worshiper, a bundle of superstitions. 
Though possessed of savage instincts they were captivated by Poit 
because he professed to be ever under the control of the great spirit, 
and spoke with such trust, as though he was upon earth a vicegerent 


of tlie Lord. Post himself says of tliein ; " There is not a prouder, 
or more high-minded people, in themselves, than the Indians. They 
think themselves the wisest and j^rudentest men in the world; and 
that they can overpower both the French and English when they 
please. The white people are in their eyes, nothing at all. They 
say that through their conjuring craft, they can do what they please, 
and nothing can withstand them. In their way of lighting, they 
have this method, to see that they first shoot the ofticers and com- 
manders, and then they say they shall be sure to have them. They 
also say, that if their conjurers run through the middle of our jieo- 
pl'e no bullet can hurt them. They say too that when they have 
shot the commanders the soldiers will all be confused, and will not 
know what to do. They say of themselves, that every one of them 
is like a king and captain, and fights for himself. They say that 
the English people are fools; they hold their guns half man high, 
and then let them snap; we take sight and have them at a shot and 
so do the French. They say the French load with a bullet, and six 
swan shot. We take care to have the first shot at our enenjies and 
then they are half dead before they begin to fight." 

The efforts of the messenger had great inttuence with the sav- 
ages. In the midst of his conference with them, a Cayuga Chief 
delivered a string in the name of the Six Nations, who had always 
remained true to the English, with these words: " Cousing, hear 
what I have to say; I see you are sorry, and the tears stand in your 
eyes. I would open your eyes, and clear your eyes from tears, so 
that you may see, and hear what your uncles, the Six Nations have to 
say. We have established a friendship with your brethren, the 
English. We see that you are all over bloody, on your body. I 
clean the heart from dust, and your eyes from tears, and your bodies 
from the blood, that you may hear and see j'our brethren, the En- 
glish, and appear clean before them, and that you may speak from the 
heart with them." 

It is not strange that the grave Cayuga chief should say, re- 
membering how the Ohio Indians had imbrued themselves in the 
affair with Braddock and had murdered and massacred along the 
whole frontier, "you are all over bloody, on your body," speaking in 
that Indian figurative way which was their custom. It was by such 
means as these we have here detailed, by messages taken among 
them by this plain Moravian Christian in his plain garb, that the In- 
dians were brought to realize the true position tliey were sustaining 
to the French, and the ties which bound them were loosened, so that 
when the English came in force their work was in a measure already 

Colonel Boquet, who had prevailed upon General Forbes, the 
commander of the expedition, and who had been left sick in Phila- 


ilelpliia, to allow him to cut a new road over the luouutaiiis wholly 
ill Peuiisylvauia, had made so slow progress, that so late as Septem- 
ber he was still with six thousand men not over the Alleghany 
Mountains. At liaystown, now Bedford, the General came up with 
the column, and was there jonied by AV^ashington from Fort Cumber- 
hind. Colonel Boquet, with 2,000 men had already advanced to 
Loyalhanna. That it might be known what was the condition of the 
country in front, and the temper of the foe. Major Grant, accompa- 
nied with Major Andrew Lewis, of the Virginia forces, and a detach- 
ment of eight hundred men, was sent forward on the 11th of Sep- 
tember to reeonnoiter. The third day out Grant arrived close in 
upon the fort without meeting any foe. Having left the baggage 
two miles to the rear, with his main force Grant approached under 
cover of darkness within a quarter of a mile, overlooking the fort. 
Early in the morning Major Lewis was sent with four hundred men 
to lay in ambush along the path by which they had come, and the 
remaining force with Grant lay along the hill facing the fort. Then 
sending out a company under Captain McDonald, with drums beat- 
ing, in the liope of drawing on the enemy, he waited the result, 
hoping that the garrison was weak. But in this he was mistaken ; 
for they followed the decoy in great numbers, and boldly attacked. 
The regulars stood up Itoldly and were shot down from the coverts. 
The Americans took to the woods and fought Indian style. Major 
Lewis joined in the light. Major Grant showed the most intrepid 
bravery, exposing himself to the enemy's lire, but all to no purpose. 
Many were drowned in attempting to cross the river. Seeing that 
he was outnumbered and hemmed in by the enemy standing on com- 
manding ground. Grant retired to the baggage, where Captain Bullet 
had held his company, and as the enemy came on with assurance, his 
little force made a determined stand, doing good execution. Here 
Grant endeavored to rally his broken columns; but the terror of the 
scalping knife had seized them, and one by one they slipped away. 
Bullet finding his force dwindling finally gave the order to retire; 
but the resolute stand he had made enabled the main body to retire 
without molestation, and the hail of bullets he had poured into the 
faces of the foe left them no stomach to pursue. The loss in this 
engagement was two hundred and seventy-two killed, forty-two 
wounded, and many, including Grant, taken prisoners. The loss in 
killed was out of all proportion to the wounded, and the number en- 
gaged. The ambuscade could not have been well planned, or was 
badly executed. Grant was sent with his force to reconnoitre and ascer- 
tain the strength and disposition of the enemy. Instead he marched 
his forces full upon the fort and offered the challenge of battle. The 
enemy, by keeping quiet in their fort and simulating fear, gave the 
impression that they were weak, so that when they threw off the 


disguise, and rushed out in overwhelming numbers, they went to an 
easy victory. 

Gathering confidence by their great slaughter and great rout 
of the English here, detennined them to follow up their advantage, 
hoping to find the main body thrown into coTifusion and ready to 
retreat as the Braddock army had done under the timid Dunbar. 
Accordingly they came on rejoicing in their strength, twelve hun- 
dred French and two hundred Indians, led by De Vetri, and boldly 
attacked the camp of Boquet at Loyalhanna on the 12tli of October. 
From eleven in the morning till three in the afternoon the battle was 
maintained with great furj^ when the French, finding that the Eng- 
lish were not likely to run, withdrew, but at night renewed the 
attack, hoping, between the terrors of the night and the wild whoop 
of the Indian brandishing his scalping knife, to start a stampede. 
But Boqueb was prepared, and, " when, in return for their melodious 
music," says the chronicler, " we gave them some shells from our 
mortars, it soon made them retreat." The loss in this engagement 
was twelve killed, seventeen wounded, and thirty-one prisoners. It 
will be observed that in this last engagement the French were com- 
pelled to do most of the fighting themselves, showing that the sava- 
ges were beginning to tire of their adhesion to the Frencli. 

General Forbes now pushed forward with the main body of the 
army from Bedford to Loyalhanna, where he arrived about the first 
of November. Here the wintry weather set in unusually early, and 
the summits were already white with snow. A council of war was 
held, and it was decided that it was impracticable to prosecute the 
campaign further before the opening of the spring. But it having 
been learned from captives that the garrison at Du Quesne was weak, 
the Indians having mostly gone ofi" on their autumn hunt preparatory 
for the winter, the decision of the council was reversed, and Forbes 
gave orders to push on with all possible despatch. Colonel Wash- 
ington was sent forward with a detachment to open the road, in 
prosecuting which he had a slight skirnaish with the enemy, and a 
small force sent out to his assistance under Colonel Mercer having 
been mistaken for the foe, was fired upon and several fell. Hav- 
ing pushed forward Colonel Armstrong with a thousand men to aid 
Washington in opening the road. General Forbes followed with the 
main body, four thousand three hundred effective men, leaving a well- 
appointed force at Bedford and Loyalhanna. When arrived within 
twelve miles of the fort a rumor was current that the French, eitlier 
by accident or design, had blown up the fort, and all had been burned. 
This was soon confirmed by the arrival of Indian scouts, who had 
been near enough to see the ruins. A company of cavalry was dis- 
patched with instructions to extinguish the flames and save all the 
property possible. The whole army now pushed forward with joyous 


Step, and arrived on the 29tli; but only the blackened chimneys of 
the (|narters* and the walls of the fort remained. It was found that 
a strong work had been built at the point between the two rivers, 
and a much larger one apparently nntinished some distance up the 
bank of the Allegheny. There were two magazines, one of which 
had been blown up, and in the otlier were found sixteen barrels of 
ammunition, gun-barrels, a quantity of carriage iron, and a wacron 
load of scalping knives. The cannon had all disappeared, probably 
had been taken do\v7i the Ohio. The garrison, which consisted o"f 
some tive hundred French, had separated, a part having gone down 
the Ohio, a hundred had gone to Presque Isle by an Indian path, and 
the remainder, with the Governor de Lignery, moved up the Alle- 
gheny to P'ort Venango, where he informed the natives tliat he would 
winter and go down in the spring and rout the English. 

A somewhat more spirited acconnt of this important event is 
given by Mr. Ormsby, a commissary in the army, as quoted in tlie 
Western Annals: '"At Turtle Creek a council of war was held, the 
result of which was, that it was impracticable to proceed, all the pro- 
visions and forage being exhausted. On the General's being told of 
this, he swore a furious oath, that he would sleep in the fort oi- in a 
worse place the next night. It was a matter of indifference to the 
General where he died, as he was carried the whole distance from 
Philadelphia and back on a litter. About midniglit a tremendous 
explosion was heard from the westward, on which Forbes swore that 
the French magazine was blown up, which revived our spirits. This 
conjecture of the ' head of iron' was soon conlirmed by a deserter 
from Fort du Quesne, who said that the Indians, who had watched 
the English army, reported that they were as numerous as the trees 
in the woods. This so terrified the French that they set fire to their 
magazine and barracks, and pushed off, some up and some down the 

Forbes now saw himself in possession of the fort and the com- 
manding ground, which, for four years, the English had been strug- 
gling for. "Well knowing that he could not subsist his army and 
beasts here, he rapidly threw up an earthwork on the Monongahela 
bank, and, leaving Colonel Mercer in command with two hundred 
men, he retired with the army to Loyallianna, where he built a block- 
house, which he stocked with stores and manned with a garrison, and 
then moved back across the mountains. He died in the following 
March. The Gazette said of him: "His services in America are 
well known. By a steady pursuit of well concerted measures, in 
defiance of disease and numberless obstructions, he brought to a 
happy issue a most extraordinary campaign, and made a willino- 
sacrifice of his own life to what he valued more — the interests of his 
King and country." 


The campaigns of the English in 1758 had proved very success- 
ful. Louisburg, Frontenac and du Quesne were in Iheir hands. 
Pitt was now become the master of tlie Parliament- and nation. 
Elated by his successes in America, he formed the bold plan of not 
only holding the Ohio valley, but of conquering and possessing the 
whole of Canada. The Indians, too, had been shaken in their 
al.egiance to the French, a great council-fire having been kindled at 
Easton in the summer of 1758, at whicii the Delawares, Shawneese, 
Nanticokes, Mohegans, Conoys, Monseys and Tvvigtwees sat, and 
pledged lasting friendship for the English. The terms of this treaty 
were carried by the Moravian, Post, to the tribes upon the Ohio, who 
still remained hostile, which he often refers to in his journal, and 
conti'ibuted largely to weaken their faith in the French cause. 

The Secretary, Pitt, had kept his word with the colonists, and had 
fully reimbursed them for all their expenses, in the sum of over a 
million dollars. They were therefore ready to second him in his 
grand schemes of ending French dominion in America. His plan 
was a bold one. General Amherst succeeded Abercrombie in chief 
command. Twenty thousand provincials and a strong detachment 
of land and naval forces of regulars stood ready to execute his orders. 
General Wolfe M'as sent up the St. Lawrence against Quebec. Amherst 
himself was to move upon Lake Champlain and seize Montreal, and 
General Prideaux was to capture Fort Niagara. Amherst took the 
field, and with eleven thousand men moved upon Fort Ticonderoga, 
which the French abandoned without a struggle. Amherst pursued 
to Crown Point, which the French likewise abandoned and fled to 
Isle Aux Noix in the Sorel Piver. Deterred from pursuing further 
by the heavy storms that now, October 11, began to prevail, he re- 
tired to Crown Point, where he built a fortress and placed his army 
in winter quarters. 

General Prideaux, with Sir William Johnson second in com- 
mand, moved by transport from Oswego by Lake Ontario to Niagara, 
and laid seige to the fort. Prideaux was almost immediately killed 
by the bursting of a gun, and the command devolved upon Johnson. 
For three weeks the closely beleagured garrison of French held out, 
when on the 24:th of July a force of three thousand French came to 
their relief. But Johnson so met them that they were put to rout 
after a desperate and sanguinary engagement, and on the following 
day the garrison, some seven hundred men, surrendered. After 
having strongly garrisoned this fort, the last remaining link between 
Canada and the Ohio country, Johnson returned home. 

General Wolfe with eight thousand troops, and a fleet under 
Admirals Holmes and Saunders, moved up the St. Lawrence, and 
landed on Orleans Island, a little below Quebec, on the 27th of 
June, Montcalm with a strong body of French regulars held the 


§ A 

Ct y>/y S~-id^U^ 


town, which in the upper part, comprising a local plateau some three 
hundred feet above the water, known as the Plains of Abraham, was 
fortified. By throwing hot shot from Point Levi, opposite the town, 
the English nearly destroyed the lower town, but could not reach 
the upper portion. An attempt to force the passage of the Mont- 
morenci failed with a loss of Hve hundred men. For eight weeks all 
attempts to take the city proved fruitless. Meantime Wolfe had 
heard of the partial failure of Amherst, and the prospect seemed 
gloomy enough. Finally, by the advice of General Townsend, his 
faithful lieutenant, he determined to scale the rugged blutt which 
hems in the river, by secret paths. Accordingly, on the evening of 
the 12th of September, ascending the river with nuittted oars to the 
mouth of a ravine, and following trusty guides, Wolfe brought his 
whole army with artillery by sunrise upon the Plains of Abralianj,niucli 
to the surprise and discomfiture of the French, whose attention had been 
diverted by a noisy demonstration where a previous attempt had been 
made. Montcalm immediately drew up his entire force to meet the 
offered wager of battle. Long and fiercely the battle raged, but 
everywhere the French were worsted. Both Generals were mortally 
wounded. AVhen at length Wolfe heard the glad accents of victory, 
he asked to have his head raised, and when he beheld the French 
fleeing on all sides he exclaimed with his failing breath, '• I die 

The campaign of 175'J, like the preceding, ended gloriously for 
the combined English and American arms, yet the French were not 
entirely dis])ossessed of power in Canada. Early in the spring of 1760, 
Yaudreuil, Governor General, sent Levi, successor to Montcalm, with 
si.K frigates and a strong force to retake Quebec, lie was met three 
miles from the city by General Murray, and a very sanguinary battle 
was fought on April 28th, in which the English were defeated, 
Murray losing a thousand men and all his artillery. Levi now laid 
siege to the city, and just when its condition was becoming perilous 
from the lack of sup|jlies, a British squadron with reinforcements and 
supplies appeared in the St. Lawrence. AVhereupon Levi hastily 
raised the siege, and losing most of his shipping, fled to Montreal. 
Vaudreuil now had but one stronghold left, that of Montreal, and 
here he gathered in all his forces and prepared to defend his " last 
ditch." Early in September, three English armies met before the 
city. First came Amherst on the 6th with ten thousand, accompanied 
by Johnson with a thousand of the Six Nations, and on the same 
day came Murray with four thousand from Quebec, and on the fol- 
lowing day Col. Ilaviland with three thousand from Crown Point. 
Seeing that it would be useless to hold out against such a force, 
Vaudreuil capitulated, surrendering Montreal and the entire dominion 
of Canada into the hands of the English. This ended the war upon 


the land. But upon the ocean, and among the West India Islands, it 
was prosecuted until 1763, when a treaty of peace was signed at 
Paris, February 10th, whereby France surrenderedall her possessions 
ill America east of the Mississippi and north of the latitude of the 
Iberville River, and Spain at the same time ceded to the English 
East and West Florida. 

Thus was the Indian war, virtually commenced by planting the 
leaden plates by the French along the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers, 
and commonly designated in history as the Seven Years' War, 
brought to a snccessful close, by the vast plans of empire formed by 
the comprehensive mind of Pitt, though at a cost to the British nation 
of five hundred and sixty millions of dollars. 

And now was forever settled the question whether the population 
about to spread over the beautiful valleys bordering upon the Alle- 
gheny and Monongahela Rivers — La Belle Riviere, — should be an 
English or a French speaking people, should be Catholic or 



Mixn OF Indian Poisoned — Tiik Rkd and White Man Live TorjETiiER 
— PoNTiAc — His CoNsriEACY — Game of l>A(;(tATnvA — Gladwin 
AT Detroit — Indian Girl Discloses the Plot — Pontiac Foiled 
— Concealed Muskets — Attacks the Fokt — Gladwin Secures 
Supplies— PoNTiAc's Orders FOR Sui'i'LiES Made on Birch Hark — 
Dalzell Sentfor Succor — Boldly Offers Battle — Repulsed, 
Death — Settlers Driven From Their Homes — Pitiable Con- 
dition — Presc^e Isle — Le Boeif and Venaniso Fall — Fort 
Pitt Attacked — Commander Summoned to Surrender — Bo- 
yuET Sent for Relief — Battle of Bushy Run — Won r.x 
Strate(;v — Raise the Sieue — Bihjuet Enters — £100 Offered 
for Pontiac — Colonel Bradstreet — Deceived hy the Indians 
— Boch'et Firm — Demands Prisoners and Hostaoes — Is Stern 
— Makes Terms — Captives Broucht In — Not Reco((nized — 
Many Prefer to Stay With the Indians — Lovers Bra\"e All 
FOR Their Loves — Son(; of the German Mother — Pontiac 
Yields — Miserable Death. 

THE treaty of Paris put a period to the sanguinary campaigns 
of the Seven Years' War, so far as treaty stipulations could. IJut 
the Indians, who liad confederated with the French, could not be 
reached nor bound by stipulations made three thousand miles away 
across the ocean, in which they had no voice. Though some of the 
tribes assembled and smoked tlie pipe of peace with the Englisii, j'et 
they had grown suspicious. The French had poisoned their minds 
against tlie I^nglish, telling them that the desire to ol)tain tlie fine 
lands was the motive which incited this deadly warfare, and that if 
the French were finally beaten, then the English would turn upon the 
natives, and drive them from all their pleasant hunting grounds. 
Though the French in America had accepted the conditions of the 
treaty, and were as a nation willing to be bound bj' it, yet there 
were individuals in whose breasts the recollection of sore defeats still 
rankled, and who saw in the hostility of the red men a means of 
wreaking their vengeance. 

The thoughtful Indians saw, or fancied they saw, that daily com- 
ing to pass which the French had told them. They asked them- 
selves, not without reason, why the English were so intent to drive 


the French from the Ohio valley, spending freely hundreds of mil- 
lions of money, and sacrilicing countless lives, if they did not expect 
to occupy these luxuriant valleys themselves; and when they saw the 
surveyor with his Jacob's staff and chain advancing as the armies 
retired, blazing his way through the forests, and setting up his mon- 
uments to mark the limits of the tracts, he was strongly confirmed 
in his suspicions. The English contemplated doing, so far as re- 
claiming the forests and settling the country, what was eventually 
done; but they indulged the hope that the red man and the pale-face 
could dwell together in peace and unity, as the white man and the 
African have done since. But that dream had a baseless fabric. 
Hunting, fishing and war were the occupations of the one, while 
the arts of peace on farm, in workshop and mill, were the delight 
of the other. 

The mutterings of discontent were heard among the Indians dur- 
ing the seasons of 1760-1-2, and secret enterprises of dangerous 
consequence had been detected and broken up. Major liogers, who 
M'ith a small detachment had been sent to receive the surrender of 
the French posts along the great lakes of the Northwest, and raise 
tlie English colors, had met on his way the chief of the Ottawas, 
Pontiac, who dwelt on the Michigan Peninsula, who demanded from 
Rogers Avhy he was entering upon the land of the Ottawas with a 
hostile band without his permission. Explanations ensued, the pipe 
of peace was smoked, and Pogers was allowed to proceed on his 

But ill concealed disaffection existed among all the tribes as they 
saw the emblem of the power of Britain lioating from posts along all 
the lakes and the great river courses. Even the Six Nations, who 
had always remained the fast friends of the English, especially the 
Senacas, showed signs of hostility. These, with the Delawares and 
Shawnees, for two years had been holding secret communications 
with the tribes of the great Northwest, laboring to induce them to 
join in a war of extermination upon the English. " So spoke the 
Senacas," ,says Bancroft, " to the Delawares, and they to the 
Shawnees, and the Shawnees to the Miamis, and Wyandots, whose 
chiefs, slain in battle by the English, were still unavenged, until every- 
where, from the Falls of Niagara and the piny declivities of the 
Alleghanies to the whitewood forests of the Mississippi, and the 
borders of Lake Superior, all the nations concerted to rise and put 
the English to death." 

It was not easy to arouse the tribes to united action, many feel- 
ing themselves bound to the English by treaties, and some by real 
friendsiiip. It was necessary to work upon their superstition. A 
chief of the Abenakis declared that the great Manitou had shown 
himself to him in a dream saying: "I am the Lord of Life; it is I 

insTOin' OF GRKF.NK COUNTY. 171 

vvlio made all men; I wake for their safety. T.ierefore 1 give you 
warnint;, that if you suifer the Englishineii to dwell among you, 
their diseases and their poisons sliali destroy you utterly, and you 
shall all die." 

The leader in all these discontents was Pontiac. lie was now 
about lifty years old. He had been taken a prisoner from the 
Catawbas, and had been adopted into the tribe of the Ottawas, in- 
stead of having been tortured and burned, and had by his cuuning 
and skill risen to be chief, and was now asserting his authority over 
all the tribes of the north. ^ Pontiac had been a leading warrior, a 
sort of lieutenant general in the battle of the Monongaliela, in 
which General Braddock had been worsted and mortally .wounded. 
Seeing what slaughter his people had then wrought he doubtless 
thouglit that it would be easy, if all the Indians could be united, to 
utterly exterminate .the English, and reclaim their country. Accord- 
ingly he sent out his runners to all the tribes in the northwest, with 
the black wampum, the signal for war, and the red tomahawk, direct- 
ing to prepare for war, and on a day agreed upon they were to rise, 
overpower the garrisons, and then lay waste and utterly exterminate 
the English settlers. That he might rouse the entire people he sum- 
moned the chiefs to a council, which was held at the river Ecorces on 
the 27th of April, 1763. Pontiac met them with the war-belt in his hand 
and spoke in his native and iirey eloquence. He pointed to the Prit- 
ish tlags floating everywhere, to the chieftains slain unavenged. He 
said the blow must now be struck or their hunting grcmnds would 
be forever lost. The chiefs received his words with accents of ap- 
proval, and separated to arouse their people and engage in the great 
conspiracy. The plan was skillfully laid. They were to fall upon 
the frontiers along all the settlements during harvest time, and 
destroy the corn and cattle, when they could fall upon all the out- 
posts which should hold out and reduce them, pinched with hunger. 
The blow fell at the concerted signal and blood and devastation 
marked the course of the conspirators. So sudden and une.xpected 
was the attack that of eleven forts only three of them were success- 
fully defended, Venango, Le Poeuf, Presque Isle, La Baj', St. Joseph's, 
Miamis, Ouachtunon. Sandusky and Michilimackinac, falling into 
their hands, the garrisons being mei'cilessly slaughtered; l)etroit, 
Niagara and Fort I'itt alone holding out. 

Among the first to feel the blow was Michilimackinac. Major 
Etherington, who was in command, felt no alarm at the assemliling 
of an unusual number of the tribes under their chief Menehwehna; 
though he had been warned of their hostility. But so confident was 
the Major of their jjacific intentions that he threatened to send any 
one who should express a doubt of their friendly purposes a prisoner 
to Detroit. On the 4th of June, tlie Indians to tlie numl)er of about 


four hundred began, as if in sport, to play a game of ball, called 
baggatiway. Two stakes are driven into the earth something like a 
mile apart, and the ball is placed on the ground midway between 
them. Dividing their party into two sides each strives to drive the 
ball by means of bats to the stake of the other. This game they 
commenced, and the strife became fierce and noisy. Presently the 
ball was sent, as if by accident, over the stockade into the fort when 
the whole company rnshed pell mell into the fort. This maneuvre 
was repeated several times without exciting any suspicion. Finally, 
having discovered all of the interior desired, they again sent the ball 
within, and when all had gained admission, suddenly turned upon 
the gari'ison, ninety in number, and murdered all but twenty, whom 
they led away to be made the subjects of torture or servitude. 

For several reasons tlie fort at what is now Detroit was among 
the most imj^ortant of all the fortified posts. 'Its location on the 
river which connects the upper with the lower lakes gives it the 
command of these great waterways, and along its margin ran the 
chief Indian war-path into the great Northwest. Attracted by the 
fertility of the soil, and the mildness of the climate, the French 
farmers had early settled here. "The lovely and cheerful region 
attracted settlers, alike white men and savages; and the French had 
so occupied the two banks of the river that their numbers were i-ated 
so high as twenty-five hundred souls. * * * The French dwelt 
upon farms, which were about three or four acres wide upon the 
river, and eighty acres deep; indolent in the midst of plenty, graziers 
as well as tillers of the soil, and enriched by Indian traffic." 

All this happiness and prosperity Pontiac regarded with an evil 
eye. To his mind all this country of right belonged to tlie red man. 
Ey the cutting down of the forest, and multiplying the sounds of 
civilization, the game, which was their chief resource for living, was 
frightened away. The favored spots by the living springs and the 
fountains of sweet waters M'ere grasped by the white man to make 
his continual abiding place, and would consequently be forever lost 
to the red man. If, by deep laid strategy, and unblushing deception, 
they could once seize upon all the strongholds and put the defenders 
to the slaughter they could then pursue their trade of blood upon the 
defenceless frontiers until the whole land would be cleared of the pale- 
face and his race exterminated. 

The fort was situated upon the banks of the river within the 
limits of the present city of Detroit. It consisted of a stockade 
twenty feet high, some two hundred yards in circumference and in- 
closing seventy or more houses. The garrison, under command of 
Colonel Gladwin, was composed of the remains of the eightieth 
regiment of the line, reduced now to about one hundred and twenty 
men and eight officers. Two six-pounder and one three-pounder 


guns and three useless mortars constituted the armament of the fort, 
and two gunboats lay in the stream. Against this, Pontiac, with a 
smile on his face, but treachery in his black heart, came in person 
with fifty of his warriors on the first of May. He announced his 
purpose to come in a more formal manner in a few days for the purpose 
of brightening the chain of friendshij), — which usually meant that 
the chiefs were ready to receive high piled up presents, — and to 
renew pledges of lasting peace. As this was a ceremony of frequent 
occurrence Gladwin had no suspicion of treachery. Tribes of the 
Pottawatatnies and Wyandots dwelt a few miles below the fort, and 
a short distance above on the eastern side, the Ottawas, Pontiac's 
own tribe. The day was drawing near when the universal uprising, 
which had been agreed upon in council, should take place. Pontiac 
had laid his scheme skillfully, and as he thought there could be no 
possibility of failure. He had already been admitted to tlie fort, 
and had spied out its strength and appointments and had bespoken 
admittance with his warriors. He had agreed with his confederates 
that when he should rise to speak he would hold in his hands a belt 
of wampum, white on one side and green on the other, and when he 
should turn the green side uppermost that should be the signal 
for the massacre of the garrison. J>ut in savage as in civilized 

The best laid schemes of mice and men 
Gang oft a-gley. 

A dusky maiden of the forest had formed an abiding friendship 
for Colonel Gladwin. She had often visited the fort, and had, with 
native art, executed pieces of her handy work for the use of the 
Colonel. She had received from his hands a curious elk skin, 
from vvhich she had wrought with her usual skill a pair of moccasins, 
and on the night previous to the contemplated massacre she had 
visited the fort to bring the work, and return the unused portion of 
the skin. So pleased was Gladwin with her skill that he asked her 
to take the skin and make him another pair, and if any were 
then left she might appropriate it to her own use. Having paid her 
for her work she was supposed to have gone to her wigwam. But 
when the watchmen whose duty it was to clear the fort and shut the 
gates went at the evening signal gun, they found this maiden lingerinop 
in the inclosure and unwilling to depart. On being informed of 
tills, Gladwin ordered her to be led to his presence, and in answer to 
the inquiry why she did not go away as had been lier custom, she 
made the lame excuse that she did not like to take away the skin 
which the Colonel seemed to set so high a value on lest some injury 
or destruction might come to it. When asked why she had not 
made that objection before, seeing that she must now disclose her 
trouble, she ingenuously declared, " It' I take it away, 1 shall never 


be able to return it to you." Inferring that something unusual was 
foretold in this answer, she was urged to explain lier meaning. 
Whereupon she revealed the whole secret,-^tliat Pontiac, and his 
chiefs were to come to the fort on the morrow, and while the 
dusky warrior was delivering his pretended speech of peace he 
was to present a white and green belt which on being turned in a 
peculiar way was to be the signal for the murder of the commandant 
and all the garrison. That the hostile intent might be entirely 
hidden beneath the garb of peace, the ingenious savages had cut otf 
a piece from the barrels of their guns so that they could carry 
them concealed beneath their blankets. Having given the particulars 
of the conspiracy she departed. 

Being thus put in possession of the horrible purpose Gladwin 
communicated the intelligence to his men, and sent word to all the 
traders to be on their guard. At night a cry as of defiance was 
heard and the garrison anticipated an immediate attack. The gar- 
rison tires were extinguished, and the men silently sought their 
places in readiness to meet the onset. But none came, and it was 
supposed the chiefs were acting their parts by their camp iires, 
which they were to play on the morrow. 

At the appointed hour, Pontiac came accompanied by thirty- 
six chiefs and a cloud of dusky warriors bearing his speech belt 
and the pipe of peace. Gladwin was prepared to receive him, his 
men all under arms, guns cleaned and freshly loaded, and officers 
witli their swords. On entering the fort Pontiac started back ntter- 
ing a cry of anguish, convinced that he had been betrayed, by the 
evidences of preparation about him ; but there was no wny of 
retreat now. When the number agreed upon had been admitted 
the gates were closed. Whem arrived, at the council chamber, 
Pontiac complained that the garrison was all under arms, a thing 
unusual in an eml)assage of peace. Gladwin explained that the 
garrison were that morning holding a regimental drill. But I'ontiac 
knew better than that. He commenced his speech Avith that air of 
dissimulation which he had the ability to command, and expressed, 
the desire for peace and friendship with the English which he hoped 
would be as lasting as the coming and going of the night and morn- 
ing. But when he advanced to present the lielt the otiicers grasped 
their swords, and drew them partially from their scabhar ,s. Seeing 
that his treachery was known, but not in the least disconcerted, he 
did not give the signal, he liad agreed upon, and closed his speech in 
the most friendly and pacific tone. 

When Colonel Gladwin came to reply he boldly charged the 
chieftain with his black hearted perfidy. But the latter protest''d 
his innocence, and expressed a sense of injiiry that he should be 
suspected of so base a crime; but M'hen Gladwin advanced to the 

V s- J^ 



nearest chieftain and jnilliiig aside his blanket, disclosed the shortened 
gnn with which each of them was secretly armed his discomliture 
was complete. lie was suffered to depart, but unwisely, has l)een 
the unanimous judgment of historians. Indeed, so little reliance 
has come to be placed on the words of an Indian, that it has 
been declared that '-the only good Indian is a dead Indian." 
Hoping still to disarm the suspicions of the commandant, and gain 
admission to the fort through treachery, I'ontiac came again on the 
following morning accompanied with only three of his chiefs and 
smoked the pipe of peace in the most innocent garb, and declared 
that his whole Ottawa nation desired to come on the following 
morning to smoke. But (iladwin declared that this was unneces- 
sary, as he was willing to accept the word of the chiefs, and if they 
were so anxious to be at peace their own conduct would be the best 
pledge of their pacific intentions. 

Seeing that his treacherous purposes were understood, and that 
he could not gain admission to the fort by any professions of 
friendship, he threw off the cloak of deceit under which he had in- 
tended to slaughter the garrison and possess the post, and attacked 
the fort with all his warriors. The few English who were outside 
were murdered, all communication was cut off, death was threatened 
any who should attempt to carry supplies to the garrison, and the 
keenest strategy was employed to tempt the troojis to open combat. 
Carts loaded with combustibles were pushed up to the palisades in 
the attempt to burn them; but all to no purpose. Gladwin was 
wary, and met every artifice of the wiley foe with a counter-check. 
In one part the savages attempted to gain entrance by chopping 
down the picket posts. In this Gladwin ordered his men to assist 
them by cutting on the inside. "When these fell a rush was made 
by the Indians to enter; but a Ijrass four-pounder, which had been 
charged with grape and canister and so planted as to command the 
breach, was discharged at the opportune moment, which effected 
great slaughter. Poiitiac now settled down to a close seige. Un- 
fortunately Gladwin had only supplies for three weeks. The savage 
chieftain, believing that he had learned something of civilized war- 
fare, on the 10th of May, summoned the garrison to surrender. 
Gladwin asked for a parley, intimating tlirough the ofKces of a 
French emissary, that he was willing to redress any grievances of the 
Indians, not suspecting tiiat the attack on him was a part of a deep 
laid conspiracy reaching all the posts of the frontier. Pontiac con- 
sented and Major Campbell and Lieutenant JMcDougal were sent. 
Hostilities were suspended and Gladwin improved the opportunity 
to lay in ample supplies for the siege, when he ended the conference. 
■I'ut Major Campbell was retained as a prisoner and was subsequently 
murdered. The siege was now closely maintained, a species of hos- 


tility which the Indians had never before exhibited an aptitude to 
practice, but Avhich the genius of tlieir leader had acquired in his 
fellowship with the French. He organized a system of obtaining 
supplies after the best European methods, scorning the make-shifts 
of the freebooter; but giving his receipt for every thing taken, and 
issuing his promissory notes, written on the bark of the papyrus 
birch, and executed with the outline of an otter, which passed cur- 
rent among the French farmers, all of which he faithfully i-edeemed. 
Lieutenant Cuyler, with a force of ninety-six men and supplies 
for Gladwin, was dispatched from the fort at Niagara; but landing 
at the mouth of the Detroit River, he was attacked in his camp at 
midnight of the 28th of May, and utterly defeated, losing three of 
his boats, two only escaping with Cuyler, who returned to Niagara. 

On the 29th of July, Captain Dalzell, taking advantage of the 
darkness of the night, had reached the fort with a reinforcement of 
some two hundred men. Dalzell was full of fight, and with but one 
day's rest insisted on marching out to oifer battle. Gladwin knew 
the numbers and temj^er of the Indians and their treacherous methods 
better than the Captain, and counseled strongly against the advent- 
ure; but the latter was confident and the commandant yielded a 
reluctant assent. At the head of two hundred and forty-seven 
chosen men, Dalzell bravely led out of the fort at a little past mid- 
night of the 30th of July, accompanied by two barges in the river. 
Unfortunately the French had notified Pontiac of the intended attack. 
The course of Dalzell was along the river bank by Canadian cottages 
and gardens. A mile and a half above the fort was a small creek, 
since appropriately known as Bloody Kun. Over this was a narrow 
bridge and on the heights beyond were the entrenchments of the 
foe, straggling fences and cabins, behind which they were in 
waiting for the approach of Dalzell. Scarcely had the advance 
crossed this bi-idge than the savages poured into their faces a 
volley from tlieir safe hiding places. A charge was ordered before 
which the Indians vanished in the darkness, but soon reappeared in 
the rear with the design of cutting off escape; and now the red men 
had taken shelter behind houses and attacked in flank. This threw 
the line into confusion and in disorder, a retreat along the river com- 
menced. Major Rogers with a squadron of provincials took position 
in a house, which covered the retreat, and succeeded to check the 
onrushing savages. Captain Grant with another party gained an 
advantageous position for covering the retreat, when the forces were 
finally brought within the shelter of the fort, but with the loss of 
fifty-nine men, including the bold leader Dalzell. 

In the meantime one of the schooners had been dispatched to 
Niagara for supplifes. On its return the savages, who had learned 
tliat it was manned by only ten men, planned to attack and capture 


it. In canoes they approached in the darkness in great numbers and 
in face of a rapid musketry lire were boarding the vessel, when the 
commander gave the order to tire the magazine and blow up tlie ship, 
which the Indians hearing, leaped overboard and swam to shore to 
escape the explosion, \\hen the vessel moved up under cover of the 
fort unmolested. 

The peace of Paris liad been concluded in April, yet tlie intelli- 
gence was tardy in reaching the frontiers, and when finally it was 
known, the hatred of the English and the hope of yet driving them 
away through Indian warfare was still kept alive. But the stubborn 
defence of Detroit tinally convinced the more considerate of the 
French that it was their best policy to submit to the Euglisli author- 
ity. Accordingly Neyon informed Pontiac that no further assistance 
could be expected from the King of France, a tale of whose coming 
with a great army to annihilatt' the English having l>een persistently 
dinned into his ears, that peace had been concluded, that France had 
surrendered everything in America, and that the English were now the 
only rightful rulers. The sullen Pontiac received the tidings with 
disgust, broke the siege in no sjjirit of submission, and declared that 
he would return again in the spring and renew his warfare. 

From the tirst the will of Pontiac ruled all the frontier, though 
absent in person. The war belt which he sent was a sufficient com- 
mission for stealthy murders and midnight scalpings and l>urnings 
along all the borders. On the receipt of news of the conclusion of 
peace, the settlers who had been driven from their cabins during the 
continuance of hostilities, supjjosing that the pacification would be 
nade complete, hastened back to their settlements in the hope of 
getting their plantings and sewings made in season for crops that 
should be their support for the coming winter. But the decree of 
Pontiac disappointed all their hopes, and made this summer of 1763 
the most bloody of all the seven. "About tiie first of June," it is 
recorded in tlie History of Western Pennsylvania, "the scalping 
parties perpetrated several murders in the vicinity of Fort Pitt. 
Upon receipt of this intelligence Governor Hamilton, with the assist- 
ance of the provincial commissioners, immediately reinforced the 
garrison at Augusta, and sent out small parties to protect the 
frontiers. As the first attack was not immediatelj followed up l>y 
tlie Indians, the government was willing to believe it to have been the 
eflect of some private resentments, rather than a general combina- 
tion for war. But such hopes were dissipated by inroads upon the 
settled parts of the province and the flight of the inhabitants to the 
interior. Tlie whole country west of Shippenslnirg became the prey 
of the fierce barbarians. They set fire to houses, barns, corn, hay, 
and everything that was combustible. The wretched inhabitants 
whom they surprised at night, at their meals, or in the labors of the 


fields, were massacred with the utmost cruelty and barbarity; and 
those who lied were scarce more happy. Overwhelmed by sorrow, 
without shelter or means of ti'ansportation, their tardy flight was im- 
peded by fainting women and weeping children. The inhabitants of 
Shippensburg and Carlisle, now become the barrier towns, opened 
their hearts and their houses to their afflicted brethren. In the 
towns, every stable and hovel was crowded with miserable refugees 
who, having lost their houses, their cattle and their harvest, wei-e 
reduced from independence and happiness to beggary and despair. 
(On the 25th of July, 1763, there were in Shippensburg 1,384 of 
poor, distressed, back inhabitants, viz: men, 301; Avomen, 345; 
children, 738; many of whom were obliged to lie in barns, stables, 
cellars, and under old leaky sheds, the dwelling houses being all 
crowded.) The streets were filled with people; the men, distracted 
by grief for their losses and the desire for revenge, more jjoignantly 
excited by the disconsolate females and bereaved children who wailed 
around them. In the woods, for some miles, on both sides of the 
Susquehanna Eiver, many families with their cattle sought shelter, 
being unable to find it in towns." 

While the scattered settlers fled for safety before the roving 
bands, the garrisons of the isolated forts far out beyond the farthest 
verge of the settlements were shut off from communication with their 
comrades whence succor could come, and were made the objects 
against which the best resources of the savages were directed. It 
was a new kind of warfare to tliem; but they had seen enough of 
siege work iii the operations of the English against the Frencli, to 
understand its nature, and to undertake it with all the relish inspired 
by a new thing. They had no artillery, but they could shoot- flei-y 
darts, mine with the zeal of a beaver, preserve constant vigils, and 
destroy by combustibles whatever was destructible that they could 

•Presque Isle, next to Niagara and Detroit, was the most im- 
portant post along the line of defenses, as it guarded the communica- 
tion east and west, and being on water communication could be easily 
reached with supplies and reinforcements. On the 22d of June it 
was attacked, it had a garrison of twenty-four men and was easily 
defensible for any period. But the commander, Ensign Christy, 
after defending himself two days, in the most shameless manner 
capitulated, giving up all his men, who were no sooner in the hands 
of the savages than they were treacherously given over to the scalp- 
ing knife, he himself being carried away a prisoner to Detroit reserved 
for future torments. The fort at Le Boeuf (Waterford), but a few 
miles away, on the head waters of the Venango River (French Creek), 
one of the tributaries of the Allegheny, had been attacked four days 
before. The fort was of combustible material, and at midnight the 

lU.^TOKY (IF (iUEKNK fOlXTV. 181 

savages succeeded in tiring it, when the garrison, seeing that tiie 
flames could not be stayed, secretly withdrew nnder cover of the 
darkness into the woods and made good their escape, the Indians 
believing them burned. On their way down the river they saw at 
Venango the ruins of the fort, the garrison there having all been 
massacred, not one escaping to tell the tale. 

Fort Pitt (Pittsburg), which hail been laid out and its construe 
tion pushed with so much energy, had never been linished, and 
the floods of spring which had eaten in upon the hanks with great 
violence had opened it on three sides. Captain Ecuyer, who was 
in commniand, had with him a garrison of three hundred and thirty 
men. With energy and skill he had reared a rampart on the unpro- 
tected sides, had palisaded the interior work, and had constructed an 
engine for extinguishing tire should the foe succeed in tiring the 

On the 22(1 of June, the very day on which the attack had been 
made at Presque Isle, the dusky warriors made their appearance before 
Fort Pitt, and commenced the attack, investing it on all sides, killing 
one ancj wounding another. With prying eye they skulked around 
at night peering in on every side to discover if possible its weak 
part. Concluding, probably, that the work would be a difticult one 
to overcome, and judging that strategy would be surer of success 
than force, after niidnigiit tliey asked for a parley. Turtle Heart, 
chief of the Delawares spoke: '' brothers," he said, "all your posts 
and strong places, from this backwards are burnt and cut oft". This 
is the only one you have left in our country. AVe have prevailed 
with six dift'erent nations of Indians, that are ready to attack you, to 
forbear till we came and warned you to go home. They have fur- 
ther agreed to permit you and your people to pass safe to the inhabi- 
tants. Therefore, brother, we desire that you may setofl' to-morrow, 
as great numbers of Indians are coming here, and after two days we 
shall not be able to do anything with them for you." Their purpose 
in this exhortation was doubtless to get the garris'on in their power 
and then massacre them as they had done at Presque Isle, which had 
induced General Amherst to observe, " I am surprised that any oflScer 
in his senses would enter into terms with such barbarians." 

To this a]iparently innocent and reasonable appeal, Ecuyer sternly 
refused to listen, but reminded them that three English armies were 
on their way to chastise them, and that it was they who should be 
seeking safety. The fort was now closely invested and no intelli- 
gence could be sent through, either to or from the fort. Though 
surt'ering for lack of many things necessary for the comfort and suc- 
cessful defence of the fort, the gallant captain vigilantly held and 
guarded it, though wounded by an Indian arrow, the foe using most 
skillfully all their savage implements of warfare. Again and again 


was tlie demand foi' tlie surrender of the fort made. Shingiss and 
Big Wolf speaking for the Uelawares and Shawnees said, " You know 
this is our country. You yourselves are the people that liave dis- 
turbed the chain of friendship. All the nations over the lakes are 
soon to be on their way to the forks of the Ohio. Here is the wam- 
pum. If you return quietly home, to yonr wise men, this is the 
furthest they will go. If not, see what will be the consequence; so 
we desire you to remove off." In his answer Ecuyer said, " You 
suffered the Fi-ench to settle in the heartof your country, why would 
yon turn us out of it now? I will not abandon this post; I have 
warriors, provisions, and ammunition in plenty to defend it three 
years against all the Indians in the woods. Go home to your towns, 
and take care of your women and children." 

The siege was now pushed with redoubled vigor, digging holes 
by night and running their trenches close up to the walls of the fort, 
and keeping up a galling fire of musketry and fiery arrows from 
their safe hiding places upon the defenders. This close investment 
.was continued till the close of July; but on the Istof August all had 
disappeared, a danger which Ecuyer had threatened now impending. 
General Amherst, who was still in command of the English army in 
America, when informed of the general Indian war which had broken 
out under the inspiration of the savage Pontiac, was without suf- 
ficient troops with which to meet the threatened danger, a large part 
of the British regulars having been sent to the "West Indies. His 
energies were bent with what scattered forces he could gather up, to 
the relief of Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt. Fortunately Niagara 
was not attacked. For the relief of Fort Pitt Colonel Boquet was 
dispatched with the fragments of the Forty-seventh and Seventy- 
seventh i-egiments of Highlanders, comprising only 214 and 133 men 
respectively, and these greatly weakened by their severe service in 
the siege of Havanna. At Carlisle, he was to be furnished with sup- 
plies; but upon his arrival there, no supplies were collected, and 
eighteen days were consumed in gathering them. Plenty of grain 
stood ripe ready for the sickle, but the reapers were gone, and the 
mills were deserted. With scarcely five hundred men Boquet moved 
boldly forward on that bloody path which had been so often traversed 
before with such disastrous results, driving two hundred sheep, and 
half the number of kine, bearing ammunition, flour, and provisions 
carried upon pack-horses and in wagons drawn by oxen. Beyond 
the Alleghanies was Fort Ligonier, held by a small garrison under 
command of Lieutenant Blane. It was of the utmost importance 
that this should be held, as the stores of ammunition deposited there 
if allowed to fall into the hands of the Indians would afford them the 
means of prolonging the war. Besides, it furnished a rallying point 
for the force in advancing, and falling back if misfortune should 


overtake them. Accordingly, Boquet dispatched thirty picked men 
under a discreet officer to jiroceed by forced marches to f5;ain the fort. 
This tiiey successfully accomplished, carrying succor to the closely 
beluayuered post. A party of skilled woodsmen had previously been 
sent out from Fort JJedford, a point midway between Carlisle and 
Fort Pitt, one hundred miles from either point. 

Boquet could get no information on the way, as roving bands of 
Indians picked oti:" any one who ventured to pass from one point to 
the other, though the savages were kept constantly informed of every 
movement of the troops. Arrived with his main body at l^igonier, 
the Colonel determined to leave his wagons, and proceed only en- 
cumbered with pack-liorses. By the road that he was to follow, was 
a dangerous defile of several miles in extent overhung by high craggy 
hills. This he was familiar with, and intended to pass it by a night 
march, hoping thus to surprise the foe and escape an attack by them 
on this difficult ground. At ]>usliy Run, a tributary of Brush Hun 
and that of Turtle Creek, and twenty-one miles from Pittsburg, he 
had intended to halt for rest; but when arrived within a half mile of 
this point, on August 5th, he was suddenly attacked by an unseen 
foe, who came upon him unaware?. A charge upon the attacking 
party sent them fleeing; but when pushed in one direction tliey ap- 
peared in another, and soon they attacked along tlie whole flank. 
A steady charge of the regulars sent them back, but only to ap- 
pear again in another part, until they had the little force of Boquet 
completely surrounded by a continuous line, and were becoming 
every moment more daring and eager for the fight. They, no doubt, 
believed that they now had the whole force completely in their power, 
and would soon have the fighting men picked ofl" from their hiding 
places. It must be acknowledged that the prospect seemed gloomy 
enough. Should this army ■ be now sacrificed, the whole frontier 
would be thrown open to the attacks of the stealthy savages, and the 
tomahawk and the scalping-k)ufe would bear undisputed sway, even 
to the very doors of Philadelphia. 

I>ut Boquet understood the methods of savage warfare better than 
Braddock, and Ilalket, and Dunbar, and was unmoved by the fierce 
whoop of the Red Man or his gleaming scalping knife. He could 
not advance in any direction and leave his pack-horses and his stores, 
as they would immediately fall into the hands of the foe. He, ac- 
cordingly, formed his forces in a circle facing outwards, and drew up 
his trains in the center. Noticing that the Indians were becoming 
more and more eager for the fray, and every moment more venture- 
some, Boquet determined to give them a taste of their own tactics. 
At dawn of the second day of the action the enemy were early awake, 
and opened the battle with the most horrid and unearthl}' screech- 
ings. Having the advantage of elevated ground, and being sojne- 


what concealed by the foliage of the trees and bushes, Boquet could 
maneuver his forces without disclosing his movements. Seeing that 
the savages were eager to rush forward whenever they saw the least 
disposition of the troops to yield, he determined to feign a retreat. 
He accordingly ordered the two companies occupying the advance to 
retire within the circle, and the lines again to close up, as if the 
whole force was commencing the retreat. Bnt before commencing 
this movement he had posted a force of light infantry in ambuscade, 
who, if the Indians should follow the retreating troops, would have 
them at their mercy. The stratagem succeeded precisely as had 
been anticipated. The Indians, seeing the troops retreating, and 
the feeble lines closing in behind them, as if covering the retirement, 
rushed forward in wildest confusion and in great numbers. Bnt 
when the grenadiers who had been posted on either side, saw their 
opportunity they advanced from their concealment, and charged with 
the greatest steadiness, shooting down the savages in great numbers, 
who returned the fire, but soon broke in confusion and disorderly 
flight. But now the companies of light infantry which had been 
posted on the opposite side, rose up from their ambush and received 
the flying mass with fresh volleys. Seized with terror at this un- 
expected disaster, and having lost many of their best fighting men 
and war chiefs, they became disheartened, and seeing the regulars 
giving close pursnit, they broke and fled in all directions. All 
efforts of their surviving chiefs to rally and form them were unavail- 
ing. They could no longer be controlled; but breaking up they fled 
singly and in parties to their homes, many of them not pausing till 
they had reached the country of the Muskingnm. 

Boquet, though entirely successful in this, the battle of Bushy 
Run, had lost nearly a fourth of his whole avmj, fifty killed, sixty 
wounded and five missing, and nearly all, his pack-horses, and there- 
fore took evei-y precaution to avoid a surprise and further loss. He 
destroyed all his stores which he could not carry with him, that 
they might not fall into the enemy's hands, and moved forward in 
close order; but without further molestation, and in four days reached 
Fort Pitt, the enemy having been so thoroughly broken that they 
did not again show themselves before the fort. The savages lost 
in this engagement sixty killed and many wounded in the pursuit. 

As the tidings of the fall of post after post, along the whole 
frontier, came day after day to General Amherst, who had his head- 
quarters at New York, and of the savage attacks upon Detroit and 
Fort Pitt, his anger knew no bounds. He recognized in Pontiac 
the chief of the conspiracy and the investigator of all their savage 
designs. Before receiving news of the success of Boquet, he wrote 
to Gladwin, by the hand of Gardiner: — "The Senecas, and all these 
hostile tribes must be deemed our enemies, and used as such; not 



as a generous enemy, but as the vilest race of beings that ever in- 
fested tile eartli, and wliose riddance from it must be esteemed a 
meritorious act, for tlic good of manl^ind. You will, therefore, take 
no prisoners, lint put to death all that fall into your hands of the 
nations who have so unjustly and cruelly coinmitted depredations. I 
have thought ]iroper to promise a reward of one hundred pounds to 
the man who shall kill Pontiac, the chief of the Ottawas — a cowardly 

Though the campaign of 1763 had been disastrous to English 
arms in America, yet its termination in the triumph of Bushy iluii 
and relief of Fort Pitt, and the complete foil given to all the plans of 
Pontiac, which he personally conducted, gave the Indians a gloomy 
outlook for the futnre. Nevertheless, Pontiac returned in the spring 
of 1764 to the siege of Detroit. General Gage, who had succeeded 
Amherst in command in America, determined to push the campaign 
with a strong hand. Two expeditions were planned, one to advance 
under Colonel P)radstreet by Niagara, Pres(|ue Isle and kSandnsky, and 
a second under Colonel Eoquet by way of Fort Pitt and the country 
of the Muskingum. Sir William Johnson had always possessed 
great influence with the Indians, especially with the Six Nations, 
occupying the greater j)art of New York, and during the winter of 
176.3-64 had sent out messengers to all the tribes advising peace. 
Hence when Bradstreet reached Presque Isle, he was met by the chiefs, 
Shawnees and Delawares, and at Sandusky by the Ottawas, Wyan- 
dotts, and Miamis, who, under the garb of j)eace and friendship, de- 
sired to make a treaty of paciflcation. But, notwitlistandiug their 
promises, mnrders and massacres continued. At Detroit, he was met 
by the Ottawas, Ojibwas, Pottawattamies, Sacs, and Wyandotts, who 
likewise made treaties of peace; but they were unable either to control 
the young warriors, or they never meant to comply with the terms they 
liad agreed to, and the whole campaign proved fruitless, Bradstreet 
returning to Niagara, and Gage issuing orders to annul all his 

Not so with iioquet, who knew the Indian tactics better. ' AVith 
Ave luindred regulars and a thousand provincials he marched from 
Carlisle on the 5th of August, and arrived at Fort Pitt about the 
middle of Septemljer. lie had received a message from Bradstreet 
on the way informing him that he liad concluded treaties of peace 
witli all the western tribes, and that it would be unnecessary to pro- 
ceed further. But Bo(juet knew that the Colonel had been duped, 
and pushed forward with his army. At Fort Pitt Boquet learned 
that the messenger sent by him to Bradstreet had been murdered 
and his head set up upon a pole in the road. The chiefs of Delawares, 
Senecas, and Shawnees waited upon him on his arrival and advised 
peace, and that he proceed no further, alleging that their young men 


had coiiiinitted tlie outrages charged without authority. Boquet 
boldly charged faitljlessness, and that they should punish their young 
men if they disobeyed. He boldly marched on down the Ohio into 
the very lieart of the Indian country, and so stern were his words 
and so summary his threats, and the taste of his figliting had inspired 
such dread, that the tribes sent their chiefs to sue lor peace. Boquet 
met them in the midst of his army, and in answer to their entreaties 
for peace charged them with constantly breaking their promises. 
" You have," said he, " promised at every former treaty, as you do 
now, to deliver up all your prisoners, and liave received at every 
time presents, but have never complied with the engagements. 1 
am now to tell you, therefore, that the English will no longer be im- 
posed upon by your promises. This army shall not leave your country 
until you have fully complied with every condition that is to precede 
a treaty with yon. * * * If I iind you faithfully execute the follow- 
ing preliminary conditions, I will not treat you with the severity you 
deserve. I give you twelve days to deliver into my hands all the 
prisoners in yoTir possession, without any exception: Englishmen, 
Frenchmen, women and children, whether adopted in. your tribes, 
married or living amongst you under any denomination and pretense, 
whatsoever, together with all the negroes." 

The stern tone of the brave Colonel had the desired effect. They 
saw before them a man determined to enforce his commands sur- 
3'ounded by soldiers ready to execute vengeance. They became sub- 
missive and a part of them asked for peace, but the Colonel refused 
to take them by the hand until their promises were fulfilled, and the 
terms of peace fully agreed upon. The chiefs were much grieved by 
this lack of confidence, and used their utmost endeavors to induce 
their people to bring forward their captives. By the 9th of Nov- 
ember all the captives had lieen brought in and delivered up, to the 
number of two hundred and six, — Virginians, thirty-two males and 
fifty-eight females, and Pennsylvanians, forty-nine males and sixty- 
seven females. This number did not include nearly a hundred in 
the han^s of the Shawnees, who were to gather and deliver them up 
in the following spring. 

When all had been accomplished, Keyashuta, chief of the Sen- 
ecas, a tribe of the Delawares spoke: "Brother, the misfortune 
which has happened of one of your people being murdered, gives us 
the same sorrow it gives you. By this string of wampum (giving 
one) we wipe the tears from your eyes, and remove from your heart 
the resentment which this murder has raised against us. * * * 
We have strictly complied with your desire, and now deliver j'ou 
tliese three prisoners, which are the last of your flesh and blood that 
remain among us. * * * Brother, we cover the bones which 
have been baried, in such a manner, that they never more be re- 


meinbered. AV^e cover thein again with leaves, that the place where 
they are buried, may never more lie seen. As we have been a long 
time astray, and the path between us and you stopped, we hope the path 
will be again cleared, and we now extend this belt of wampum be- 
tween you and us, that we may atjjain travel in peace to see our 
brothers as our ancestors formerly did. * * * As we have now 
extended a belt representing the road between you and us, we beg 
that you will take fast hold of it, that the path may always be kept 
open between us." 

In answer to these earnest sentiments of peace Colonel Boquet 
replied: •'! bury the bones of the peojile who fell in the war, so 
that the place be no more seen (presents a belt). Your readiness in 
complying with every condition 1 have already required of you, con- 
vinces me that your intentions are npright, and I will now treat you 
as brethren (presents a belt). Brother you ask peace. The King, 
my mastev, and your father, has appointed me to make war upon 
you; but he has other servants who are employed in the work of 
peace, and his majesty has been pleased to empower Sir AVilliam 
Johnson to make peace with the Indians." Before departing, how- 
ever, he required that the four hostages to be kept at Fort Pitt until 
peace was linally settled, should be delivered to him, and that the 
deputies to be sent to Sir William Johnson should be fully em- 
powered to conclude the terms of peace, and that they should agree 
to abide by the terms thus concluded. These conditions luuing 
been settled, Boquet shook hands with them in token of his satisfac- 
tion, which greatly rejoiced the hearts of the savages. 

The Shawnees were ,the most resolute in their emnity and were 
tlie last to yield. Boquet was ready to move against them; but on 
the 12th of November they met the Colonel in conference and said, 
Ked Hawk speaking: " CJne year and a half ago we made peace 
with you at Fort Pitt, which was soon after broken; Init that was 
neither your fault nor ours; but the whole blame is to be laid to the 
Ottawas (Pontiac's ti'ibe), who are a foolish people, and are the cause 
of this war. When we now saw you coming this road, you advanced 
towards us with a tomahawk in your hand, but we, your younger 
brothers, take it out of your hand and send it up to God to dispose of 
it as he pleases, by which means we hope never to see it any more. 
And now, brethren, we beg leave that you, who are warriors, will 
take hold of this chain of friendsliij) and receive it from us, who are 
always warriors, and let us think no more of war, but to take pity on 
our old men, women and children." 

Boquet received the captives whom they brought, but sternly 
reminded them of their long holding back and tardiness in 
bringing in the prisoners. He demanded the rest of the captives, 
and that six of their chiefs should be delivered into his hands as 


hostages. When these terms had been agi*eed to he said: " I came 
here determined to strike you, with a tomahawk in my hand; bnt 
since you have submitted, it sliall not fall upon your heads. I will 
let it drop, and it shall no more be seen. I bury the bones of all the 
people who have fallen in this war, and cover the place with leaves 
so that it shall no more be perceived." 

The long captivity of many of those who were brought in had 
efi'aced from their recollection all memory of their former relatives 
and friends, and they preferred to remain with the savages, having 
come now to know no other way of life. The savages religiously 
observed their promises, bringing in all their captives even to the 
children who had been born to the women during their cap- 
tivity. So wedded were many of the captives to the Indians 
that the Shawnees were obliged to bind many of them in order 
to bring them in. Some, after being delivered up, escaped and 
returned to their life in the woods. - The Indians parted with their 
adopted families not without many tears. Many affecting scenes 
transpired when the captives were brought, and those who had lost 
friends and relatives recognized their own after long separation. 
The children who had been carried away in tender years and had 
grown up in savage life, knowing no other, could not recognize their 
own parents and timidly approached them. The Shawnees chief 
gave those who had recovered children or friends some good advice: 
" Father, we have l)rought your flesh and blood to you; tliey have all 
been united to us by adoption, and although we now deliver them 
up to you, we will always look upon them as our relations, whenever 
the Great Spirit is pleased that we may visit them. We have taken 
as much care of tliem as if they were our own flesh and blood. They 
are now become unacquainted with your customs and manners, and 
thei'efore we request you will use them tenderly and kindly, which 
will induce them to live contentedly with you." 

Many of the Indians, who had given up captives whom they 
loved, followed the army back, that they might be witli them as long 
as possible, bringing them corn, skins, horses, and articles which the 
captives had regarded as their own, hunting and bringing in game 
for them. A young Mingo had loved a young Virginia woman and 
made her his wife. In deflance of the dangers to life which he sub- 
mitted himself to in going among the exasperated settlers, lie per- 
sisted in following her back. 

"A number of the restored prisoners were brought to Carlisle, 
and Colonel Boquet advertised for those who had lost children to 
come to this place and look for them. Among those that came was a 
German woman, a native of Kentlingen, in Wittemberg, Germany, 
who with her husband had emigrated to America prior to the French 
war, and settled in Lancaster County, Tulpehocken, where two of her 


daughters, Barbara and Kegina, were ahdiicted by tlie Indians. The 
motlier was now unable tu designate her children, even if tliey should 
be among the number of the recaptured. With her brother, the dis- 
tressed, aged woman lamented to Colonel Boquet her hopeless case, 
telling him how she used, years ago, to sing to her little daughters, 
hymns of which they were fond. The Colonel requested lier to sing 
one of the hymns, which she did in these words: 

Allein, und doch niclit ganz alleine 

15in ich iu meiner Einsamkeit; 
Daun waun ich gleich verlassen sclieine, 

Veitreibt mir Jesus selbst die zeit : 
Icli bin bei ilim, und er bei mir. 

So kommt mir gar nichts einsam fiir, 

Alone, yet not alone am I, 

Tliough iu this solitude so drear; 
I feel my Savior always nigh. 

He comes, my dreary hours to cheer — 
I'm with him and he with me 

Thus, I cannot solitary be — 

And Regina, the only daughter present, rushed into the ai'nis of the 
mother. Barbara, the other daughter, was never restored." 

Though Pontiao still persisted in his hostility in the Detroit 
country, yet he could have no prospect of success. Tlie French had 
lield out in their hostility to the English even after the treaty of 
Paris had been concluded, and this enmity was especiall}' persevered 
in by the more lawless and revengeful, yet the frnitlessness of this 
course was becoming day by day more apparent. OtKcial notice, by 
order of the French court, was given of relinquisliment of all power 
in Canada. De Neyon, the commandant at I'^ort Cliarters, " sent 
belts," says Bancroft, '' and peace pipes, to all parts of the continent, 
exhorting the many nations of savages to bury the hatchet, and take 
the English by the liand for they would never see him more. * * * 
The courier wlio took the belt to the north offered peace to all the tribes 
wherever he passed; and to Detroit, where he arrived on the last day of 
October, 1764, he bore a letter of the nature of a proclamation, inform- 
ing the inhabitants of the cession of Canada to England; anotlicr ad- 
dressed to twenty-five nations by name, to all the Red Men, and ]iar- 
ticularly to Pontiac, chief of tlie Ottawas; a third to the commander, 
e.xpressing a readiness to surrender to the English all the forts on tlie 
Ohio, and east of the Mississippi. The next morning Pontiac sent 
to Gladwin, that lie accepted the peace which his father, the French, 
had sent him, and desired all that had passed might be forgot on 
both sides." 

Thus ended the conspiracy of Pontiac, a warrior unexcelled by 
any of his race for vigor of intellect and dauntless courage. His 
end was ignoble. An Enjjlish trader hired a Peoria Indian for a 


barrel of rum to murder him. The place of his death was Cahokia, 
a small village a little below St. Louis. Pie had been a chief leader 
in the army of the French in the battle with Braddock, at Mononga- 
hela, and he was held in high re2:)Ute by the French General Mont- 
calm, and at the time of his death, Pontiac was dressed in a French 
uniform presented to him by that commander. 


FiEST Settlers — Lands Must be Acquieed of Indians — Kino-'s 
Peoclamation — Lands West of the Alleghanies — " Fair 
Plat " Couet — Two Roads Leading West — Peoclamation of 


— Settlees Placate the Local Teibes by Kindness — Gage 
TO Penn and Reply — Law Passed Giving the Settlees to 
Death Who Do Not Move Off — ISTotice Given — Indians In- 


TO Remain — Postsceipt to Repoet — Names of Settlees — In- 
ISFIED BY Peesents — Indians Ageee to Waen Off the Set- 
tlees — Finally Decline — Reasons — Plan to Secuee the 
Removal by Indians in the Inteeest of Philadelphia Specu- 


— Eageeness to Secuee Blocks of these Westeen Lands by 
Speculatoes — Geeat Gatheeing at Foet Stanwix — Teeaty 
Made — Lands Acquieed — Pennsylvania Land Office Opened 
— Rush of Applicants — Case of Heney Tayloe — Testi- 
mony — Dishonest Claimants. 

HITHERTO no permanent settlements had been made in the 
limits of what is now known as Greene County. Traders had 
for some years previous passed through all this section of country, 
and had tarrying posts, where the natives were met and 
bartered with for valuable skins and furs, furnishing them in 
return with traps, axes, knives, guns and ammunition. But no perma- 
nent settlements, in which families had come and taken up the land 
they proposed to reclaim, and erected huts for shelter and a home, 
had been attempted. Veech, in his Monongaheia of Old, states that 
the Brown's, Wendell and his sons, Mannus and Adam, wei-e among 


tlie earliest thus to come. Tliey caiiic in 1750, or perliaps a little 
earlier, and settled in Jacolj's Creek valley in what is now Fayette 
County. Early in the 'oO's, Christopher Gist, whom we have pre- 
viously mentioned, planted himself in the valley east of the Monon- 
gahela, and others followed into tiiese pleasant regions. Though we 
have no definite information respecting the number of settlers up to 
this time, yet tliere must have heen a considerable population 
gathered in during the period from 1760 to '70: for Mason and 
Dixon record in their field notes under date of September 30, 1767, 
" Sent to Redstone for more hands." 

The colonial governments nominally -held that settlers had no 
right to occupy any lands that had not Deen formally purchased of 
the Indians, and the purchase been confirmed by treat^stipulations. 
None of the territoi-y west ot the Alleghany Mountains had been 
thus secured previous to 176S, though the Ohio conqjany, which had 
beeen formed in Virginia in 174.^, had stipulated for the settlement 
of 100 families within seven years. A treaty had been "held at 
Lancaster, as before noted, on the 21st of June, 1744-, at which 
repi-esentatives of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia were pres- 
ent, and a vast tract west of the mountains was purchased and paid 
for in goods and gold. But the Indians who dwelt upon these 
lands repudiated the purchase, as did the Six Nations, and indeed 
the British government subse(|uentl3'. But the Ohio Company pro- 
ceeded to send settlers on the strength of this purciiase, as did the 
government of Pennsylvania. However, wlien the seven years' war 
broke out in 1756, all settlements in this western country were 
abandoned. During the pendency of the operations under Colonel 
Boquet against the Indians in the Pontiac war, the King of Great 
Britain had issued his proclamation, in the liope of pacifying the 
Indians, forbidding settlements in these words: " AV^hereas, it is 
just and reasonable, and essential to our interest, and the security 
of our colonies, that the several nations or tribes of Indians witli 
whom we are connected, and who live under our protection, should 
not be molested or disturbed in tlie possession of such parts of our 
dominions and territories as, notliaving been ceded to, or purchased 
by us, are reserved to them, or any of them, as their huntinggrouuds; we 
do, therefore, with the advice of our privy council, declare it to be 
our royal will and pleasure * '•■' ■" that no Governor or Com- 
mander-in-chief of our other colonies or plantations in America, do 
presume for the present, and until our further pleasure be known, to 
grant warrants of survey, or pass patents for any lands beyond the 
lieads or sources of any of the rivers M'hich fall into the Atlantic 
Ocean from the west or northwest, or upon any lands whatever, 
which never having l)een ceded to, or purchased by lis, are reserved 
to the said Indians * * * and we do hereby strictly forbid, on 


pain of our displeasure, all our loving subjects from making any 
purchases or settlements whatever or taking possession of any of the 
lands above reserved, without our special leave and license for that 
purpose first obtained. And we do further strictly enjoin and re- 
quire all persons whatever, who have either wilfully or inadvertently 
seated themselves upon any lands within the countries above de- 
scribed, or upon any other lands * * * which are still reserved 
to the said Indians, forthwith to remove themselves, from such 

It will be seen by this royal proclamation, that all lands west of 
the sources of the rivers falling into the Atlantic Ocean wei'e with- 
held from settlement, as not having been legally purchased of the 
Indians, and settlers who had taken lands there were summoned to 
vacate them. But the settlers paid little heed to this proclamation, 
and when the peace secured by Colonel Boquet was declared, in 
1764, hardy settlers hastened back to the tracts which they liad 
previously selected, and many more followed in their footsteps. As 
they could claim no protection from the government, entering upon 
their lands in direct violation of the royal proclamation, they be- 
came a law unto themselves. In a note to Smith's laws. Vol. II, 
he says: "In the meantime, in violation of all laAv, a set of hardy 
adventurers had from time to time seated themselves upon this 
doubtful territory. They made improvements, and formed a very 
considerable population. It is true so far as regards the rights to 
real property, they were not under the protection of the laws of the 
country; and were we to adopt the visionary theory of some philos- 
ophers, who have drawn their arguments from a supposed state of 
nature, we might be led to believe that the state of these people, 
would have been a state of continual warfai'e, and that in contests 
for property the weakest must give way to the strongest. To pre- 
vent the consequences, real or supposed, of this state of things, 
they formed a mutual compact among themselves. They annually 
elected a tribunal, in rotation of three of their settlers, whom they 
called Fair-pky-men, wlio were to decide all controvei'sies and set- 
tle disputed boundaries. From their decision there was no appeal. 
There could be no resistance. The decree was enforced by the whole 
body, who started np in mass, at the mandate of the court and 
execution and eviction were as sudden and irresistible as the judg- 
ment. Every new comer was obliged to apply to this poAverful tri- 
bunal, and upon his solemn engagement to submit in all respects 
to the law of the land, he was permitted to take possession of some 
vacant spot. Their decrees were however just; and when their set- 
tlements were recognized by law and "Fair-play" had ceased, their 
decisions were received in evidence and coniirmed by judgments of 
courts." The "Fair-play " dominions were embraced in the purchase 



whicli was made in 1768, of which tlie territory of Greene formed 
a part. 

There were two roads leading through the rugged ranges of 
tiie Alleghany Mountains, which led from the settlements on the 
Delaware and the James to the country of the Monongaliela; that 
opened by Wills' Creek (Cumberland) the Great Meadows, and Red- 
stone (Brownsville] for the passage of Hraddock's army, which be- 
came substantially the route of the national road of Jefferson's time, 
and that by Bedford, Ligonier and Koyalhanna, oijened for the pas- 
sage of the army of General Forbes. Strictly, the English armies 
according to the royal proclamation above quoted, e.xcept the ever 
ready one of military necessity, had no right to cut these roads and 
march armies over them. Indeed, the Ohio Company, which claiined 
its authority from the crown, was acting in contravention to that 
proclamation, though they held that the treaty which their agents 
had concluded with the Indians, was their warrant. " During the 
snmmer of 1760," says Albach, " General Monkton, by a treaty at 
Fort Pitt, obtained leave to build posts within the wild lands, each 
post having ground enough about it to raise corn and vegetables for 
the use of tiie garrison. Nor were the settlements of the Ohio 
Company and the forts the only inroads upon the hunting grounds 
of the savages. In 1757, by the books of the secretary of Virginia, 
three millions of acres had been granted west of the mountains. 
Indeed, in 1758, that State attempted by law to encourage settle- 
ments in the West." 

So disastrous had been the wars with the Indians, and so bitter 
their hatred of the settlers, that government exercised care in pre- 
venting encroachments and in removing intruders upon unacquired 
territory. Governor Penn, in September, 1766, issued his proclama- 
tion warning " all his majesty's subjects of this or any other province 
or colony from making any settlements, or taking any possession of 
lands, by marking trees or otherwise, beyond the limits of the last 
Indian purchase, that of 1758, within this province, upon pain of the 
severest penalties of thelaw^ and of being excluded from the privilege 
of securing such settlements should the lands where they shall be 
made be hereafter purchased of the Indians." A little earlier, in 
June of this year, Captain Mackay, with a squadron of English regu- 
lars was sent out from Fort Pitt to Redstone, to order the settlers 
away. Governor Farquier, of Virginia, issued a proclamation of a 
tenor similar to that of Governor Penn. 

But notwithstanding the loud words of royal and governor's 
proclamations, and the presence of the king's troops, it is probable 
that little heed was given to these commands by the hardy pioneers 
who had ventured forth in small parties and pressed into this beau- 
tiful and fruitful country, where they could get tlie best lands by 


" squatting" on them, and driving a few stakes. They made fast 
friends of tlie Indians, whom they casually met, by gifts and Itind- 
nesses. But the great war Sachems looked with a jealous eye npon 
these encroachments, and made load complaints to the colonial au- 
thorities. So threatening had these protests become near the close 
of 1767, that General Gage, who had succeeded General Amherst in 
the command of the royal forces in America, wrote to Governor 
Penn, that Sir William Jolmson, who was the most trusted medium 
between the English and the Indians, to whom the latter were ac- 
customed freely to unbosom themselves, had advised him that there 
was danger of an immediate rupture, the chief ground of complaint 
being " the obstinacy of the people who persist to settle on their 

In his reply. Governor Penn very judiciously and candidly ob- 
serves: " With respect to the inefficiency of the laws to secure the 
Indians in their persons and properties, I would beg leave to observe 
that the remote situation of their country, and the dispersed and 
vagrant manner in which the people live, will generally render the 
best laws that can be framed for those ends in a great measure inef- 
fectual. The civil officers, whose business it is to see that they are 
duly enforced, cannot exert their authority in so distant and extensive 
a wilderness. In the execution thereof, of the present interesting mat- 
ter, I am persuaded that, notwithstanding, all the Legislature can do, I 
shall Und it necessary to apply the military aid, which you have so 
readily offered me in support of the civil power. Yet I fear that while 
tlie severity of the weather in the winter season continues, it will be 
found extremely difficult, if not impracticable, to oblige these lawless 
people to abandon their present habitations, and to remove with their 
families and effects into the interior part of the countrj^, and I am of 
the opinion that it would be unadvisable to make any attempt of 
that kind before spring." 

At the opening of the legislative session of 1768, the Governor 
called attention to these irregularities, and called upon the Assembly 
to pass such a law as will effectually remedy these provocations, and 
the first law of the session was one providing that if any person 
settled upon lands not purchased of the Indians by the propri- 
etaries, shall refuse to remove for the space of thirty days after 
having been requested so to do, or if any person shall remove and 
then return, or shall settle on such lands after the notice of the pro- 
visions of this act have been duly proclaimed, any such persons on 
being duly convicted shall be put to death without benefit of clergy. 

This statute having been duly enacted, it was printed with a pro- 
clamation of the Governor, and a committee consisting of John Steel, 
John Allison, Christopher Lemes and James Potter, were dispatched 


to the Moiiongahela country to distribute these docuinents aud give 
the necessary notice. 

This embassage was faithfully performed, the settlers being called 
together and the law and the message of the Governor being read to 
them, and the occasion of the action. Upon their return they made 
a report of their proceedings in which they say: '-We arrived at the 
settlement on liedstone on the twenty-third da)' of March. The 
people having heard of our coming had appointed a meeting among 
themselves, on the twenty-fourth, to consult what measures they 
should take. We took the advantage of this meeting, read the act 
of assembly and proclamation, explaining the law, and giving the 
reason of it as well as we could, and used our endeavors to persuade 
them to comply, alleging to them that it was the most probable 
method, to entitle them to favor with the honorable pro2:)rietaries 
when the land was purchased. After lamenting their distressed 
condition, they told ns the people were not fully collected; l:)ut as 
they expected, all would attend on the Sabbath following, then they 
would give us answer. They, however, affirmed that tlie Indians 
were very peaceable, and seemed sorry they were to be removed; 
and said they apprehended the English intended to make war upon 
the Indians, as they were moving otF their people from their neigh- 
borhood. We labored to persuade them that they were imposed on 
by a few straggling Indians, that Sir William Johnson, who had in- 
formed our government, must be better acquainted with the mind 
of the Six Nations, and that they were displeased with the white 
people settling on their unpurchased lands. On the Sabbath a con- 
siderable number attended, and most of them told us they were 
resolved to move off, and would petition your honor for preference 
ill obtaining their improvements when a purchase was made." 

" While we were conversing, we were informed that a number of 
Indians had come to Indian Peters! We, judging it might be suli- 
servient to our main design that_^the Indians should be present while 
we were advising the people to obey the law, sent for them. They 
came, and after sermon delivered a speech, with a string of wam- 
pum to be transmitted to your Honor. The speech was: ' Ye are 
come, sent by the great men to tell these people to go away from 
the land, which you say is ours; and we are sent by our great 
men, and are glad we have met here this day. We tell you the 
white people must stop, and we stop them till the treaty, and when 
George Croghan and our great men will talk together we will tell 
them what to do! * * * After this the people were more con- 
firmed that there was no danger of war. They dropped the design 
of petitioning, and said they would wait the issue of the treaty. 
Some, however, declared they would move off." 

By a similar manner of procedure, the settlers on Cheat Rivei, 


and 8tewart's crossings of Yonghiogheiiy were met, and copies of 
tlie law and proclamation were sent to Turkeyfoot, and other scattei'ed 
settlers. In conclusion they say: "It is our opinion that some 
will move off, in obedience to the law, that the greater part will wait 
the treaty, and if they find the Indians indeed dissatisfied, we think 
that the whole can be persuaded to remove. The Indians coming to 
liedstone and delivering their speech greatly obstructed our design." 

This closed the report of tlie commissioners; but a private letter 
of the chairman, John Steel, to the Governor, discloses the secret 
spring that niay have been moving in this whole matter, and gives 
a smack of the milk that is in the cocoanut. Pie says: " Sir, there 
is one thing which, in preparing tiie extract of our journal, happened 
to be overlooked, viz.: The people at Redstone alleged that tlie re- 
moving them from the unpurchased lands was a contrivance of the 
gentlemen and merchants of Philadelphia, that they might take 
rights for their improvements when a purchase was made. In con- 
firmation of this, they said tliat a gentleman of the name of Harris, 
and another called Wallace, with one Priggs, a pilot, spent a con- 
siderable time last August in viewing the lands and creeks there- 
abouts. We promised to acquaint your honor with this." It was a 
most fortunate lapse of memory on the part of the commissioners 
that they forgot to put any mention of this little scheme into their 
report, as it might liave been made public and defeated the underly- 
ing motive of their mission. Mr. Steel adds in this note, " I am of 
opinion from the appeai-ance of the people and the best intelligeTice 
we could obtain, that there are but about an hundred and fifty fami- 
lies in the different settlements." 

The commissioners appended the names of the men whom they 
met, and as this gives a clue to the earliest settlers in the country of 
the JVIonongahela they are given as one of the very early records 
of 1768: " John Wiseman, Henry Prisser, William Linn, William 
Colvin, John Vervalson, Abraham Tygard (Teagarden), Thomas 
Brown, Richard Rogers, John Delong, Peter Young, George Martin, 
Henry Swartz, Joseph McLeon, Jesse Martin, Adam Hatton, John 
Vervul, Jr., James Waller, Thomas Douter, Captain Coburn, Michael 
Hooter, Andrew Linn, Gabriel Conu, Thomas Down, Andrew 
Gudgeon (Gudgel), Phil Sute (Shute), James Crawford, John Peters, 

John Martin, Hans Cock, Daniel McCay, Josias Crawford, 

Province." At Gist's place were: "James Lyue, Blounfield 

(Brownfield), Eze Johnson, Thomas Guesse (Gist), Charles Linsey, 
James Wallace, Richard Llarrison, Jet. Johnson, Henry Burken 
(Burkham), Lawrence Harrison, Ralph Ilickenbottom, and at Tur- 
keyfoot, Henry Abrahams, Eze Dewit, James Spence, Benjamin 
Jennings, John Cooper, John Enslow, Henry Enslow, Benjamin 
Pursley." It is probable that many of these names have a different 


form from the names borne by descendants of the same families; but 
there is no doubt that many of the inhabitants of the Monungahela 
country at tlie present day are tlie descendants of these people who 
had planted themselves here in the wilderness nearly a century and 
a (piarter ago. 

Preparations had been for some time in jjrogress for holding a 
conference with the Indians at Fort Pitt. George Croghan, who 
was the deputy under Sir AVilliani Johnson, had the matter in charge, 
and had infornied Governor John I^enn that if he wished to be I'cp- 
resented he should send delegates. The council convened on the 
26tii of April and lasted till the 'Jtli of May, John Allen and Joseph 
Shippen, Jr., representing Pennsylvania. The records show tliat the 
Indians were very fully represented, twelve Sachems, six war chiefs, 
and two hundred and ninety braves, besides women and children 
(which accompanied all the tribes) of the Six Nations; thirteen 
Sachems, nine war chiefs, and three hundred and eleven braves of 
the Bela wares; ten Sachems, eight war chiefs, and one hundred and 
forty braves of the Shawneese; live Sachems and one liundred and 
ninety-six braves of the Munsies; three Sachems and ninety warriors 
of the Mohickions; seven of the AVyandots; in all, eleven hundred, 
Ijesides women and children. 

The first business considered was the atonement for the murder 
of Indians which had recently been perpetrated by the enraged 
settlers, who had taken it upon themselves to avenge^ the outrages 
which had been perpetrated by the red men in the way of murders, 
scalpings and burnings in the progress of the late wars — the victims 
in most cases being wholly innocent, whose oidy crime was that of 
having a red skin and being clotlied in feathei-s and paint. Much 
palaver was had over tiiis subject, the great chiefs airing their wild 
rhetoric of the woods very freely. The representative of the white 
men, Croghan, shrewdlv admitted everything charged, bewailing 
their losses, and grieving over their wounded feelings. But he had 
come prepared to amend all, and when lie brought out the " piled 
up'' presents to the amount of over fourteen hundred pounds, the 
warrior braves regarded them with grunts of satisfaction, and freely 
forgave all. 

The council M'as a long time in reaching the second subject of 
consideration, what should be the decision in regard to settlers on 
the lands not purchased of the rightful owners. There appear to 
have been no friends of the settlers admitted to the council, tiie 
agents of the Pennsylvania government, Allen and Shippen, being 
only intent on securing the execution of that barbarous statute which 
prescribed hanging if they did not summarily give up their homes. 
Tohonissawgorrawa, the sound of whose name was enough to inspire 
terror, at length was induced to enter a complaint addressed to 


Brother Ouas (Peiin) against tlie English for entering upon lands 
not yet bought, and demanding that they be removed. The answer 
made by the Pennsylvania commissioners disclosed the sole purpose 
which they had. They explained the provisions of the law recently' 
passed, relating to this subject of removal, showed the result of the 
labors of the agents sent to deliver printed copies of the law and 
Governor's proclamation; but bewail the fact, that after the settlers 
had been persuaded to leave, there came certain Mingo Indians, who 
exhorted them to stay until the result of this treaty should be 
made known. Allen and Shippen now demanded that discreet 
chieftains should be sent to the settlers to order their immediate 
departure. Aiter this is done say the}': "If they shall refuse to 
remove by the time limited them, you may depend upon it the gov- 
ernment will not fail to put the law into execution against them." 
The proposition of the Pennsylvania agents that the Indians should 
send some of their wise men to warn the settlers off, and undo the 
mischief done by the Mingo messengers was agreed to, and a delega- 
tion was named on the part of the Six Nations, who i-eceived formal 
written instructions, and John Frazer and John Thompson were 
designated to accompany them on their errand. It was understood 
that they were to proceed on this mission at once. But after wait- 
ing several days and vainly importuning them to set off, they finally 
came to the commissioners and said that "they had been seriously 
considering the business they were going to be sent on, and it now 
appeared to them so disagreeable that they could by no means con- 
sent to undertake it, and immediately returned the wampum which 
had been given them. * * * The driving of white people away 
from their settlements was a matter which no Indians could with 
any satisfaction be concerned in, and they thought it most proper 
for the English themselves to compel their own people to remove 
from the Indians' lands." 

Though the settlers had no representative admitted to the great 
conclave to speak for them, yet it is very evident that they had some 
shrewd member present with the Indians counseling with them and 
inspiring their replies. For while these answers are in entire har- 
mony with the native dignity of these men of the forest; yet we can- 
not but believe that the timely appearance of the Mingo braves at 
Redstone, and their plea for the sitting of the settlers for the present, 
and now the refusal to undertake the embassage which they had for- 
mally agreed to in council and their very cogent and dignified reasons 
therefor, were inspired by an agent of the settlers. And this 
view is greatly strengthened when we consider the following written 
statement, which Guyasutha delivered to the Pennsylvania com- 
missioners: " I now find that not only the Indians appointed by us, 
but all our other young men, are very unwilling to carry a message 


from lis to the white people, ordering them to remove from our lands. 
They say they would not choose to incur the ill-will of those people; 
for if tliey should be now removed they will hereafter I'eturn to their 
settlements when the English have jiurchased the country from us. 
And we shall be very unhappy if, b^^ our conduct towards tliem at 
this time, we shall give them reason to dislike us, and treat us in an 
unkind manner when they again become our neighbors. We there- 
fore hope, brethren, you will not be displeased at us, for not performing 
our agreement with you, for you maybe assured we have good hearts 
towards all our brethren, the English." 

The true secret of this ■whole attempt to remove the settlers west 
of Alleghauies was this: Since the surveys made by Mason and 
Dixon which had l)een stopped by the Indians at the great war patli 
on Dunkard Creek, Greene County, and within some thirty-six miles 
of the western boundary of the State, the State authorities and the 
magnates of Philadelphia being now definitely apprised of the 
southern limits of the colony, beheld a large number of settlers, 
mostly Virginians, whom the Ohio Company had been instrumental 
in bringing there, seated upon some of the finest lands in this wliole 
Monongahela Valley, and they desired them dispossessed by the In- 
dians, so that when all this stretch of country west of the Alleghauies 
should be acquired by purchase, it would be open for occupancy by 
Peunsylvanians. But in this business the Indians showed themselves 
unwilling to draw the chestnuts from the embers to accommodate 
the prospective purchasers. The settlers themselves were entirely 
innocent of any evil designs, having come upon these lands in tiie 
belief that the (^hio Company, which had the authority and en- 
couragement of the British government, had acquired a just title to 
them, and that thev owed allegiance to the State of Virginia which 
assumed a rightful authority over them. Having selected tiieir 
lands, and with great toil and hardship made clearings and cultiva- 
tions, tliey felt a deep reluctance to give them up, and believed that 
they could not be rightfully dispossessed. Hence, these early Vir- 
ginia settlers were anxious to cultivate a good understanding with 
the Indians, which tended to promote further settlements, and came 
to look with an evil eye on the government of Pennsylvania, which 
had authorized their hanging if tliey did not remove. 

In all these negotiations the Indians intimated that they expectetl 
to sell these lands west of the Alleghauies to the English. For in 
their excuses for not ordering off the white people, as they had agreed 
to do, they used this expression, "when the English shall have pur- 
chased the country from us." Virginia was the only colony which 
laid claim to the country drained by the Ohio River. The New Eng- 
land States, except Connecticut, were entirel_v cut off; New York 
could only extend westward to the lakes, Pennsylvania had exact 


limits prescribed by charter on the west, even if that limit was allowed, 
although Virginia was claiming the portion west of the Alleghany 
M-ountains. But Virginia laid claim to the entire Ohio Valley 
north as well as south. Tliis claim Hillsborough, the English Sec- 
retary, determined to curtail, by coniirming the Indians in their 
claims to all these lands, at least until tlie claim of Virginia was 
broken, and accordingly ordered his agent, Stuart, to continue the 
line which he had traced along the western limits of the Garolinas, 
from Chiswell's mine to the mouth of the Kanawha. This line was 
confirmed by treaty with the Cherokees at Hard Labor on the 14th 
of October, 1768. By this procedure all of Kentucky, as well as 
the entire territory northwest of the Ohio, would be relieved of the 
claim of Virginia, and the Indians be confirmed in absolute owner- 

The English Secretary was moreover Jealous of the encroach- 
ments of the Spanish at St. Louis and New Orleans, who were bidding 
for the fur trade of the lakes, and the Western settlers. By establish- . 
inor tlie native tribes in their rights he thought to cut off this trade 
through their country, and not only stop emigration to these "Western 
lands, but clear ofl' the few who had already made improvements. 
Hence this savage law of the Pennsylvania Legislature, imposing 
death on these settlers if they did not leave, was well pleasing to him. 
There was much contention at this time both in the colonies and 
at the English court to obtain grants of these Western lands. The 
Ohio Company, Mississippi Company and Walpole's grants, which 
will be referred to further on, were specimens of this grasping spirit. 
Franklin was in England urging these grants and was in cori-espondence 
with his compeers in this country. Sir William Johnson was not 
without ambitious designs, and he had accordingly made arrange- 
ments for a grand conclave of Indians from far and near to be held 
at Fort Stanwix, now' Eome, New York, in the mild October days 
of 1768. The conference held at Fort Pitt, detailed above, earlier in 
the season, was but the forerunner of this grander meeting, and the 
munificent gifts there distributed were baits to lure the savages on. 

Thomas Walker represented Virginia; Governor William Frank- 
lin, New Jersey; Governor Penn was present from Penjisylvania, but 
was obliged to leave before the business was completed. Sir Will- 
iam Johnson represented New York and the English government, 
orders having been transmitted to him early in the spring to make 
the proposed purchase of lands and settle all difficulties with the In- 
dians. The number of Indians present was extraordinary, being ac- 
cording to Bancroft a little short of three thousand. " Every art," 
he says, " was used to conciliate the chiefs of the Six Nations, and 
gifts were lavished on them with unusual generosity. They in turn 
complied with the solicitations of the several agents. The line that 


^^<:^^ ^^r/^,^ 



was established began at tlie north, where Canada Creek joins Wood 
Creek; on leaving New York, it passed from the nearest fork ol' the 
West liranch oftlie Siit^quehanna to Kittauning on the Allegheny, 
whence it followed tliat river and tlie Ohio. At the mouth of the 
Kanawha it met the line of Stewart's treaty. " Had it stopped here 
tlie Indian frontier would liave been marked all the way from north- 
ern New York to I''lorida. I!ut instead of following Ins instructions, 
Sir William Johnson pretended to recognize a right of the Six 
Nations to the largest part of Kentucky, and continued the line down 
the Ohio to the Tennessee River which was thus constituted the 
western boundary of Virginia." This whs in contravention to the 
policy of Secretary Hillsborough, and again opened the extravagant 
claims of Virginia. 

Thus was aci.jnired, by tlie transactions of one day, the 5th of 
November, 1768, a day ever memorable in the annals of Western 
Pennsylvania, this hilarious carnival day of the Indians, a vast 
tract stretching away a thonsand miles or more, enough for an em- 
pire of the largest proportions. It embraced in Pennsylvania the 
very farthest stretch from the Delaware River in the northeast to 
Greene County in the southwest, comprising the counties of Wayne. 
Susquehanna, Lackawanna, Luzerne, Wyoming, Sullivan, a part of 
Bradford, Columbia, Motitour, Northumberland, Lycoming, IJnion, 
parts of Centre, Clinton, Clearfield, Indiana, Armstrong and Alle- 
gheny, and the counties entire of Cambria, Somerset, AYestmoreland, 
Washington, Fayette and Greene. Thus was ended by one sweeping 
purchase a controversy with the Indians/ for possession of the soil 
along the waters of the Monongahela, which was beginning to 
threaten deadly feuds. We say ended; but not ended. The treaty 
was signed by the chiefs of the Six Nations, for themselves, their 
allies and defendants, the Shawnees, Delawares, Mingoes and others; 
but the^hawnees and Delaware deputies did not sign, and hence 
there was left open a plea for individual hostility, which for many 
years proved very greivous to the early settlers of Greene County, 
though the Six Nations claimed the right to themselves to make sale 
of all tliese lands by right of conquest of the natives which in- 
liabited them, a right which the Delawares and Shawnees never 
dared to disurite. 

The title of the government to all the lands along the Mononga- 
hela and upper Ohio being now thought to be complete, having a 
title deed for it from the Six Nations duly recorded, there was lui 
reason why these lauds should not be taken up un der colonial author- 
ity. Virginia was laying claim to all this section of country, on 
what grounds we shall detail further on; but Pennsylvania having 
already extended its southern boundary as claimed l)y chartered right, 
very nearly to its western extremity, felt secure in extending 


the tBgis of its power over these regions, thongli for the most part 
settled to tliis time by Virginians. Accordingly, early in the year 
1769, j)ublic notice was given that the land oitice of the colony 
wlSiTd be opened on the_3d of April for the sale of lands within the 
limits of the new purchase, at a price of five pounds sterling per one 
hundred acres, and a quit-rent of a penny per acre, the Proprietaries 
holding that as they had the land on condition of making of an 
annual payment of two beaver skins, they were obliged to impose an 
annual (j^uit-rent to make a sale binding. A penny an acre, though 
seeming a mere nominal sum, if exacted on the whole territory of 
the State would bring a snug little income. By the rules of the 
office no one person was allowed to purchase more tlian three hun- 
dred acres. v' 

As we have already' seen numbers of hardy pioneers, previous to 
this date, had chosen lands, and made for themselves homes on the 
favorite spots throughout all this picturesque country soutliward 
from Fort Pitt, between the Ohio and Monongahela rivers, though 
they had acquired no recognized right to do so previous to the date 
named above. When the land oflice was opened on the morning of 
that day there was a great rush of applicants desiring to perfect a 
title to their lands. Among others who had settled on lands near 
the mouth of Ten Mile Creek, previous to 1768, was Abraham Tea- 
garden, and among names of those who were granted patents for 
lands west of the Monongahela on this first day were those of Pres- 
ton, Harrison, Pooks and Evans, and subsequently those of Hunter, 
McDowell, 'Drummond, Allman, Marshall, Indian Peter, Parkinson, 
Cox, Grimes and Taylor. 

To illustrate the manner in which titles were acquired and con- 
flicting claims were settled in those early times, the following ex- 
tracts from the testimony in a suit for ejectment which was bi'ought 
by the last named person, Henry Taylor, are here given, the case 
turning upon the question of priority of occupancy. Isaac Will- 
iams testified: "That in the year 1770 he saw Henry Taylor living 
in the forks of Chartiers Creek, he was improving that land that is now 
in dispute, and to make a settlement thereon; that he hired his 
brother, John Williams, to strengthen the improvements then 
claimed by said Taylor; that ho knew the work to be done, as he 
hunted to get provision for the men while they were doing the work; 
that he also knew Taylor to pay his brother a rifle gun and some 
cash when he went away, and on his return paid the sum of eight 
pounds; that when they were doing the work he found a new cabin 
on the White Oak Ridge, appearing to have been built that winter; 
that on Taj'lor's finding that some person had been at work on his 
land he employed me to enquire, and if possible find out who it was, 
and to purchase their claim, which I found it to be Hugh Sidwell, 


and purchased the said White Oak cabin and all his claim for the 
sum of twenty shillings." 

In answer to the question whether Bolzer Shilling did not 
make a practice of running about through the woods, marking 
and hazing trees and calling that his improvements, and that in 
great number," AVilliams'aiiswered, •• He knew it well to be his con- 
stant practice." Jolin AVilliains also testified " that he deadened some 
timber and cut and split five hundred rails on the llicli Hill tract, 
live hundred rails on the White Oak llidge tract, that he built a 
good cabin and split five hundred rails on another tract, for which 
the said Taylor paid him before he left the settlement a rifle gun 
and four dollars cash, and the next spring when the said Taylor re- 
turned from Cecil County, Maryland, he paid me the remainder 
honorably, being eight pounds Pennsylvania money." 

Frederick Lamb also testified, "That some time in the montli of 
April, 1772, he came to Bolzer Shilling where he was doing some 
work on a certain tract of land where Richard Yates now dwells on; 
he had seen on a tree a small distance from them, with H. T. on it, 
which at the time he thought it had been Henry Taylor's claim, and 
he asked the said Bolzer, ' Was not this Henry Taylor's claim? ' J'olzer 
answered ' Yes,' it is his claiin, and that he was working there on 
purpose to affront said Taylor; and he wanted Taylor to come there 
on jjurpose to quarrel with him, and give Taylor a thrashing, and 
would black his eyes well' He then told Bolzer that Heniy Taylor 
was a civil man, and would not tight with him, and 'twas better to 
let alone. Then Bolzer said he would go up and let Van Sweringeu 
have it, for Van was not ashamed of any mean action, and he knew 
Van to be rogue enough to cheat Taylor out; of the land." 

lietter than pages of description this testimony of the early 
pioneers, informs us of the trials and hardships which the settlers 
had to endure in getting a foothold upon lands in this goodly country, 
in the face of disputed authority of the State, the jealousy of the na- 
tives, the quarrels of conflicting claimants, and the lying and cheating 
of dishonest bullies. 



Treaty of 1784 — Cumbeeland Cuunty Skat at Caelislk — Bedfokd 
CouKTY — Pitt and Sfkinghill Townsiiii's — Assessmknts — 
Names of Tax Payi;es — Westmoeeland County Fokmed — 
IIannatown — Aethue St. Claie — JioAu Laid Out feom 
Mouth of Fisiipot eun Eastwaed — Impoetakt Thoeouuhfaee 
— Case of Elizabeth Smith — Delegates Assume ale Au- 


Goveenment — Feanklin Peesident — Committee of Safety — 
GovEENOE John Penn Relieved — The Foundf:e Remembeeeu 
Gratefully — New Constitution, Thomas Wiiaeton, Peesi- 
ijiiNx — Assembly Legalized all Acts of Peeceding Couets 


Civil Officees — Theead of Authority was Taken Up by 
THE New Peoples' Goveenment Just as Deopped by that Act- 
ing Undee Roy'al Authoeity. 

ALL the territory of Pennsylvania to the north and west of the line 
of counties named in the last chapter, as having been acquired 
from tiie Indians by the treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768; still re- 
mained in the hands of the Indians, over which tlie government of 
Pemisylvania could exercise no jurisdiction. All this stretch of 
country, embracing a full third of the State, covering all the broad 
northwest, remained to the Indians until after the close of the Revo- 
lutionary war, having been finally acquired by the treaty of Fort Mc- 
intosh concluded in 1784. No provision was made for the civil gov- 
ernment of this territcn-y, acquired by the purchase of 1768, until 

Chester was one of the three original counties formed from the 
territory acquired from tlie Indians by Penn in 1682, and by subse- 
quent treaties down to 1736. Lancaster was formed from a part of 
Chester in 1729. Cumberland was apportioned from a part of Lan- 
caster in 1750. Up to 1771 all county business by settlers in all the 
western portion of the State had to be transacted at Carlisle, the 
present county seat of CumbM-land County. For three years, from 
1768 to 1771, the inhabitants of Greene County wei'e oblig-ed to go 
"^ to Carlisle for the transaction of any county bnsii.ess. On the latter 
date, March 9th, the county of Bedford was erected out of portions 


of Ouiiiberhiiul, and was made to embrace the vast tract as described 
in the list, as beginning on the south wliere the Province line crosses 
the Tuscarora ]\tonntain, the present eastern limit of Fulton Conntj-, 
and running along the suniniit of that mountain to the gap near the 
head of Patli A^alley, thence north to the Juniata River; thence with 
the Juniata to the mouth of Shaver's Creek; thence northeast to the 
line of Berks County; thence along the Berks County line to the 
western boundaries of the Province, thence southward by the western 
boundaries of the Province, to tiie southwest corner, and thence 
eastward by the southern boundary of the Province to the place of 
beginning. As will be seen, this county organization emiiraced the 
territory included in the present County of Greene, and hence for a 
period, all county business was done at the town of Bedford, one 
hundred miles from Pittsburg. Though now having a legal county 
organization, and full protection guaranteed by the Province to all 
its iidiabitants, yet the dream seems to have been indulged in iiy 
many of the early settlers that this territory between the .Mononga- 
hela and Ohio rivers belonged to Virginia, and that its claim would 
ultimately be vindicated. 

The first court held at Bedford, was opened on the lOlhof Ajiril, 
1771, at which George Wilson reported as justice foi- tJie south- 
western corner of the State, whose home was at the mouth of Georges 
Creek, Fayette C^ounty. William Ci'awford, who was the land agent 
of George Washington, who figured prominently afterward in the 
military annals of the country, after whom the county of Crawford 
was named, who was inhumanly Imrned by the Indians at Sandusky, 
and who had previously figured as a justice of Cumberland, was also 
a justice of Bedford, as was also Tliomas Gist, son of Christopher 
Gist, the companion of Washington in his journey to Fort Le Boenf, 
in 1753. JJorsey Pentecost, who afterwards was the second presi- 
dent -ludge of Washington County, and a member of the first board 
of county commissioners of Bedford County, was also a justice. In 
the division of the new county of I>edford into townships, the whole 
territory' west of the Monongahela River, now embracing tiie counties 
ot Greene, Washington and parts of Allegheny and Beaver, was em- 
l)raceil in two townshi[)S, Pitt and Springhill, liounded as follows: 
" Beginning at the mouth of the Iviskeminitas, and running down 
the Alleo-heny River to its junction with the Monongahela, tJien 
down the Ohio to the western limits of the Province, thence with the 
western boutulary to the line of Springhill, thence with that line to 
the moutli of Bedstone Creek, thence down the Monongahela to the 
mouth of Youghiogheny, thence with the line of Ilempfield to the 
mouth of Brush Run, thence'witli the line of said township to the 
beginning." Springhill: "Beginning at the mouth of Redstone 
Creek, and running thence a due west course, to the western boun- 


dary of the Province, thence south -with the Province line to the 
soutliern boundary of the Province, tlien east with that line to vsrhere 
it crosses the Youghiogheny to Laurel Hill, thence with the line of 
Tyrone to Gist's, and thence with that line to the beginning." 

" The official assessment rolls," says Crumrine, in his history of 
Washington County, " for these townships for 1772, show that Pitt 
Township had tifty-two landholders, twenty tenants, and thirteen 
single freemen; Springhill (which embraced Greene County), three 
hundred and eight land-holders, eighty-nine tenants, and fifty-eight 
single freemen. * * * The assessment roll for 1772 of Spring- 
hill Township shows the following names among others: Thomas 
Brown (Ten-Mile), Jeremiah Beek, (Beck), William Brashear, Will- 
iam Crawford, (the Quaker, afterwards of East Bethlehem), Josiah 
Crawford, Oliver Ciawford, John Casteel, lienry Enoch, John Gar- 
rard, Jr., Zachariah Goben, (Gaben), .James Harrod, William Harrod, 
Levi Harrod, Thomas Hughes (Muddy Creek), Andrew Link, Jacob 
Link, John Moore, David Morgan, John Masterson, Daniel More- 
dock, James Moredock, John Swan, Robert Syre, Abraham Teagar- 
den, George Teagarden, Lienry Michael, Samuel Eckerly, John Hupp, 
William Teagarden and John Williams.' Among the names from the 
Pitt Township list are Jacob Bausman, John Barr, John Campbell, 
Samuel Lleath and John McDonald." But the large numbers em- 
braced in the tax list of 1772, show how rapidly the country filled up 
when once the way was open. When we consider that the right to 
acquire land had only existed for four years, when this assessment 
was made, we must conclude that these lands had a special charm for 
the pioneer. 

But the necessity of making a journey of a hundred miles, over 
rugged mountains, and by roads that wei'e little more than bridle 
paths through the forest, in order to reach the county seat, proved 
too burdensome, and after the lapse of five years, February 26, 
1773, a new county was organized on this side of the Alleghanies, 
embracing a part of the original county of Bedford, and designated 
Westmoreland. Tlie act of incorpoi'ation defining its legal limits 
was in these words: "That all and singular the lands Ij'ing within 
the province of Pennsylvania, and being within the boundaries fol- 
lowing, that is to say: beginning in the province line, where the 
most westerly branch, commonly called the South or Great brand) of 
tlie Youghiogheny River crosses the same; then down the easterly 
side of tiie said branch and river to the Laurel tlill; thence along 
the ridge of the said hill, north-eastward so far as it can be traced, or 
till it runs into the Alleghany Hill; thence, along the ridge dividing 
the waters of Susquehanna and the Allegheny rivers to the purchase 
line, at the head of the Susquehanna, thence due west to the limits 
of the province and by the same to the place of beginning; shall be, 


and the same is liereby declared to be, erected into a county, hence- 
forth to be called Westmoreland.'' 

It will be seen by reference to any map of this jnirt of the State, 
that the northern boundary " to the purchase line at the head of 
Susquehanna, thence due west to the limits of the province," em- 
braces a considerable territory north of the Allei^heny and Ohio 
rivers which had not yet l)een acquired by purchase of the Indians, 
tiie Fort Stanwix purchase being confined to lands east and soutli, or 
the left bank of these streams. But it is probable that this stretch 
of legal authority was made to accommodate persons who had fixed 
their eyes on some delectable sjjots on the riglit bank, as for example 
Allegheny City. 

"J>y the provisions of the organic act," quoting Crumrine, "the 
courts of Westmorelaiid County were to be held at the house of 
Robert llanna, until the Coui't Ilotise shall be built." Robert Ilanna. 
one of the early pioneers in these then western wilds, had seated 
himself at a point near the site of Greensburg, the county seat 
of the present county of Westmoreland. Here he had opened a house 
for public entertainment, and around him luid gathered the cabins of 
a number of the hardy settlers, the whole taking the pretentious 
name of Ilanna's Town. This point was on the line of the new 
road opened by General Forbes in his expedition to Fort Pitt in 1758, 
and is on the line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

The courts were held here for a number of years, and hence, it be- 
came a place of considerable importance, figuring extensively in the 
contentions that ensued to State authority over this territory. Tlie 
commissions issued to justices of the peace for. this county embraced 
many names that became prominent in the future history of the 
State and the nation: Arthur St. Clair, afterwards a prominent 
Major-General in the American army under AVashington, and the 
leader of the unfortunate expedition against the Indians in 1789; 
William Crawford, the land agent of Washington, and the leader of 
an expedition against the western Indians; Alexander McCiean, wlio 
completed the survey of Mason and Dixon's line; Alexander McKee, 
Robert Ilanna, William Louchry, George Wilson, Eneas Maekay, 
Joseph Spear and James Caveat. In the following year, when the 
integrity of Pennsylvania territory was threatened by the encroach- 
ments of Virginia, led by I)i\ Connolly', additional justices were 
commissioned, among whom were Alexander Ross, Van Swearingen, 
who lived just o]ipos)te Greenfield, on the left bank of the Mononga- 
iiela River, and who became the first sheriff of Washington County, 
then embracing Greene'; Andrew MacFarlane, Oliver Miller, and 
subsequently, in 1777, Edward Cook and James Marshel. William 
Crawford, having l>een first commissioned, was the presiding justice. 

The machinery of legal business for the new county was set in 


motion with very little ceremony, as the following record of the Pro- 
vincial Council for February 27, 1773, abundantly shows: "A law 
having passed yesterday for the erecting a part of the county of Bed- 
ford into a separate county, called Westmoreland, and Arthur St. 
Clair, Esq., the present prothonotary, &c., of Bedford, having re- 
quested the Governor to grant him the offices in the new county, in 
lieu of those he now holds in Bedford county. His Honor this day 
was pleased to appoint him to the several offices following, in the 
said county of Westmoreland, by three separate commissions, under 
the great seal of the Province, viz: Prothonotary, or principal clerk 
of the county court of Common pleas, Clerk, or Register of the Or- 
phans' Court, and Recorder of Deeds." 

St. Clair thus became a sort of fac totum of the new courts. 
Having served in a similar capacity in Bedford County, he was well 
fitted to discharge the duties, and set the wheels of government in 
motion. He seems to have been a man of talent and something of 
a scholar. He was a Scotchman by birth, was educated at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, studied medicine with the celebrated William 
Hunter, of London, entered the military service in the lioyal Amer- 
ican regiment of foot, the Sixtieth of the line, came to this country 
with Admiral Boscawen and served under Gen. Amherst. He was 
with Wolfe at the i-eduction of Quebec on the plains of Abraham. 
In 1762 ho resigned his commission in the British army, and settled 
first in Bedford, and later in the Ligonier valley. In 1770 he was 
appointed Surveyor of Cumberland County, was commissioned a 
justice of the courts, and was sent a member of tlie Supreme Execu- 
tive Council. In the conflict between Virginia and Pennsylvania 
he ardently espoused the Pennsylvania side. At the breaking out of 
the Pevolutionary war he entered the service, rose to the rank of a 
Major-General in the Continental army, and became tlie intimate 
friend and adviser of Washington. At the close of the war he was 
made a member of tiie Council of Censors, served in the Continental 
Congress from 1785 to 1787, and in the latter year was made presi- 
dent of tliat august body. He was appointed Governor of the North- 
western territory in 1788, and two years later fixed the seat of 
government of the territory at the point where Cincinnati now is, 
which name he gave to the place in honor of that order of old soldiers 
styled thef Society of the Cincinnati, of whicli lie was president over 
the Pennsylvania chapter from 1783 to 1789. In an engagement 
with the Indians on the Wabash he was badly defeated in 1791. In 
1802, upon the admission of Ohio as a State into the Union, he de- 
clined election as Governor and retired to a log cabin in the Chest- 
nut liidge in Westmoreland County, ruined in fortune. He made 
imsuccessful application to Congress for certain claims due him, and 

^a^i^/iAA^J^ ^W^/^^^^^^t^ 


finally died in poverty, uii the Slst of August, 1818, aged eighty- 
four years. 

At the first session of the Court of Quarter Sessions held in the 
newly erected county of Westmoreland at the house of Kobert Hanna, 
Judge William Crawford presiding, an act was passed dividing the 
county into townships, by which the two townshi])S of Pitt and 
Springhill retained the same boundaries as those previously quoted. 
Upon the petition of inhabitants of Springhill Township, which 
embraced Greene County, the court appointed the following named 
persons, John Mooi-e, Thomas Scott, Heniy Beason, Thomas Brown- 
tield, James McClean and Phillip Shute viewers to lay out a road: 
" To begin at or near the mouth of a run, known by the name of 
Fish Pot Run, about two miles below the mouth of Ten Mile Creek, 
on the west side of the Monongahela River, (it being a convenient 
place for a ferry, as also a good direction for a leading road to the 
most western parts of the settlements), thence the nearest and best 
way to the forks of Duulap's path, and General Braddock's road on 
the top of Lanrel Hill." 

This road, thus early authorized to be laid out and constructed, 
became a very important thoroughfare to the West. A strong cur- 
rent of emigration was setting from the east to the Ohio country, 
and this was tlie nearest and best overland course, whether by the 
Eraddock (tiie Virginia) or the Forbes (the Pennsylvania) military 
roads, and was long traveled by settlers seeking the Western country. 
Though early opened, and probably ]>y a route judiciously selected, 
it was undoubtedly a very rough thoroughfare, especially in early 
spring-time when farmers were hurrying forward to commence the 
season's work. John S. Williams, in the American l'ioneei\ as 
quoted by Crumrine, describes the trip of his family from North 
Carolina to Marietta in 1802: "The mountain roads, if roads they 
coidd be called, for pack-horses were still on them, were of the most 
dangerous and dilKcult character. 1 haVe heard an old mountain 
tavern-keeper say that, although the taverns were less than two miles 
apart in years after we came, he has known many emigrant families 
that stopped a night at every tavern on the mountains." 

The records of the county court for the succeeding three years 
show a number of roads were laid out in the townships of Pitt 
and Springhill, a few cases of larceny, of riot, of misdemeanor, a 
number of cases against the noted Baltzer Shilling, and in the year 
1775 that Elizabeth Smith was arraigned for felony, for which offence 
she plead guilty and received the following sentence of the court: 
" Judgment that the said Elizabeth Smith be taken this afternoon, 
being the lllh instant, between the hours of three and five, and there 
to receive fifteen lashes on her bare back well laid on; that she pay 
a fine of eighteen shillings and five pence to liis Honor the Governor; 


that she make restitution of the goods stolen; that she pay the costs 
of prosecution and stand committed till complied with." 

In April, 1776, the county court was held for the last time under 
the authority' of the King. The Revolution had now been fairly 
inaugurated, and there were no further sessions held until January 
6, 1778, when the supreme authority of the Continental Congress 
was recognized. 

On the 23d of Januarj"-, 1775, a convention of delegates from the 
several counties of the Province met at Philadelphia, in which resolu- 
tions wei'e passed expressing a strong desire that the ancient harmony 
might be restored between the King and the colonies; but if the 
attempt shoiild be made to force the colonies to submission then 
we hold' it our indispensable duty to resist such force, and at every 
hazard to defend the rights and liberties of America. Recognizing 
the dependent condition of the colonies upon the mother country for 
cloths and military supplies the people were recommended " on no 
account to sell to the butchers or kill for the market any sheep under 
four years old. And where there is a necessity for using any mutton 
in their families, it is recommended to them to kill such as are the 
least profitable to keep." It was also I'ecommended to cultivate 
hemp, and engage in the manufacture of madder, saltpetre and gun 
powder, and a large number of articles of prime necessity in building 
and in housekeeping, which had previously been imported. The 
convention adjourned subject to the call of the Philadelphia dele- 
gates, who were constituted a committee of safety. 

By a resolution of the Continental Congress of the 15th of May, 
1776, it was recommended that all dependence upon the government 
of Great Britain cease, and that such governments in the several 
colonies be adopted, as the exigencies of the situation demanded. 
Accordingly, delegates from the several counties assembled on the 
18th of June, 1776, in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, Edward Cook 
and James Perry representing Westmoreland County, and proceeded 
to " Resolve, 1. That the said resolution of Congress of the 15th of 
May last is fully approved by this conference. 2. That the present 
government of this province is not competent to the exigences of our 
affairs. 3. That it is necessary that a provincial convention be called 
by this conference for the express purpose of forming a new govern- 
ment." It then made provision for the electing of delegates to such 
convention, fixing eight as the number to be sent up from each 
county, and the qualifications of electors. As the payment of a tax 
within one year was one of the qualifications, and as Westmoreland 
had been exempted by law from the paying of any tax for the space 
of three years, the electors of this county were exempted from the 
operation of this item of qualification. When all the qualifications 
of members to be elected and electors were settled, the convention 


proceeded to divide the counties into election districts, lix the place 
of holding elections, and appoint judges of elections. The county 
of Westmoreland was divided into two election districts, the lirst all 
the territory north of the Voughioghany, with voting place at Han- 
na's Town, and the second all to the south of that stream and voting 
place at Spark's Fort, now Ferry Township, Fayette County. James 
Barr, John Moore and Clement McGeary were appointed as election 
officers for the northern district, and George Wilson, John Kile and 
Robert McConnel for the southern. The day fixed for holding these 
elections was the 8th of July, 1776, just four days after the passage 
of the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress. 
As the news traveled very tardily in those days, the probability is 
that the people of Westmoreland County had not heard of it when 
the election was held. The eight members elected to the Provincial 
Convention were John Carinichael, Edward Cook, James Barr, John 
Moor, James Smith, John McClellan, Christopher Lavingair and 
James Perry. 

Heretofore the primal source of authority in the government liad 
been the King of Great Britain; now it was to emanate from the 
people, and these back-woodsmen, eight from each county, were to 
try their iiands in the great experiment of self-govei;ument — " a 
government of the people, by the people and for the people." 

The convention thus chosen met in Philadelphia on the loth of 
July, 1776. As the members were separately to make oath on being 
qualified to a renunciation of all allegiance to King George III., and 
as they in their representative capacity spoke for all their constituents, 
it is evident that by that act the whole legal and governmental ma- 
chinery of the Province was at an end. There was no King supreme 
over all, no proprietary, no council, no judges, justices, sheriffs, 
constables, in short no provincial, county or township officers, but 
all was theoretically in a state of nature, lint the moment this con- 
vention was organized it proceeded to take up the wand of authority 
which had been dropped. The convention thus constituted was 
organized by the election of Banjamin Franklin, president, and on 
the 24:th of July elected what was designated a Council of Safety, 
composed of twenty-five members, to which was assigned the execu- 
tive department of the government — the duties of King and Gov- 
ernor. Of this council Thomas Rittenhouse was chosen chairman, 
ami Jacob S. Howell secretary. By this act the proprietary 
government was entirely superceded. It may here be observed 
that John Penn, who had been appointed Governor in August, 
1773, was the son of Richard, the second of the three sons 
of William Penn, viz: John, Richard and Thomas. At the 
time of his appointment as Governor, his father was proprietor of 
one-third of the Province, and his uncle, Thomas, two-thirds, the latter 


having inherited the share of his elder brother, John, who died in 
1746. By the assumption of power by the Council of Safety the 
vast proprietary estates of the Penns reverted, amounting, as is 
shown by an estimate commenced by Thomas Penn and completed 
by Franklin, to ten millions of pounds sterling, or $50,000,000. Bnt 
the new government was not disposed to deal harshly by the pro- 
prietors; for, by an act of November 27, 1779, for vesting these 
estates in the Commonwealth, there was reserved to the proprietors, 
all their private estates, including the tenths of manors and they 
were granted one hundred and thirty pounds sterling "in remem- 
brance of the enterprising spirit of the Founder," and "of the ex- 
pectations and dependence of his descendants." Parliament in 1790, 
on account of the inability of the British Government to vindicate 
the authority of the Proprietors as decided in the result of the Revo- 
lutionary struggle, and " in consideration of the meritorious services 
of the said William Penn, and of the losses which his family have 
sustained," voted an annuity of four thousand pounds per annum to 
his heirs and descendants. This annuity has been regularly paid to 
the present time, 1888. 

On the 6th of August, the Council of Safety was Organized by the 
election of Thomas Wharton, Jr., president, which office was equiva- 
lent to that *of Governor. A new constitution was framed and finally 
adopted on the 28th of September unanimously, taking eifect from 
the date of its passage. It provided for an annual Assembly, and 
for a Supreme Executive Council, to be composed of twelve members 
elected for a term of three years. Members ot Congress were chosen 
by the Assembly. Assemblymen were eligible for four years in 
seven, and councilmen but one term in seven years. This constitu- 
tion could not be changed for a period of seven years. At the end 
of that time a board of censors were to determine whether or not 
there was need of change. If such need existed they were em- 
powered to convene a new convention for that purpose. 

The Assembly which convened in January, 1777, passed an act 
early in the session providing that "each and every one of the laws 
or acts of General Assembly that were in force and binding on the 
inhabitants of tlie said province on the lith day of May last shall be 
in force and binding on the inhabitants of this State, from and after 
the 10th of February next, as fully and effectually to all intents and 
purposes, as if the said laws, and each of them, had been made and 
enacted by this General Assembly; and all and every person and 
persons whosoever are liereby enjoined and required to yield obedi- 
ence to the said laws, as the case niay require, * '■'' * and the 
common law and such of the statute laws of England as have hereto- 
fore been in force in the province, except as is hereafter excepted." 
This act of the Legislature revived the operation of the former laws 


in the province as completely as though each one had formally been 
re-enacted. It was also enacted that all the several courts held in 
the State should continue to be held at tlie times and with the same 
formality as before, •' and every officer of all and every of the courts 
of this State that is or shall be appointed shall have, use, and exercise 
the same or like powers that such officer or officers of the same title, 
character and distinction might, could or ought to have had, used 
and exercised under the charter and laws of Pennsylvania, until dis- 
placed. And all constables, overseers of the poor, supervisors of the 
highways, and the wardens and street commissioners of the city of 
Philadelphia that were last appointed or elected in the said province 
are hereby authorized and strictly enjoined, and required to exercise 
their several and respective powers, and execute, do and perform all 
the business and duties of their several and respective offices until 
otliers are appointed." 

It was also further provided "that every action that was in any 
court in the province of Pennsylvania, at the last term the said court 
was held, except discontinued or satisfied, shall be and is hereby 
declared to be in the same state, and on the same rule, and may be 
prosecuted in the same manner in the courts in each respective 
county, to be hereafter held and kept, as if the authority of such 
court had never ceased; and if any recognisance has been taken and 
not returned and prosecuted as the laws direct, saving the style; and 
where any person had obtained a judgment before any justice of the 
peace for any debt or sum of money, and such judgment not dis- 
charged, the person in whose favor the judgment is, may (on produc- 
ing a transcript of such judgment to any justice of the peace in the 
county where the defendant dwells or can bo found) demand and 
obtain an execution for the money mentioned in such judgment, 
which shall be of the same force and effect as if the judgment was 
obtained before the justice that granted the execution." 

Thus the thread of authority was taken up by the new peoples' 
government, where the King's and the Proprietor's government had 
dropped it, by that notable act of the Continental Congress assem- 
bled in Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, on the ever memoraljle J:th of 
July, 1776, entitled the Declaration of American Independence. 



Subjects of Contention — Allegiance on the Delaware oe on the 
James — Largely Settled by Virginians and Makylandees — 
" West and Noethwest " — Settlers Innocent — Weit of Quo 
Warranto — King's Peoclajiation — Virginia Only a Eoyal 
Colony — Mason and Dixon's Line Continued — Walpole 
Grant Covered an Empire — Coeeespondenge of Governors — 
Fry had Ascertained Latitude of Logstown — Build a Foet — 
Peopose Commissionees — Civil Commotion — W ilson's Letter 
— Settlers Oppose Penn's Laws and Ask foe a Virginia 
Court — Mateeial of Foet Pitt Sold — Governor Dunmore — 
Connolly's Proclamation — Connolly Arrested — Sheriff 
Peoctor Arrested — Correspondence of Governors — Formal 
Notice of Penn — Connolly Comes With a Detachment of 
Militia- — His Position — Court's Answer — Connolly Arrests 
Justices — Letter of Mackay' Tilghman and Allen Sent to 
Virginia — Dunmore Arbitrary — Penn Counseled Peace — 
Claims Cojiplicate — Dunmore's War — I^eedless — Logan's 
Pevenge on Ten Mile Ceeek — SettleesFlee — Aemies of Lewis 
and Dunmoee — Proclamation of Dunmoee — Penn's Countee 
Proclamation — Vieginia Couet at Pittsburg — Areests and 
Countee — Lexington and Concoed — Patriotism — Advice of 
Congeessmen — Fate of Connolly. 

BUT the early inhabitants of the southwestern corner of the State 
scarcely had one subject of contention settled before another 
arose. Aside from the great impediments to settlement encountered 
in the rugged and mountainous country to be passed in reaching it, 
and its great distance from the abodes of civilization, the emigrants 
had to meet the counter claims of the English and the French to 
this whole Mississippi Valley, which was fought out on this ground; 
then, the hostility of the Indians in asserting their claims to this 
territory, which resulted in the conspiracy of Pontiac, likewise con- 
tended for with great bitterness in this vallej'', and finally settled by 
victories gained on this ground; then the lack of right .to settle all 
this stretch of country not yet having been acquired from the In- 
dians, and the jeopardy of their necks as the penalty of 
the new law unless they quickly removed from their homes, 


and gave up tlieir lands; again were they in tribulatiun 
in securing legal rights by reason of the great distance of the 
county seat from their homes; and scarcely was this concluded and 
the court of record and of justice secured within reasonable distaucc, 
when the Revolution canie, and although the transfer of authority 
was reasonably speedy, from the ci'own to the people; yet for eight 
long and troublous years the question was in doubt, whether the new- 
government would be successfully vindicated, or the colonies would 
be compelled to go back under the government of the King of 
Britain; and now, as if their cup of adversity was not yet full, there 
came another which threatened to be more bitter and deadly than 
all the others viz: whether they owed allegiance to Pennsylvania, or 
Virginia; whether they should secure the patents to their lands and 
pay for them at the capital on the Delaware, or at that on the James. 
It doubtless seems strange to the present generation, when the 
well defined limits of our good old Commonwealth are examined, as 
shown by any well drawn map of the State, how any such controversy 
could ever have occurred. And it will seem even more wonderful 
when the precise and explicit words of King Charles' charter to 
William Penn are carefnllj- read. But such a controversy did actual- 
ly occur, which threatened at one time to bring on a conflict of arms 
and to interfere with the paciflc and friendly relations of the two great 
Commonwealths. As Greene County was in the very heart of the 
disputed territory, and the point where Mason and Dixon's line was 
interrupted, at the crossing of Dunkard Creek, near tiie old Indian 
war-path, was the scene of threatened hostilities, its history would be 
incomplete without a brief account of it. 

There can be no question but that this whole Monongahela countrj' 
was originally settled by emigrants largely from Virginia and Mary- 
land. Nor can there be any doubt but that the authorities of A"ir- 
ginia honestly entertained the l)elief that this country was embraced 
in the chartered limits of that colony. Ilence, when the Ohio Com- 
pany was chartered and was authorized to take up a half million of 
acres in this valley, in which the Washingtons were largely con- 
cerned, it is apparent that the company put implicit confidence 
in the right of Virginia to grant these lands, or they certainly 
would never have invested their money in the enterprise and induced 
pioneers to go with their families and settle upon them. Hence, 
the original settlers could have had no question but that their true alle- 
giance was due to Virginia, from whose constituted authorities they 
received their conveyances and paid their fees. Having therefore 
innocently made their settlement under Virginia law, it is not strange 
that they clung with great tenacity to citizenship in that Common- 

But by what right did Virginia claim this territory? As we 


have already seen Queen Elizabeth, in 1583, a hundred years before 
the time of Penn, granted to Sir Walter Ealeigh an indefinite stretch 
of country in America which practically embraced the whole con- 
tinent, to which he gave the name Virginia, in honor of the virgin 
Qneen, that portion to the south of the mouth of the Chesapeake 
receiving the title of South Virginia, and that to the north of it 
North Virginia. Raleigh spent a vast fortnne, and impoverished 
himself in attempts to colonize the country, but all in vain, and 
the title lapsed. In 1606, James 1, who had succeeded Elizabeth, 
granted charters to the Plymouth Company, who were to have the 
territory to the north, and the London, or Virginia Company, to the 
south; but the boundaries seem to have been drawn indefinitely, the 
two grants overlaping each other by three degrees of latitude. In 
1609, the London Company secured from the Xing a new grant in 
this most remarkable language, probably never before nor since 
equalled for indefiniteness: "All those lands, countries, and terri- 
tories situate, lying and being in that part of America called Vir- 
ginia, from the point of land called cape or point of Comfort, all 
along the sea-coast northward two hundred miles, and from the same 
point or Cape Comfort all along the sea- coast to the southward two 
hundred miles; and all that space and circuit of lands lying from the 
sea-coast of the precinct aforesaid up into the land throughout from 
sea to sea west and northwest; and also the islands lying within 
one hundred miles along the coast of both seas of the precinct afore- 

On this wonderful piece of scrivener work, which no doubt taxed the 
best legal acumen of all England, in its composition, the authorities of 
Virginia hung all their claims to western Pennsylvania and the entire 
Northwest territory, — that fatal expression, " all that space and circuit 
of lands lying from the seacoast of the precinct aforesaid up into 
the land throughout from sea to sea, west and northwest." It does 
not say due west from the extremities of the four hundred mile coast 
line from sea to sea, which would have been intelligible, though pre- 
posterous, but it was to be " from sea, to sea west and northwest." 
This word northwest could not have meant to apply to the two ex- 
tremities of the coast line, for in that case it would have formed a 
parallelogram having the coast line fixed on the Atlantic and an equal 
coast line somewhere in Alaska on the Pacific and the frozen ocean. 
If it meant that the southern boundary should be a due west line 
from the southern extremity, and the northern boundary should be a 
line drawn due northwest from the northern extremity of the Atlantic 
coast line, then the limits of Virginia W'ould have embraced nearly 
the whole boundless continent, as the coast line of four hundred 
miles would have embraced more than six degrees of latitude, from 
the 34° to the 40°, reaching from some point within South Carolina 



to the central part of the shore of New Jersey, and the due northwest 
line Would have swallowed Philadelphia, two-thirds of Pennsylvania, 
a part of New York, all the great lakes except Ontario, and would 
have emerged somewhere in the Arctic Ocean. It may seem strange 
that the sober minded men who held the reins of government in Vir- 
ginia should have set up so preposterous a claim. Put if this claim 
was good for anything, and there seems to have been no other 
authority upon which it was based, save the above (quoted grant of 
1609, why were not Maryland and Delaware, the half of New Jersey 
and nearly the whole of Pennsylvania claimed at once? For this 
grant of 1609 antedated that of Maryland, and was made before the 
foot of a wliite man had ever pressed Pennsylvania soil. This e,v- 
travagant claim was not vindicated when the colonies to the north 
of it had become seated. But now, after it had been pushed down 
on the sea-shore from more than two-thirds of its northern claim — 
having left scarcely fifty miles above Point Comfort instead of two 
hundred -by the grants to Maryland and Pennsylvania, and been 
limited to the right bank of the Potomac, it now proposes to com- 
mence tliat northwest line at the head-waters of the Potomac instead 
of at the coast-line. 

• But this whole extravagant claim was settled before either Lord 
Baltimore or Penn had received their charters. On the 10th of 
November, 1623, a writ of quo 'warranto was issned against the 
treasurer of the London Company. The grounds of this action were 
the irregularities in the government of the colony, which had in- 
vited the hostility of the Indians, resulting in massacres and burn- 
ings, which came near the ntter destruction of the settlement, whereby 
the stockholdei's of the Company in London saw their investments 
being annihilated. The party of Virginia made defence ; l)ut upon the 
report of a committee sent out by the King to make examination of 
the Company's affairs, the King's resolution was taken, and at the 
Trinity term of 1621, June, "judgment was given against the Com- 
pany and the patents were cancelled." " Before the end of the same 
term" says the record, " a judgment was declared by the Lord 
Chief Justice Ley, against the Company and their charter, only upon 
a failure or a mistake in pleading." The decree may not have been 
just, as disturbing vested rights; yet it was nevertheless law and the 
Company was obliged to bow. The matter was brought before Par- 
liament; but public sentiment was against the Company, and the 
application came to nothing. Henceforward the Virginia settlement 
became a royal colony, subject to the will of the monarch. 

Soon after the conclusion of the war with France, by which that 
nation was dispossessed of the Mississippi Valley and Canada, the 
King issued his royal proclamation, iji which, after making some 
restrictions regarding the newly acquired territories of Quebec, and 

228 HISTORY OF greeni-: county. 

East and West Florida, he says: "We do, therefore, with the advice 
of our privy council declare it to be our royal will and pleasure that 
no Governor nor_Commander-in-chief of our^colonies or plantations in 
America do presume, for the present, and until our further pleasure 
be known, to grant warrants of survey or pass patents for any lands, 
beyond the heads or sources of any of the rivers which fall into the 
Atlantic Ocean, from the west or northwest, or upon any land what- 
ever, which, not having been ceded to or purchased by us, as afore- 
said, are reserved unto the said Indians, or any of them." 

But it may be.said that this order would have applied to Penn- 
sylvania as well as Virginia, and Avould then have confined the former 
to the eastern slopes of the AUeghanies as well as the latter. But 
there was this difference, Virginia, being now only a royal colony, 
was subject to the absolute will of the Monarch, while Pennsylvania, 
having been purchased for a price, and confirmed under a Proprietary 
government, was placed beyond his power to -alter or annul. It will 
be oberved that by the cutting off of West Virginia, which occurred 
during the war of the Rebellion, Virginia is substantially confined to 
limits fixed by this royal proclamation. 

As we have already seen, the charter of William Penn made his 
southern boundary the beginning of the 40° of north latitude. As 
this encroached upon the the territory supposed to have been 
granted to Lord Baltimore, a compromise was effected between Penn 
and Baltimore, by which Penn gave up a belt of 43' 26" of a degree 
to Baltimore. But this compromise conld only apply to the Colony 
of Marylaiid, the western boundary of which is a meridian line di'awn 
from the head spring of the Potomac River, which strikes the 
southern line of Pennsylvania in the neighborhood of the Laurel 
Hill Ridge. When, therefore, Mason and Dixon arrived at this 
point in running the dividing line between Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania, they should have stopped, as no agreement had been entered 
into with Virginia touching the partition line, and there was no 
reason why at this point the line. of Pennsylvania should not have 
dropped down to ihe beginning of the 40° parallel, as confirmed by 
the I'oyal charter, which Pennsylvania subsequently claimed. But 
the surveyors. Mason and Dixon, kept on with this Maryland line 
across the Chestnut Ridge and across the Monongahela River to a 
])oint on Dunkard Creek, where they Avere stopped by the Indians at 
their old war-path. What, therefore, was done beyond the Maryland 
western limit, was ex pa?'te, and of no force; though it was open to 
the construction that the Pennsylvania authorities, at that time, were 
willing to make the same liberal concession to Virginia, that it had 
to Maryland, and was damaging, to that extent, to the claim which 
was subsequently set up to the whole fortieth degree of latitude 
from the ending of the thirty-ninth degree. 


In order to conipreheud the nature and origin of the controversy 
between Pennsylvania and Virginia, it should be observed tliat the 
excellence of the lands along the upper Ohio and its tributaries, and 
indeed of the whole Ohio Valley, excited the cupidity of all who hud 
come to a knowledge of them. As we have seen, the Ohio (lompany 
was formed in Vii'ginia, in which tlie AVashingtons were interested, 
which secured tlie grant of a half million of acres embracing that por- 
tion of Pennsylvania along the Monongahela, the members of this 
Company seeming at the outset to take it for granted that the western 
line of I^ennsylvania woukl correspond with that of Maryland. 

But this grant of a half million acres of the Ohio Company was 
but a drop in the bucket when compared to a project which was to 
follow. It appears that Sir William Johnson, the Indian agent of 
the British government in America, and William Franklin, governor 
of New Jersey, formed the project of founding a great colony on 
the Ohio, and wrote to Doctor Franklin the father of William, then 
in London, to advocate their project at court. The Doctor entered 
heartily into the project, and so persuasive were his arguments, that, 
in opposition to the powerful influence of Lord Hillsborough, on the 
14th of August, 1772, he secured the grant of an immense tract. It 
commenced at the month of the Scioto River, threehnndred miles below 
Pittsburg, extended southwardly to the latitude of North Carolina, 
thence northeastwardly' to the Kanawha, at the junction of New River 
and Green Briar, up the Green Briar to the head of its northeasterly 
branch, thence easterly to the Alleghany Mountains, thence along 
these Mountains to the lines of Maryhind and Pennsylvania, thence 
westerly to the Ohio, and down that stream to the point of beginning. 
Thomas Walpole, Thomas Pownall. Dr. Franklin and Samuel Whar- 
ton had the management of securing the grant, and hence it was 
known as "Walpole's Grant;" but Wharton, in a letter to Sir Will- 
iam Johnson, said, " A society of us, in which some of the first people 
in England are engaged, have concluded a bargain with the treasury 
for a large tract of land lying and fronting on the Ohio large enough 
for a government." 

It will be observed that this grant swallowed bodily the grant of 
the Ohio Company, and it was agreed finally that the latter should 
be merged in the former. This action stimulated interest in this 
vast Ohio country; but the Revolution coming on four years there- 
after, the whole project, after an existence of a little more than fi)ur 
years, came suddenly to an end. / 

It seems that Thomas Lee, who was the iirst president of the 
Ohio Company, was a very just minded man, and suspecting that a 
portion of the lands embraced in the limits of his Company might 
turn out to be within the boundaries of Pennsylvania, by chartered 
rights, wrote to Governor Hamilton on this question. The Governor 


replied under date of Jan. 2, 1749: "I am induced to desire your 
opinion, whether it may not be of use that the western bounds of this 
province be run by commissioners to be appointed by both govern- 
ments, in order to assure ourselves that none of the lands contained 
in that grant (Oliio Company) are within the limits of this province." 
When Governor Hamilton learned that it was the intention of 
the Ohio Company to erect a fort at the Forks of the Ohio, 
for protection against the Indians, he again wrote, but now to 
Governor Dinwiddle, declaring that he had received instructions 
from the Proprietaries to join in such a work, "only taking your 
acknowledgment that this settlement, shall not prejudice their right 
to that country." 

Without alluding to the matter of boundary, Dinwiddle wrote 
that he had already dispatched a person of distinction (young Wash- 
ington) to the commander of the French, to know upon what 
grounds he was invading the lands of the English, and that he had 
sent working parties to erect a fort at the Forks of the Ohio. Though 
Governor Hamilton had promised conditional aid in defending the 
country, yet little was ever furnished, partly on account of a wrangle 
over taxing the Proprietary estates, which prevented the voting 
much money for any purpose, and partly by reason of the peace 
principles of a majority of the assembly. The question had also been 
raised in the course of their assembly discussions, from a very short- 
sighted motive, whether this Ohio country, which they were asked to 
defend, was really after all within the limits of Pennsylvania. 

When at Logstown, as agent of Virginia, securing a treaty with 
the Indians, Colonel Joshua Fry, who was accounted a good mathe- 
matician and geographer, had taken an observation by which it was 
found that that place, which is nine miles below Pittsburg, was in 
latitude 40° 29', which showed that this was far to the north of 
the southern line of Pennsylvania. From calculations made, it was 
evident to the mind of Governor Hamilton that the Forks of 
Ohio, as well as the French fort at Venango, were far within the 
l)0undaries of Pennsylvania, and this conclusion he communicated to 
the Pennsjdvania assembly and also to Governor Dinwiddle. The 
latter subsequently responded: '.' I am much misled by our survey- 
ors if the forks of the Mohongialo be within the limits of your pro- 
prietory's grant. I have for some time wrote home to have 
tlie line run, to have the boundaries properly known, that I may be 
able to keep magistrates if in this government, * * * and I pre- 
sume soon there will be commissioners appointed for that service. 
* * * But surely I am from all hands assured that Logstown is 
far to the west of Mr. Penn's grant." 

It would seem from this letter that the Governor of Virginia was 
contemplating the establishment of local government in this portion 


of Pennsylvania. It would appear, also, that after the organization 
of Bedford County, which was made to extend over all this south- 
western corner of the State, and immediately after tlie purchase of 
these crrounds from the Indians by the treaty of Fort Stanwix, in 
1768, the settlers were called upon to pay taxes for the support of 
the Bedford County Court. Bedford being a hundred miles away, 
they did not relish the paying of taxes for the support of a court 
which afforded them so little convenience. Besides, being natives 
largely of Virginia, and having originally been led to suppose that 
this was a part of Virginia, they petitioned that colony for the or- 
ganization of county governments. 

Early in this controversy over jurisdiction. Colonel George Wil- 
son, a justice of the peace of Bedford County, the grandfather of 
Lawrence L. Minor, of Waynesburg, wrote a letter to Arthur St. 
Clair, of Bedford, in which he says: " I am .sorry that the first letter 
1 ever undertook to write you siiould contain a detail of grievance 
disagreeable to me. * " * I no sooner returned home from 
court, than I found papers containing resolves, as they call them, of 
the inhabitants to the westward of the Laurel Hills, were handing 
fast about amongst the people, in which amongst the rest was one 
that they were resolved to oppose every of Penn's laws, as they 
called them, except felonious actions, at the risque of life, and under 
the penalty of tifty pounds, to be recovered off the estates of the 
failure. The tirst of them 1 found hardy enough to offer it in pui)- 
lic, I immediately ordered into custody, on wliich a large number 
were assembled as was supposed to rescue the prisoner. I endeav- 
ored by all the reason 1 was capable of, to convince them of the ill 
consequences that would attend such a rebellion, and happily gained 
on the people to consent to relinquish their resolves and to burn the 
paper they sio-ned. When their foreman saw that the arms of his 
country, that as he said he had thrown himself into, would not rescue 
him by force, he catched up his gun which was well loaded, jumped 
out of doors, and swore if any man came nigh him he would put 
what was .in his gun through him. The person that had him in 
custody called for assistance in ye King's name, and in particular 
commanded myself. 1 told him I was a subject, and was not lit to 
command, if not willing to obey, on which I watched his eye 
until I saw a chance, sprang in on him, seized the rilie by the muzzle 
and held him, so as he could not shoot me, until more heljj got into 
my assistance, on which I disarmed him, and broke his rifle to 
pieces. 1 received a sore bruise on one of my arms by a punch of 
the gun in the struggle. Then I put him under strong guard and 
told them the laws of their country were stronger than the hardest 
rifle amoncr them." After convincing the discontented party of their 
error, and inducing them to burn the resolves they had signed, 


the prisoner was discharged on liis good behavior. Wilson closes his 
letter in these words: "1 understand great threats are made against 
me in particular, if possible to intimidate me with fear, and also 
acrainst the sheriffs and constables and all ministers of justice. But 
I hope the laws, the bulwarks of our nation, will be supported in 
spite of those low lived trifling rascals." 

From this letter we can gather the spirit which actuated the par- 
ties to the controversy, and see the beginning of a bitter contention 
which vexed the people of this section for many years. The idea 
that Pennsylvania did not extend west of the Alleghany Mount- 
ains was studiously circulated. Michael Cressap, and George 
Crou'han, who were interested in land speculations here, were sus- 
pected of being privy to these rumors. A petition signed by over 
two hundred citizens was presented to the court at Bedford, under 
date of the 18th of July, 1772, " charging the government and oflti- 
cers with great injustice and oppression, and praying that directions 
might be given to the sheriifs to -serve no more processes in that 
country, as they apprehended it was not in Pennsylvania." Mr. 
Wilson answered the allegations of the petition before the court, 
and showed by documentary evidence that the grounds on which the 
petition rested wei-e imstable, which had a very quieting effect upon 
the settlers, and induced the court to reject the petition. 

Fort Pitt, which had been garrisoned by a detachment of British 
soldiers, from the time of its erection in 1759, by General Stanwix, 
was, by order of General Gage, of date of October, 1772, evacuated^ 
and " all the pickets, bricks, stones, timber and iron which are now 
in the building or walls of the said fort" were sold for the sum of 
fifty pounds. At about this time, upon the death of Lord Bottetourt, 
Governor of Virginia, a new Governor was appointed in the person 
of the Earl of Uunmore, a man of a meddlesome disposition, and 
disposed to exercise the functions of his oflice with a high hand. In 
1773, the year following the erection of Westmoreland County, 
Dunmore made a visit to Fort Pitt, where he met Dr. John Con- 
nolly, a nephew of Colonel Croghan. It appears that the new Gov- 
ernor was determined to act upon the assumption, whatever may 
have been his motive therefor, that all west of the Alleghanies and 
the whole boundless northwest belonged to Virginia. In Connolly 
he found a willing tool for asserting tliis claim; for, soon after the 
departure of the Governor, Connolly published the following pro- 
clamation: "Whereas, his Excellency John, Earl of Dunmore, 
Governor-in-chief, and Captain General of the colony and dominion 
of Viro-inia, and Vice Admiral of the same, has been pleased to 
nominate and appoint me Captain, Commandant of the Militia of 
Pittsburo' and its dependencies, with instructions to assure his Ma- 
jesty's subjects settled on the Western Waters, that having the 


greatest regard to their prosperity and interest, and convinced from 
their repeated memorials of the grievances of wliich they complain, 
tliat he proposes moving to the House of Burgesses the necessity of 
erecting a new county to include Pittsburg, for the redress of your 
ct)mplaints, and to take every otlier step that may attend to afford 
you that justice for which you solicit. In order to facilitate this de- 
sirable circumstance I hereby require and command all persons in the 
dependency of Pittsburg to assemble themselves there as a militia on 
the 25th instant, at which time I shall communicate other matters 
for the promotion of public utility. Oiven under my hand the 1st 
day of January, 1774." 

A copy of this high handed proceeding was immediately com- 
municated to the court at Ilannastown, and to (TO\ernor Penn at 
Piiiladelphia. Jjefore receiving instructions from the Governor, 
Artliur St. (Hair, in his capacity as a justice, deeming that he was 
authorized by his commission to put a stop to such a procedure as 
was indicated in this proclamation, issued a warrant for the arrest of 
Connolly, who was apprehended and placed in confinement, (tov- 
ernor Penn wrote immediately to Lord Dunmore informing liim of 
his advices, quoted the langmige of the charter, which gave five full 
degrees of longitude for the east and west extent of the State, which 
would carry the western limit far beyond Pittsburg, and e.vpressed 
the belief that the Governor could not have authorized the procla- 
mation of Connolly. 

In the meantime Dr. Connolly had been released from jail on 
promise of returning in time for his trial. Hut instead of awaiting 
the result of the case he proceeded with the organization of the 
militia and took possession of Fort Pitt. On hearing of this. Sheriff 
Proctor, witli Justices Smith. McFarland and Mackay, proceeded to 
l''ort Pitt, and finding that (Jonnolly still professed the intention of 
delivering himself up for trial at the appointed time of convening 
court, though he had dispatches from Dunmore approving his eon- 
duct and urging him to go forward in asserting Vii-ginia authority, 
the Sheriff took no further action in regard to Connolly, but served 
a writ upon "William Christy, one of Connolly's lieutenants. Where- 
upon Connolly arrested Sheriff Proctor upon a King's warrant, and 
held him in custody. Seeing the commotion incident to these pro- 
ceedings, and the militia drilling with arms in their hands, the 
Indians became very much alarmed. 

In his reph' to Penn, the Governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore 
freely assumed responsibility for Connolly's acts declaring them per- 
formed by his authority by the advice of his Majesty's council. He 
also referred to that unfortunate declaration made in the Pennsyl- 
vania assembly, when a call was made for troops to serve against t)ie 
French and Indians at Fort Pitt, that Pittsburg was not embraced 


in the limits of Pennsylvahia. Peun answered this cominunication 
at great length, setting forth all the facts and arguments relied upon 
by the authorities of Pennsylvania to hold this territory, and ex- 
r)ressing at the outset with considerable warmth his surprise that 
JDunmore should authorize these high-handed proceedings, while a 
county government under Pennsylvania authority had already been 
established there, and was in full operation, and before the lines be- 
tween the two colonies had been deiinitely settled by competent 
authority. Governor Dinwiddle, the predecessor of Dunmore, had 
informed Penn, " I have for some time wrote home to have the line 
run," and suggested that if the territory in question actuallj^ was a 
part of Pennsylvania then the quit-rents should be paid to the Pro- 
prietaries of that province instead of to the King. Penn informed 
Dunmore that the declaration of the Assembly, to which he refers, 
was made at a time when no definite limits of the State had been 
hxed by actual surveys; besides, even if the declaration had been 
made by the Assembly in the most positive and formal manner it 
could not atfect the validity of the claims of the Proprietaries secured 
to thenr by Royal Charter, in which the payment of a stipulated 
price was acknowledged. 

That he might not be chargeable with dereliction of duty in assert- 
ing his claims, Penn served a formal notice upon Lord Dunmore in 
these words: "I must take this opportunity of notifying to your 
Lordship, that the Proprietaries do claim, by their said petition, as 
part of their province of Pennsylvania all the lands lying west of a 
south line to be drawn from Dixon's and Mason's line as it is com- 
monly called at the westermost part of the province of Maryland to 
the beginning of the fortieth degree of north latitude to the extent of 
five degrees of longitude from the river Delaware; and I must re- 
quest your Lordship will neither grant lands nor exercise the govern- 
ment of Virginia within those limits till his majesties pleasure may 
be known." 

It will be seen by the wording of this proclamation that Penn 
claimed the full three degrees of latitude granted by his charter, be- 
ginning at the end of the 39th degree beyond the western boundary 
of Marj'land, not allowing tlie compromise with that State to effect 
the line opposite Virginia. 

It will be observed that Connolly had given his word that he 
would return and give himself up for trial at the time of the setting 
of the court, provided he was allowed his liberty in the meantime. 
He did return; but with an armed band of militia of some 180 
which he had recruited and had under discipline. The court having 
notice of his coming with a military force deemed it prudent to 
adjourn, as their business was nearly concluded. On his arrival he 
took possession of the court room, and stationed his sentinals, and 

-'W'"- ^^ 


then sent word to the court thut he wished to wait on them. They 
received him in a private room, when he read to them the letter uT 
Lord Dun more to Penn, in which he assumes responsibility for Con- 
nolly's action, and the following explanation of his procedures: " I 
am come here to be the occasion of no disturbances, but to prevent 
them. As I am countenanced by government, wiiatever you may 
say or conceive, some of the justices of this bench are the cause ot 
this appearance and not me. 1 have done this to prevent myself 
from being illegally taken to Philadelphia. My orders from the 
government of N^irginia not being explicit; but claiming the country 
about Pittsburg, I have raised the militia to support the civil 
authority of that colony vested in me. I have come here to free 
m^'self from a promise made to Captain Proctor; but have not con- 
ceived myself amenable to this court, by an^' authority of Pennsyl- 
vania, upon which 1 cannot apprehend that you have any right to 
remain here as justices of the peace, constituting a court of that 
province; bnt in order to prevent confusion I agree that you may 
continue to act in that capacity, in all such matters as may be sub- 
mitted to your determination by the ac([uiescence of the people, 
until I may have instructions to the contrarv from Virginia, or until 
his Majesty's pleasure be further known on this subject." 

It will be perceived that Connolly only reflects the sentiments of 
Dunmore, who was at the root of all the trouble. The Westmoreland 
court made a very temperate answer to Connolly. "The jurisdiction 
of the court and officers of the county of Westmoreland rests on the 
legislative authoritj' of the province of Pennsylvania, confirmed by 
his Majesty in council. That jurisdiction has been regularly exer- 
cised, and the court and officers will continue to exercise it in the 
same regular manner. It is far fi'om their intention to occasion or 
foment disturbances, and tliey apprehend that no such intention can 
with propriet}' be inferred from any part of their conduct; on the 
contrary they wish and will do all they can to preserve the public 
tranquility. In order to contribute to this salutary purpose they 
give information that every step will be taken on the part of the 
province of Pennsylvania to accommodate any dift'erences that may 
have arisen between it, and the colony of Virginia, by fixing a tem- 
porary line between them." 

Connolly now marched away with his militia, liaving given him- 
self not as he had agreed to do, for trial, but in defiance of the court, 
at the head of a military band. It was, therefore, as clearly a break- 
ing of his word as though he had not come near the court. Having 
completed their business thecourt adjourned, and three of the justices, 
Mackay, Smith and McFarlane, departed for their homes at Pittsburg. 
Scarcely were tliey returned, when these three were served with 
King's wan-ants issued by Connolly, for the crime of making the 


answer they did quoted above, and upon tlieir refusal to give bail 
for their appearance at the Staunton court to answer to the charge, 
they were sent in custody to the Staunton jail. On the way they 
were denied the privilege of writing to the authorities at Phila- 
delphia, by the hand of a person just then going there; but before 
reaching Staunton, Mackay was allowed to go to Williamsburg to 
lay their case before the Governor. This functionary listened patient- 
ly, but made answer that their ai-rest was only a dose of their own, 
adininistered in the arrest of Connolly. Nevertheless he consented 
to release them, and allow them to return home. In a dispatch to 
Governor Penn, after describing the interview with Dunmore, 
Mackay says, "We are to set off from this place immediately; but 
how to act after our return, is a matter we are at this time unable 
to determine." In a further dispatch of the 14th of June, 1774, he 
says, " The deplorable state of aifairs in this part ot your government 
at this time is truly distressing; we are robbed, insulted and dra- 
gooned by Connolly and his militia in this place and in its environs, 
all ranks share of his oppression and tyranny, but the weight of his 
resentment falls heaviest on me, because he imagines I oppose his 
unwarrantable measures most. On the 27th of last May he ordered 
a party of his militia to put down and destroy a sheep-house and a 
stable of mine, in a violent and outrageous manner, and told me at 
the time he would take the house I lived in if he wanted it, and 
countenanced a perjured villain, a constable of ours that deserted to 
him before he was three months sworn in, to shake a stick at my 
nose before his face without reproof." 

From this extract some conception can be formed of the state 
of this portion of the colony under the divided authority. Upon 
receiving intelligence of the forcible seizure of his commissioned 
magistrates. Governor Penn lost no time in sending commissioners 
to Dunmore to secure some temporary settlement, until the bound- 
aries could be lixed by lioyal authority. James Tilghman and 
Andrew Allen, members of the Council, were selected to conduct this 
embassage. They were cordially received by Lord Dunmore, who 
agreed to unite in a petition to the King for the appointment of a 
commission to establish the boundaries, but would not agree that 
Virginia should bear half of the expense. The commissioners then 
proposed that a temporary line be fixed at five degrees of longitude 
from the Delaware, and that the western line of Pennsylvania should 
follow the meanderings of that stream. Dunmore would not agree 
to this, but contended that the charter of Penn authorized five degrees 
to be computed from a point on the 42° parallel where the Delaware 
cuts it, he believing that the Delaware run from northeast to south- 
M'est which would, as he believed, carry the western boundary as far 
east as the Alleghau}' Mountains. The commissioners promptly 


reiected this iiiterpretion; but iu the interest of peace they would be 
willing to allow a teuiporaiy boundary to follow the Monongahela 
River from Mason and Dixon's line down to its mouth. This would 
have left all west of that stream to Virginia. Dunmore now became 
arbitrary in his manner, charging the commissioners with being 
unwilling to make any concessions, and ended by declaring his un- 
alterable purpose to hold jurisdiction over Pittsburg and surrounding 
territory until his Majesty should otherwise order. 

Until competent authority should establish the boundaries of the 
two provinces there was nowno hope of temporary agreement, as Lord 
Dunmore was arbitrary and dictatorial. Governor Penn saw bnt too 
clearly that civil strife in the disputed district would unavoidably 
lead to a trial of force for the mastery. Uunniore was destined in a 
short time to quarrel with the Legislature of Virginia, and for safety 
betook himself to a British man-of-war. Desiring to avoid a contlict 
over a dispute which Charter stipulations would eventually settle, 
Crovernor Penn decided to bide his time, and accordingly wrote to 
William Crawford, the presiding justice of Westmoreland County, 
as follows: "The present alarming situation of onr affairs in West- 
moreland County, occasioned by the very unaccountable conduct of 
the Government of Virginia, requires the utmost attention of this 
government, and therefore I intend, with all possible expedition, to 
send commissioners to expostulate with my Lord Dunmore upon the 
behavior of those he has thought proper to invest with such power as 
hath greatly disturbed the peace of that County. As the goverii- 
n)ent of Virginia hath the power of raising militia, and there is nut 
any such in this Province, it will be in vain to contend with them, 
in the way of force. The magistrates, therefore, at the same time 
that they continue with steadiness to exercise the jurisdiction of 
Pennsylvania with respect to the distributions of justice and the 
punishment of vice, must be cautious of entering into any such con- 
tests with the ofKcers of my Lord Dunmore as may tend to widen 
the present unhappy breach; and, therefore, as things are at present 
circumstanced, I would not advise the magistracy of Westmoreland 
County to proceed by way of criminal prosecution against them 
tor exercising the government of Virginia." 

Though it was humiliating for the legally and formally consti- 
tuted authorities of Westmoreland County to have their authority 
defied by a set of ofKcers who received their orders to act from Vir- 
ginia, backed by a lawless military force called out by direction of 
another colony, yet it was for the time being judicious not to pro- 
voke a contest. As we view it now, with State lines all fixed and 
all county governments crystalized, it seems strange that any such 
conflict should have arisen. But it must be remembered that the 
matter of priority of charter, the impossibility of making the actual 


survey's conform to the language of the I'oyal grants, and the fact 
that no accurate .astronomical observations iiad been taken, left this 
whole subject of western boundary at loose ends. Until something 
detinite was settled, it was better, as Fenn advised, that force be 
not resorted to, as the hot-headed Virginia Governor had done. The 
policy thus recommended, while it left the court at Hanna's Town in 
operation, practically yielded all this Monongahela country to the 
authority of the Virginian. 

The result of Dunmore's diplomacy was of course communicated 
to Connolly, and he was strengthened in asserting his authority. He 
discarded the name " Fort Fitt" and gave the fort the name " Fort Dun- 
more," in honor of his chief. On the 21st of April, 1774, Connolly 
wrote to settlers along the Ohio that the Shawnees were not to be 
trusted, and that the whites ought to be prepared to reveng'e the 
wrong done them. This gave authority to the settlers for the taking, 
tlie right of punishment into their own hands, and lighted anew the 
tires of Indian warfare. It was known as Dunmore's war. A boat 
containing goods was attacked while going down the Ohio by a party 
of Cherokees and one white man was killed. In retalliation two 
friendly Indians of another tribe, in no way responsible for this crime, 
were murdered. This was cause enough for the Indians to take up 
the hatchet, and terrible was the penalty paid. On the evening of 
tie same day Captain Cressap, who had led in the aii'air, hearing that 
a party of Indians were encamped at the mouth of Captina Creek, 
went stealthily and attacked it, killing several of them and having 
o;ie of his own party wounded. A few days later, Daniel Great- 
house, with a band of thirty-two followers, attacked the natives at 
Biker's, and by stratagem, in the most dishonorable manner, killed 
twelve and wounded othei's. The murdered Indians were all scalped. 
Of the number of the slain was the entire family of the noted Indian 
chief, Logan. 

The savage instinct of revenge was now aroused. Logan had 
b.'en the tirm friend of the white man, and had done him many ser- 
vices; but, left alone, all his family slain, he thirsted for blood. His 
vengeance was wreaked upon the inhabitants west of the Mononga- 
hela, along Ten Mile Creek, and he rested not until he had taken 
thirteen scalps, the number of his own family who had been slain, 
when he declared himself satisfied and I'eady for peace. The tidings 
of the liostile acts of Cressap and Greathonse, and the stealthy and 
inidnight deeds of savagery by the red men spread terror and con- 
s ernation on all sides, and the inhabitants west of the Monongahela 
lied, driving before them their flocks and herds, and bearing away 
their most easily transportable valuables. " There were more than 
one thousand people," writes Crawford to "Washington, "crossed the 
Monongahela in one day at three ferries that are not one mile apart." 


''Upon a fresh i-eport of Indians I innnediately took horse" writes 
St. Chiir to Governor Penn, "and rode np to inquire, and found it, 
if not totally groundless, at least very improbable; but it was im- 
possible to persuade the people so, and I am certain 1 did not meet 
less than one hundred families, and I think two thousand head of 
cattle, in twenty miles riding." 

The Virginia authorities immediately called out the militia. A 
force under Col. McDonald assembled at Wheeling and marched 
against Wapatomica, on the Muskingum. But the Indians being 
unprepared for war, feigned submission, and gave live of their chiets 
as hostages. But the troops destroyed their towns and crops and re- 
treated. Sir William Johnson counselled the Indians to keep jjeace. 
In the meantime Andrew Lewis had organized a force of eleven hun- 
dred men in the neigiiborliood of the since famed AVhite Sulphur 
Springs, and was marching for tlie itiouth of the Great Kanawha, 
■ wiiere he was to meet the force gathered in the northern part of the 
State under Dunmore in person. Before, tlie arrival of the latter 
the Indians, Delawares, Iroquois, Wyandots, Shawnees, under Corn- 
stalk, Logan and all their nu)st noted chiefs, gathered in upon Lewis, 
and attacked him with great fury, the battle raging the entire day, 
l)ut in the end the Indians were driven across the Ohio, though with 
a loss of Colonels Lewis (brother of the commandant) and Field 
killed, Colonel Fleming wounded, and seventy-five men killed and 
one hundred and forty wounded, a fifth of the entire force. The loss 
of the Indians could not be ascertained, though thirty-three dead 
were left behind them. Lewis was determined to follow up his ad- 
vantage, which had been gained at so grievous a loss; but Dun- 
more, who was now approaching with his division of the army, hav- 
ing been visited by the chiefs, who offered peace, and himself having 
little stomach for fighting, accepted their terms, and ordered Lewis 
to desist in his pursuit. Lewis refused to obey and pushed on detei-- 
mined to avenge the slaughter of his men, and it was not until Dun- 
more came up with liini that he could be prevailed upon to give up 
an attack which lie had planned upon the Indian town of Old Chilli- 

The army now retired, though a detachment of one hundi-ed men 
was left at the mouth of the Great Kanawha, and small detachments 
at Wheeling and at Pittsburg. Thus ended as causeless a war, known 
as Dunmore's war, as was ever undertaken, all induced by the med- 
dling policy of Dunmore in a matter which the Crown alone had the 
authority at that time to decide, and the over ofliciousness of Con- 
nolly, who "dressed in a little brief authority " exercised it in an 
arbitrary and anger provoking way. It was provoked by the Virgin- 
ians, and was prosecuted wiiolly by Virginians, known liy tlie In- 
dians as " Long- Knives." 


Having thus cut a large figure in a military way, at the expense 
of Virginia, Dunmore issued his proclamation: 

" Whereas, The Province of Pennsylvania have unduly laid claim 
to a very valuable and extensive quantity of his Majesty's terri- 
tory, and the executive part of that government in consequence 
thereof, has most arbitrarily and unwarrantably proceeded to abuse 
the laudable advancements in this part-of his Majesty's dominions by 
many oppressive and illegal methods in the discharge of this imagin- 
ary authority; and whei-eas the ancient claim laid to this country by 
the colony of Virginia, founded in reason upon preoccupancy and 
the general acqniessence of all persons, together with the instruc- 
tions I have lately received from his Majesty's servants, ordering me 
to take this country under my administration, and as the evident in- 
justice manifestly offered to hisMajestyby the immediate strides taken 
by the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania in prosecution of their wild 
claim to this country demand an immediate remedy, I do hereby in 
his Majesty's name require and command all his Majesty's subjects 
west of the Laurel Hill to pay a due respect to this my proclama- 
tion, strictly prohibiting the execution of any act of authority on 
behalf of the Province of Pennsylvania, at their peril in this coun- 
try; but, on the' contrary, that a due regard and entire obedience to 
the laws of his Majesty's colony of Virginia under my administration 
be observed, to the end that regularity may ensue, and a due regard 
to the interest of his Majesty in this quarter, as well as to the sub- 
jects in general, may be the consequence." 

Quite ready to join in this War of the Proclamations, and not 
unprepared to wield the ponderous words of authority, Governor 
John Penn caught wp the cudgel and hurled back his claims in the 
following brave pronunciamento: 

" Whereas, I have received information that his Excellency, the 
Earl of Dunmore, in and over liis Majesty's colony of Virginia hath 
lately issued a very extraordinary Proclamation setting forth," here 
is quoted Dunmore's, given above, "And whereas, although the west- 
ern limits of the Province of Pennsylvania have not been settled 
by any authority from the Crown, yet it has been sufficiently demon- 
strated bylines accurately run by the most skillful artists that not only 
a great tract of country west of the Laurel Hill, but Fort Pitt also 
are comprehended within the charter bounds of this Province, a 
great part of which country has been actually settled, and is now 
held, under grants from the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, and the 
jurisdiction of this government has been peaceably exercised in that 
quarter of the country, till the late strange claim set up by the 
Earl of Dumore, in behalf of his Majesty's colony of Virginia, 
foimded as his Lordship is above pleased to say, ' in i-eason, pi'eoc- 
cupancy, and the general acquiessence of all persons;' which claim 


to lands witliin the said charter limits inust appear still the more ex- 
traordinary, as his most gfracious Majesty, in an act past the very 
last session of Parliament, 'for making more elt'ectnal provision tor 
tlie government of the Province of Quebec,' has been pleased in the 
fullest manner to recognize the Charter of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania by expressly referring to the same, and binding the said Pro- 
vince of Quebec by the northern and western bounds thereof: "W^liere- 
fore there is the greatest reason to conclude, that any instrnctions 
the Governor of Virginia may have received, from his Majesty's ser- 
vants, to take that country under his administration, must be founded 
on some misrepresentation to them respecting the western extent of 
this province. In justice therefore to the Proprietaries of the Pro- 
vince of Pennsjdvania, who are only desirous to secure their own 
undoubted property from the encroachment of others, I have thought 
tit. with the advice of the Council, to issue this my proclama- 
tion, hereby requiring all persons west of the Laurel Hill, to retain 
their settlements as aforesaid made under this province, and to pay 
due obedience to the laws of this government; and all magistrates 
and other officers who hold commissions or offices under this 
government to proceed as usual in the administration of justice 
without paying the least regard to the said recited proclamation, 
until his Majesty's pleasure siiall be known in the premises; at the 
same time strictly charging and enjoining the said inhabitants and 
magistrates to use their utmost endeavors to preserve peace and good 

It will be noticed that in the matter of thundering with his 
Whereases and Wherefores Penn is quite equal to Dunmore, and in 
that part where some doubt is thrown upon the statement of the 
latter that he is acting under instructions of the Crown, Penn has 
decidedly the advantage. It had been the intention of Dunmore to 
open a court at Pittsburg with Virginia magistrates, and by Vir- 
ginia authority. But the counter proclamation of Penn had some- 
what cooled his taste for controversy, as he might be compelled to 
defend his usurpations by force. But when he discovered that the 
Pennsylvania authorities were disposed to liave their differences sub- 
mitted to peaceful abitrament he conclnded that he might venture u 
little farther on his scheme of holding possession of this fine country. 
He, accordingly, had the court for Augusta County, which had 
formerly been held at Staunton, adjourn to open its next term on 
the 21st of February, at Pittsburg, Augusta County being made to 
embrace all the western part of Virginia and Pennsylvania. On the 
day appointed the following named persons appeared, took the oath 
of ottice and sat as justices of the Virginia court: George Croghan. 
John Connolly, Thomas Smallman, John Cambell, Dorsey Pentecost. 
William Goe, John Gibson and George Vallandingham. Tliere 


were now two organized courts, assessors, tax gatherers, slierili's and 
all the machinery for conducting a county government over the 
same territory, Virginia calling it Augusta, and Pennsylvania 
"Westmoreland. Of course what is now Greene Connty was em- 
braced under this double-headed authority, and its inhabitants in- 
volved in the confusion of yielding obedience to two county govern- 
ments, and paying taxes to two sets of officials for the same purpose. 

Having succeeded in setting up their court the new officials be- 
thought them that they must break up any vestiges of a rival court 
and accordingly issued warrants for the arrest of Eobert lianna and 
James Caveat, which were served by the Augusta sheriii', and the 
two offenders wej-e brought in and incarcerated in the Fort Dunmore 
jail, where they languished for three months, in vain seeking for re- 
lease. Finally the sheriff of Westmoreland County, assisted by a 
strong posse, proceeded to Fort Dunmore and released the prisonei'S, 
and arrested John Connolly at the suit of Robert Hanna who claimed 
damages for unlawful imprisonment. Incensed by this treatment of 
their leader his adherents from Chartiers came in force and seized 
three of the Jjarty who had been engaged in the arrest of Connolly: 
George Wilson, Joseph Spear and Devereaux Smith. 

It was probably sometime in June or July before Hanna and 
Caveat were set at liberty, as the records show they were constantly 
entering complaints of their hardships, and petitioning for relief. In 
the meantime an event had transpired which overshadowed all the 
petty strife of contending factions, and united all hearts in a com- 
mon cause. On the 19th of April, of this year, 1775, the battles of 
Lexington and Concord had been fought which aroused all hearts 
with singular unanimity to resistance to' the British Crown all over 
the habitable portion of this broad land, even to the cabins of the 
frontiersmen, far remote from towns or cities. The news of these 
bloody frays had no sooner reached Hannastown and Pittsburg than 
public meetings were held at both those places, at which Virginians 
and Pennsylvanians united in their approval of resistance and pledg- 
ing support. These resolves are important and curious, as showing 
the unanimity with which they, laying aside domestic troubles, 
united in a common cause. These meetings were held on the same 
day, the 16th of May, 1775. The resolves of that at Hannastown 
representing WestuKn-eland County, Pennsylvania, were conceived in 
these temperate woi'ds: ^'■Resolved, unanimounly, that the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain, by several late acts, have declared the inhab- 
itants of Massachusetts Bay to be in rebellion, and the ministry, by 
endeavoring to enforce those acts, have attempted to reduce the said 
inhabitants to a more wretched state of slavery than ever before ex- 
isted in any State or country, not content with violating the consti- 
tutional and charactered rights of humanity, exposing their lives to 

(^ g4o^ y^l^^^m^ 


the licentious soldiery, and depriving them of the very means of 
substance. Jiesolved, unanuno^idij, that there is no reason to doubt 
but the same system of tyrrany and oppression will (should it meet 
with success in Massachusetts Bay) be extended to other parts of 
America; it is therefore become the indispensable duty of every 
American, of every man who has any public virtue or love for his 
country, or an}' bowels lor posterity, by every means which God has 
put in his power, to resist and oppose the execution of it; that for 
us we will be ready to oppose it with our lives and fortunes. And 
the better to enable us to accomplish it we will immediately form 
ourselves into a military body, to consist of companies to be made up 
of the several townships under the foUowinji; association which is 
declared to be the association of Westmoreland County. 

At Pittsburg, now called Fort Diinmore, not only the adherents of 
the Virginia, but the men acknowledging no government but that of 
Peimsylvania, joined in e\])ressing the sentiment of lirm resistance. 
A committee of some thirty inembers was appointed in which not 
only the names of Connolly and Vallandingham, but also those of 
Devereaux Smith and George Wilson appear, and they unanimously 
declare "that they have the highest sense of the spirited behavior of 
their brethren in New England, and do most cordially approve of 
their opposing the invaders of American rights and privileges to the 
utmost extreme." And they proceed to pledge themselves to assist 
by personal service, to contrii)ute of their means, and use their best 
endeavors to influence their neighbors to resist this attempt at sub- 
jugation. As an earnest of their determination they jjroposed to 
contribute half a pound of powder and a pound of lead, flints and 
cartridge paper, which they estimate will cost two shillings and six- 
pence, and accordingly advise the collection of this amount from 
each tithable person. It is indeed surprising that a little skirmish, 
away in a distant part of New England, should arouse a sentiment 
so strong and unwavering, and prompt them, laying aside colonial 
<juarrels, to unite as one man in aid of the struggle soon to open, 
even though they had scarcely a cabin to shelter their defenseless 
heads, and were exposed on tliis distant frontier to the sudden in- 
cursions of the savages. 

Though at the outset, and under the influence of a sudden impulse 
of patriotism, the people seemed to unite to oppose a common enemy, 
yet the civil government must go on, patents for lands must bi' 
issued, deeds for transfer of property must be put on record, and all 
the details of civil government must be performed. Virginia having 
established a court at Pittsburg, and having discovered that Penn- 
sylvania would not use force to prevent the exercise of power, con- 
tinned to authorize the performance of civil functions, and hencr- 
forward, as we shall soon see, monopolized authority west of the 


Laurel Hills, and although the court of Westmoreland County had 
an existence, little business was transacted. 

In the meantime, in order to quiet any further local contention, 
in presence of the greater peril tliat now confronted the United Col- 
onies, the following named gentlemen, members of the Continental 
Congress from Pennslyvania and Virginia, viz.: John Dickson, 
George Ross, B. Franklin, James Wilson, Charles Humphreys, P. 
Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Benjamin Harrison and Tiionias Jeffer- 
son, united in the following pacitic advice addressed " To the inhabi- 
tants of Pennsylvania and Virginia on the west side of the Laurel 
Hill. Friends and Countrymen: It gives us much concern to find 
that disturbances have arisen and still continue among you concern- 
ing the boundaries of our colonies. In the character in which we now 
address you, it is unnecessary that we inquire intotlie origin of these 
unhappy disputes, and it would be improper for us to express onr 
approbation or censure on either side; but as representatives of two 
of the Colonies united among many others for the defence of tlie 
liberties of America, we think it our duty to remove, as far as lies in 
oiir power, every obstacle that may prevent her sons from co-operat- 
ing as vigorously as they would wish to do towards the attainment of 
this great and important end. Influenced solely by this motive, our joint 
and earnest request to you is that all animosities which have hereto- 
fore subsisted among you as inhabitants of distinct Colonies niay 
now give place to generous and concurring efforts for the prevention 
of everything that can make our common country dear to us. We 
are fully persuaded that you, as well as we, wish to see your differ- 
ences terminate in this happy issue. For this desirable use we re- 
commend it to you, that all bodies of armed men kept up under 
either province be dismissed, that all those on either side who are in 
confinement or under bail for taking part in the contests, be discharged, 
and that until the dispute be decided every person be permitted to 
retain his possessions unmolested. By observing tliese directions the 
public tranquility will be secured without injury to the titles on 
either side; the period, we flatter ourselves, will soon arrive when 
this unfortunate dispute, which has prodixced much mischief, and as 
far as we can learn, no good, will be peacably and constitutionally 

This document has been quoted here in its entirety, not only be- 
cause of the ability and cominanding influence of its autliors — such 
as Franklin and Dickinson, and Henry and Jefferson, the very 
" master spirits of this age," but on the account of its timely wisdom, 
and authoritative suggestions. If the title to their lands were to be 
valid and secure, as here intimated, from whichever colony secured, 
a great motive for keeping up the controversy would be j'emoved. 
Tliis assurance, coming from such eminent men, members of the 

uisToKY OF oi;i;k.\k cou.ntv. 2+9 

Congress that was likely to be supi-eine over all tlie cokniies, had 
almost the deciding influence over the minds of the settlers, tliat a 
legal enactment would have had and mnst be regarded as a turning 
point in this heated controversy that was liable at any moment to 
have broken out into acts of sanguinary conflict. It should therefore 
be considered as a vital morsel in the history of these southwestern 

Dnnmore bad betaken himself on board the British man-of-war. 
Fowey, lying in Chesapeake Bay, and had taken with him the pow^dor 
from the Virginia arsenal. This, Patrick Henry, at the head of the 
militia, just before setting out to take his seat in Congress, had com- 
])elled Dnnmore to settle for, by the payment of £330 by the hand of 
Corbin, his Majesty's receiver general. 

As the war cloud of the Revolution thickened, and the Virginians 
had Ijroken with their governor, Connolly, probably listening to the 
suggestions of Dnnmore, fancied he saw an opportnnity of cutting 
a larger flgure than contending for the right to act as a justice of the 
peace where his authority was in question, and might be successfully 
controverted. He, accordingly, abandoned his throne at Pittsburg, 
and having received from Dnnmore instructions to repair to General 
Gage, at Boston, commander-in-chief of his Majesty's forces in 
America, he was to make application for authority to raise "an 
army to the westward," in the name of the King, to flglit against 
the colonies. He fancied that he could induce a large force 
to join him from the neighborhood of Pittsburg, and southward, 
to espouse the royal cause, and by making his headquarters 
at Detroit or Canada, he could raise an army of disaflected 
whites and Indians with which to make war from the rear upon the 
Colonies, and " obstruct communication between the Southern and 
Northern Governments." Could anything evince the character of a 
black-hearted traitor more conspicuously than this?" He received 
authority, as desired, and was furnished with blank commissions 
which he was to execute and bestow at his own discretion. But, on 
his way to the field of his exploits, when arrived at Hagerstown. 
Maryland, lie was captured, and. skillfully concealed beneath liis saddle, 
a paper was found disclosing all the details of his traitorous scheme. 
He was held as a prisoner of war until 1780-1 together with his as- 
sociates, when he was exchanged, hi 1782 lie was at the head of a 
force of British and Indians in the neighborhood of Cliatan(jua Lake 
on his way to reduce Fort Pitt, and establish himself there. But pro- 
bably finding his force too feeble for such an enterprise, he abamJoned 
it. To the honor of the friends and relatives of Connolly it should 
be stated that while he was concerting measures for the destruction 
of his country, they were equally earnest in patriotic designs. 



YiKGi>iiA Militia Sent to Fittsbubo — Wkst Augusta County 

Ohio, Yoiiogania, Mononghalia Counties — Vikginia Sp;nds 
Ammunition to Pittsbuec; — Teoops Organized — Guns Sent 
— GovERNOK Patkiuk Henry of Yikginia Ukges a Stout 
Defence of Fort Pitt — Many Names of Early Settlers 
Among Militia Officers — Defend to the Last Extremity — 
A JS^E^v State to be Called Westsyl^^-ania Petitioned for to 
Continental Congress to be tWe Fourteenth — Strong Lan- 
guage OF the Petition — Bounds of Proposed ]NIew State — 
240 Miles in Length by 70 to 80 in Breadth, Equal in Extent 

to an Empire — " Vandalia " and " Walpole" Proposed Vir- 

cuNiA Opens Land Offices, Fixes Price of Land — Titles to 
the Greater Part of Soutirvestern Pennsylvania Held by 
Patents Granted by Virginia. 

WHEN the Virginia convention, on the retirement of Lord Dnn- 
more, took the supreme authority of the colony in its own 
hands, measures were adopted for retaining the district of Pittsburo- 
beyond the Laurel Hills in its control, as though the matter of juris'^ 
diction Avas already settled in favor of Virginia." Captain John Neville 
was authorized to raise a company of one hundred men and 
march to and take possession of Pittsburg. Another com- 
pany of one hundred and twenty-five men was summoned from the 
Monongahela country. The colony of Virginia was divided into six- 
teen districtsofwhich West Augusta was one, comprising all the terri- 
tory drained by the Monongahela, Youghiogheny and Kiskiminitasand 
the streams falling into the Ohio. A proposition was made by certain 
commissioners sent out by the Continental Congress, Jasper Yeates 
and John Montgomery, for Pennsylvania, and Dr. Thomas Walker 
and Jr)hn Harvey, for Virginia, to Pittsburg to treat with the Indians, 
that in order to settle the disputed authority temporarily, county 
court_s should be held under the authority of Pennsylvania north of 
the Youghiogheny Eiver, and of Virginia south of that stream; but 
no attention was paid to this advice, probably being equally distasteful 
to each party. 

Understandiug by the establishment of West Augusta district 
that the Virginia colonial convention intended a separate county 


court from that lit'ld at Sti-autoii, tor Augusta County, tlie Justices 
proceeded to organize an independent court and fixed the county 
seat at Augusta town just over tiie ridge west from Washington. But 
tliis arrangement was of short duration; for at tlie session of the Vir- 
ginia assembly held in 177(5, Patriclc Henry being Governor, an act 
was passed tor ascertaining the limits of West Augusta, and for 
dividing that district into three counties, Ohio, Yoliogania and 
Mononghalia; Ohio County to embrace all the territory drained by 
the streams falling into the Ohio liiver as far north as Cross Creek, 
embracing the half of the present Greene County; Yohogania, 
the territory drained by the Youghiogheny and Kiskiniinitas liivers 
as far east as tlie Laurel Hills, and as far south as l)unlap's and Cross 
Creeks; and Mononghalia east and south of the other two and em- 
bracing all the land drained by the Monongalia Eiver, extending far 
into West Virginia, and embracing the eastern slope of Greene 
County. It was provided by the same act which authorized the 
limitations of these counties, " that after the said 8th day of November, 
courts shall be constantly held every month by the justices of the 
respective counties upon the days hereinafter specified for each coun- 
ty respectively, that is to say for the county of Ohio on the first 
Monday, for the county of Monongahela on the second Monday, and 
for the county of Yohogania on the fourth Monday of every month, 
in such manner as by tiie laws of this Commonwealth is provided for 
other counties, and as shall be by their commission directed. It 
was provided that all cases pending in the whole of West Augusta 
district before the division into the three counties, should be tried 
in the court of Yohogania County. The places fixed for holding the 
courts in the three counties were the plantation of Andrew Heath 
for Yohogania, the Plantation of Theopholus Phillips, near New 
Geneva, for Mononghalia, and Black's Cabin, now West Liberty, for 

The llevolutionary war was now fairly inaugurated, and as the 
British were using every endeavor to enlist the Indians in their 
cause against the colonists, issuing commissions freely to disefi'ected 
Americans to lead them, and to fit out expeditions from Canada to 
attack the settlers from the rear, it became evident near the close ot 
1776, that the Indians were standing in hostile attitude. Accord- 
ingly Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia, wrote, under date 
of Uecember 13th, to Lieutenant Dorsey Pentecost, advising him of 
the hostile temper of the savages and that he had ordered six tons of 
lead for the West Augusta district, and counselling that he call a 
meeting of the militia officers of the district to determine on safe 
places of deposit. " I am of opinion," he says, " that unless your 
people wisely improve this winter you may probably be destroyed. 
Prepare then to make resistance while you have time." 


A council of war was accordingly held at Catfish Camp, now 
Washington County, at which the following officers were present: 
" Dorsey Pentecost, company lieutenant: John Cannon, colonel; 
Isaac Cox, lieutenant-colonel; Henry Taylor, major; David Sheperd, 
company lieutenant; Silas Hedge, colonel; David McClnre, lieuten- 
ant-colonel; Samuel McCullough, major; Zacheriah Morgan, com- 
pany lieutenant; John Evins, major. Captains — John Munn, David 
Andrew, John Wall, Cornelius Thompson, Gabrial Cox, Michael 
Ilawlings, William Scott, Joseph Ogle, William Price, Joseph 
Tumbleson, Benjamin T^Ty, Mathew Richey, Samuel Measou, Jacob 
Lister, Peter lieasoner, James Rogers, David (Swings, Henry Hog- 
land,' John Pearce Davall, James Printon, Vinson Colvin, James 
Buclvhannan, Abner Howell, Charles Ci-ecraft, John Mitchell, John 
Hoo-land, Reason Virgin, William Harrod, David Williamson, 
Joseph Cisnesy, Charles Martin, Owin Daviss." In glancing over 
these names it will be noticed that a considerable number are com- 
mon to Crreene County, and represent the families wlio were its 
earliest settlers. 

According to the i-equest of Governor Henry these officers desig- 
nated the points suitable for magazines, and called for three tons of 
gun-powder, ten thousand flints, and one thousand rifles. On the 
28th of February, 1777, Governor Henry again wrote requesting 
that a detail be made of a hundred men " to escort safely to Pitts- 
buro-, the powder purchased by Captain Gibson. I suppose it is at 
Fort Louis on the Mississippi, under the protection of the Spanish 
Government. I have ordered four 4-pound cannons to be cast for 
strengthening Fort Pitt, as I believe an attack will be made there 
ere long. Let the ammunition be stored there, and lu^ it be defended 
to the last extremity; give it not up but with the lives of yourself 
and people. Let the provisions be stored there, and consider it as 
the bulwark of your country." ' It will be observed that all this 
leo-islation and military preparation is had under authority of the 
Assembly and Governor of Virginia, for the government and pro- 
tection of territory rightfully belonging to Pennsylvania, which was 
at this time, and until 1780, remained a part of Virginia, which the 
authorities of Pennsylvania determined not to quarrel about, until 
such time as its cliarter limits could be fixed and vindicated by com- 
petent autiiority. 

We come now to a passage in this early history which shows a 
phase which might have been realized, that would have changed the 
whole future not only of Greene County, but of this whole valley, — 
which is no less than the project for a new State, the capital of which 
would possibly have been within the limits of Greene County, which 
was to be designated by the euphonious title of Westsylvania. A 
very elaborate ]ietition was di'awn wliich recited the inconveniences 


(111 iiccoiiiit cif ilistancc iVom the seats of govcnunent of Vir^fiiiia and 
I'eimsylvtuiia, ot the nuc'ssity ot having to cross lofty and iiitenniii- 
able ranges of mountains, of claims and counter-claims to land, and 
the unsettled boundary between the two States. This petition was 
presented to the Continental Congress, was received and ordered 
tiled; but was never acted on, probably because a life and death 
struggle for existence demanded all the attention of that body, and for 
the reason that the Congress had no jurisdiction as 3'et over territory 
beyond the United Colonies. The language of this petition is uniijue, 
and in detailing wrongs, cumulative. In reciting the effect of the 
authority by the two colonies, it proceeds to point out "the per- 
nicious and destructive effects of discordant and contending juris- 
dictions, innumerable frauds, impositions, violences, depredations, 
feuds, animosities, divisions, litigations, disorders, and even with the 
effusion of human blood to the utter subversion of all laws, human 
and divine, of justice, order, regularity, and in a great measure even 
of Liberty itself." It details " the fallacies, violences and fraudu- 
lent impositions of Land Jobbers, pretended officers and partisans of 
both land offices and others under the sanction of the jurisdiction of 
their respective provinces, the Earl of Duninore's warrants, ofiicer's 
and soldier's rights, and an infinity of other pretexts." It gives the 
details of claims of private parties and companies to fabulous tracts 
of land, the titles to which rest on the pi-etended purchase of the 
Indians. "This is a country," it proceeds, " of at least 21:0 miles in 
length, from tiie Kittanny to opposite the mouth of the Scioto, 70 
or SO miles in breadth, from the Alleghany Mountains to the Ohio, 
rich, fertile and healthy even beyond a credibility, and peopled by at 
least 25,000 families since 1708." It concludes by asking that the 
territory embraced in the limits set below be known as the 
Province and government of Westsylvania, '" * * the inhab- 
itants be invested with every other power, right, privilege and im- 
munity vested, or to be vested, in the other American colonies; be 
considered as a sister colony, and the fourteenth province of the 
American Confederacy: "Beginning at the eastern bank of the Ohio 
opposite the mouth of Scioto and running thence to the top of the 
Alleghany Mountains, thence with the top of the said mountains to 
the north limits of the purchase made from the Indians in 17(58, at 
the treaty of Fort Stanwix aforesaid, thence with the said limits to 
the Allegheny or Ohio Eiver, and thence down the said river as 
]nirchased from the said Indians at the aforesaid treaty of Fort 
Stanwix to the beginning." There were other projects for a new 
State to be known as " Vandalia," or " AValpole," but none so formal 
or enforced with such elaborate arguments as in this petition for 
" Westsylvania." 

To satisfy the complaints of settlers, the General Assembly of 


Yirginia opened land offices, iixed the limits of the districts, and 
determined the price of land at ten shillings for a hundred acres. 
Commissioners wei-e to be appointed for hearing and determining 
disputes and counter-claims, and count}' snrvej'ors were to be ap- 
pointed to survey and make formal records of sales. It will thus be. 
perceived that Virginia held formal possession of this whole south- 
western stretch of Pennsylvania for a period of contention over 
a dozen or more years; and, as a large proportion of the land in 
Green County was taken np during these years, it will be seen that 
the territory was originally held under Virginia patents. 




Attraction's in this Section fok the Settler — Validitv of the 
Ohio and Walpole Company's Titles in Doubt — Continental 
CoNUREss — One Weakness in Pennsylvania Charter — Penn- 
sylvania Publication — Propositions for Settlement — Com- 
missioners Meet at Baltimore — To the 41° — To the 40° — To 
Mason and Dixon's Line — Western Boundary Extend West- 
ward INTO Ohio — To the 39°, 30', With a Western C(n{REs- 


the 39°, 30', With a Meridian Line for the Western Bound- 
ary — Mason and Dixon's Line With a Meridian Line i<-or the 
Western Boundary Settles the Controversy- — ViritInia 
Sends Land Commissioners to Redstone and Issues Patents 
FOR Vast Tracts — Remonstrance Sent to Congress — Recom- 
mendation of Concjress Unheeded — Joint Address of Council 
AND Assembly- of Pennsy-lvania — Pennsylvania Becomes Bel- 
ligerent — Proposition of Virginia Accepted — Commissioners 
Appointed to Run and Mark the Line — Jefferson Advises a 
Temporary Line — Settlers Rise up in Arms to Oppose Run- 
ning Line — Cry- Against Taxes and Desire for a New State, 
FiN.u. Report of Commissioners Made — Meridian Line Found 
BY Astronomical Observations — The Long Sought Southwest 
Corner of the State Finally- Found and Marked — Western 
Line of Pennsylvania Run and Marked — The Vexed Ques- 
tion OF the True Limits of the State Finally- Settled. 

THE interest which Virginia manifested for this Monongahela and 
Ohio conntry was first aronsed by the reports of the beauty of 
the scenery, the fertility of tlie soil, and the salubrity of its climate. 
The desire to obtain vast tracts of this country led to the formation 
of the Ohio Company with a grant of a half million acres, which was 
subsequently swallowed up by Walpole's grant of fabulous extent. 
To defend these grants against the French, Washington's embassy to 
Le Boeuf was authorized, and military expeditions of Washington, 
Braddock, Forbes, Boquet and Stanwix were undertaken. After the 
French had been finally expelled, Virginia was more eager than be- 
fore to hold these, claims, to justify them, and to establish Virginia 
civil polity. But the failure of the Britisli government to vindicate 



its authority broke the validity of the claims of these companies, and 
for eight years wliile the JKevolntionary war lasted, it was left in 
doubt whether these titles would eventually be established or lost. 
During that period, therefore, Virginia continued anxious to assert 
its authority. But when the surrender of Cornwallis and the break- 
ing of the military force of Britain upon this continent led to a 
treaty of peace, which left the Continental Congress in supreme au- 
thority, then the titles of the Ohio and Walpole companies which 
claimed their legal status from British government were left without 
validity, and were valueless. 

. When Lord Dunmore assumed the Governorship of Virginia he 
proposed to assert his authority with a high hand, regardless of the 
rights of other parties, and Patrick Henry, who succeeded to the 
Gubernatorial power, seemed disjjosed to take np the cudgels which 
Dunmore had dropped. But when the delegates from Virginia to 
the Continental Congress met those from Pennsylvania, the whole 
subject of disputed aiithority and mutual boundary seems to have 
been fairly and candidly canvassed, and more moderate views enter- 
tained. And, as we have seen, the paper drawn np by the combined 
wisdom of these delegates, was the first word that had a quieting 
effect. There were very able men in those delegations. John Dick- 
inson, the author of the Farmer's Letters, was an accomplished 
scholar and statesman, and Benjamin Franklin was possessed of 
practical sense araonnting to genius. Besides, the Congress sat at 
Philadelphia where a strong influence centered favorable to the 
claims of Pennsylvania. A sentiment was early manifested <m the 
part of both colonies to have commissioners appointed to settle the 

The terms of the Charter of Pennsylvania were very explicit with 
one exception. The charter proceeded upon the supposition that the 
perimiter of the circle drawn with a radius of twelve miles from 
New Castle, would, at some point, cut the beginning of the 40° 
of north latitude; whereas this parallel fell far to the south of it. 
This left the beginning of the boundary unfixed and uncertain, and 
was the original cause of much wrangling and contention, not only 
on the part of Virginia, but also of Maryland. But the matter of 
five degrees of longitude and three of latitude were as definite and 
imchangeable as the places of the stars in the heavens. Earthquakes 
might change the surface and the subsidence of the land might yield 
the place to the empire of the waves, yet the boundaries would re- 
main unchanged, and could be easily identified. Some observations 
had been made at Logstown, a little below Pittsburg, l)y which it 
was evident that this place was considerably within the boundaries 
of Pennsylvania both from the west and south.* On any clear 
night the altitude of certain stars would give the latitude of the 


pjace and a good chronometer would show, by difference in time, the 
longitude. The Virginia delegates in Congress were scholars enough 
to understand that. It is probable that tliey saw at the outset that 
the Pennsylvania title was good, and would eventually prevail. This 
accounts for the conciliatory temper manifested in that first communi- 
cation quoted above, and in subsequent action. 

During the past few years the government of Pennsylvania have 
had commissioners engaged in rectifying the boundary lines of the 
State, and planting monuments to mark them. By an act approved on 
the 7th day of May, 1885, the reports and maps of these commission- 
ers, together with the complete journal of Mason and Dixon, from 
December 7, 1763, to January 29, 1768, have been published. From 
that volume many facts upon this subject have been drawn. 

It appears that as early as the 18th of Deceml)er, 1776, the as- 
sembly of Virginia passed a resolution, agreeing to tix the south- 
ern boundary of Pennsylvania from the western liujit of Maryland 
due north to the beginning of the 41° parallel and thence due west 
to the western limit of tlie State. This was a concession on the part 
of Virginia, as it had previously claimed all west of the summits of 
the Alleghany Mountains to the New York line. This would have 
made a break northward from the western line of Maryland, and would 
have left the counties of Fayette, Greene and a portion of Washing- 
ton in Virginia. Pennsylvania would not agree to this. Proposi- 
tions and counter propositions continued to pass between the assem- 
blies of the two colonies, resulting in nothing until the session of 
1779, when it was determined to submit the whole matter in contro- 
versy to tlie arbitrament of commissioners. In a letter of 27th of 
May, 1779, Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia, communicated to 
the council of Pennsylvania the intelligence that commissioners had 
been appointed. On the 27th of August, 1779, the commissioners 
met at Baltimore; James Madison and Robert Andrews on the j^art 
of Virginia, and George Bryan, John Ewing and David Ilitten- 
house for Pennsylvania. Their proceedings Avere in writing. 

The first paper was drawn by the Pennsylvania delegates, in 
which the points in controversy are fully argued, and this demand 
made: "For the sake of peace, and to manifest our earnest desire of 
adjusting the dispute on amicable terms, we are willing to recede 
from our just rights | the beginning of the 40° north,] and there- 
fore propose, that a meridian be drawn from the head spring of 
the north branch of the Potomac to the beginning of the 40° of 
north latitude, and from thence that a parallel of latitude be drawn 
to the western extremity of the State of Pennsylvania, to continue 
forever the boundary of the State of Pennsylvania and Virginia." 
This would have made a break southward at the western extremity of 
Maryland and would have carried into Pennsylvania a large tract of 


what is uow West Yirginia, nearly the whole of the territory drained 
by the Monongahela and its tributaries, a tract equal to six counties 
of the size of the county of Greene. 

This proposition the Yirginia commissioners rejected in an ela- 
borate argument in which all the points made by the Pennsylvaniaus 
were considered, and they close with the following counter proposi- 
tion: "But we trust, on a farther consideration of the objections 
of Yirginia to your claim, that you will think it advantageous to 
your State to continue Mason and Dixon's line to your western 
limits, which we are willing to establish as a perpetual boundary 
between Yirginia and Pennsylvania on the south side of the last 
mentioned State. We are induced to make this proposal, as we^ 
think that the same principle which effected the compromise between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland should operate equally as strong in 
the present case." This proposition was the line which eventual- 
ly prevailed and is the present boundary. 

But the Pennsylvania commissioners were unwilling to give up 
the territory reaching- down to the beginning of the 40°. They ac- 
cordingly made this compensatory proposition : " That Mason and 
Dixon's line should be extended so far beyond the western limits of 
Pennsylvania, as that a meridian drawn from the western extremity 
of it to the beginning of the 43° of north latitude, shall include 
as much land as will make the State of Pennsylvania what it was 
originally intended to be, viz: three degrees in breadth, and five de- 
grees in length, excepting so much as has been heretofore relin- 
quished to Maryland." This would have put on to the western end 
of the State a narrow patch, embracing the Panhandle and a part 
of Ohio, stretching up to the lake, which should be equal in area to 
the block of West Yirginia, which Pennsylvania would give up if 
Mason and Dixon's line shoiild be adopted. 

This proposition was promptly rejected, and the following sub- 
mitted: " Considering how much importance it maj' be to the fut- 
ure happiness of the United States, that every cause of discord be now 
removed, we will agree to relinquish even a part of that territory 
which you before claimed, but which we still think is not included in 
the charter of Pennsylvania. We, therefore, propose that a line run 
due west from that point where the meridian of the first fountain of 
the north branch of the Potomac meets the end of the 30', of the 
39° of northern latitude, five degrees of longitude to be computed 
from that part of the river Delaware which lies in the same parallel, 
shall forever be the boundary of Pennsylvania and Yirginia, on the 
southern part of the last mentioned State." This gave Pennsylvania 
a break south into West Yirginia, not to the amount of six counties of 
the size of Greene, but less than two; but it also provided that the 
western boundary of Pennsylvania should, instead of being a due 


nortli and south line, coiifonn to the ineanderings of the Delavfare, 
being at all points just live degrees from the right bank of that 

To this the Pennsjdvania commissioners made the following re- 
ply: "We will agree to your proposal of the 30tli of August, 1779, 
for running and forever establishing the southern boundary of Penn- 
sylvania in the latitude of thirty-nine degrees, thirty minutes west- 
ward of the meridian of the source of the north branch of the Poto- 
mac River, upon condition that 3'ou consent to allow a meridian line 
drawn northward from the western extremity thereof as far as Vir- 
ginia extends, to be the western boundary of Pennsylvania." This 
would have given the narrow strip of West Virginia, and a due 
north and south line for the western boundary as at present. 

This proposition was rejected by the Virginia representatives; 
but they submitted in lieu thereof the following: " We will continue 
Mason and Dixon's line due west live degrees of longitude, to be 
computed from the river Delaware, for your southern boundary, and 
will agree tliat a meridian drawn from the western extremity of this 
line to your northern limit shall be the western boundary of Penn- 

To this the Penns^-lvania commissioners returned the following 
answer: " We agree to your last proposal of August 31st, 1779, to 
extend Mason and Dixon's line due west five degrees of longitude, to 
be computed from the river Delaware, for the southern boundary of 
Pennsylvania; and that a meridian drawn from the western extremity 
thereof to the northern limit of the State, be the western boundary 
of Pennsylvania forever." This ended the conference and forever 
settled the southwestern boundary of our good old Commonwealth 
and brought to an end a controversy that at one time threatened to 
result in internecine war. 

So far as it could be done in theory the controversy was now at an 
end, though the approval of the two governments was yet to be bad, 
and when that was secnred, the actual running of the lines and mark- 
ing the bonndaries, which, as the sequel proves, were subject to 
delays and irritating contentions. The labors of the commissioners, 
who held their sittings in Baltimore, were concluded on the 31st of 
August, 1779. The Assembly of Pennsylvania, at the sitting of 
November 19th, 1779, promptly passed a resolution " to ratify and 
finally confirm the agreement entered into between the commissioners 
from the State of Virginia, and the commissioners from this State." 
In good faith Pennsylvania promptly acted. But the Virginia As- 
sembly delayed, and in the meantime commissioners had been 
appointed to adjust and settle titles of claimants to unpatented lands. 
Althougli tiie commissioners had come to a settlement of differences 
on the last day of August, as late as December of this year, Francis 


Peyton, Phillip Pendleton, Josepli Holmes, and George Merriweather, 
land commissioners from Virginia, for the West Augusta district, 
embracing the counties of Yohogania, Ohio, and Monongalia, Virginia 
counties, but Westmoreland County, under Pennsylvania authority, 
came to Kedstone on the Monongahela, and held a court at which a large 
number of patents were granted to Virginia claimants to vast tracts 
of the choice lands along the Monongahela valley to the prejudice of 
Pennsylvania claimants, though it was now known that all this 
country, by the award of the Baltimore conference, was within the 
limits of Pennsylvania. Though Virginia could claim that the award 
had not been ratified by the Virginia Assembly, yet high minded 
statesmanship would have held that all questions of the nature of 
actual sale of lands should have been held in abeyance, at this stage 
of the settlement. The surveys of lands thus adjudicated averaged 
in quantity from 400 to 800 acres to each claimant, and the number 
of claims passed upon was almost fabulous. 

As soon as intelligence of this procedure, on the part of Virginia, 
reached the council of Pennsylvania, wliich was communicated by 
Thomas Scott, as member of the council from the Westmoreland 
district, the President of the council, Joseph Peed, addressed the 
Cdntinental Congress upon the subject, in which, after recounting 
the facts, he says, " We shall make such remonstrance to the State 
of Virginia as the interest and honor of this State require; if these 
should be ineffectual, we trust we shall stand justified in the eyes of 
God and man, if, availing ourselves of tlie means we possess, we 
aftbrd that support and aid to the much injured and distressed inhabi- 
tants of the frontier counties, which their situation and our duty 
require." As soon as the state of affairs was known to Congress, a 
resolution was passed, on December 27th, recommending to the two 
parties to this controversy not to grant any part of the disputed land, 
nor to disturb any in possession of such lands, and on the following 
day, the President of the council of Pennsylvania, issued his procla- 
mation reciting the fact that a Virginia commission was sitting at 
Redstone issuing certificates for land, quoting the language of the 
resolution of Congress upon this subject, and closing by calling on 
all Pennsylvania officers, civil and military, to obey the recommenda- 
tion of Congress, and directing all Pennsylvania claimants of land to 
continue in possession and cultivation of their lands, regardless of 
the claims set up by Virginia. Fifty copies of this proclamation 
were sent for distribution in the disputed district. But the Virginia 
commissioners sitting at Redstone refused to be governed by the 
recommendation of Congress, and returned the reply that such objec- 
tion should be made to the Governor of Virginia, under whose 
authority they were acting. 

The authorities of Pennsylvania were now becoming thoroughly 


aroused, and on the 24tli of March, 1780, a joint address of the 
Council and Assembly was presented to Congress, setting forth in 
strong light their grievances, and closing in a belligerent spirit. " If 
Pennsylvania must arm for her internal defence, instead of recruiting 
her Continental line, if her attention and supplies must be diverted 
in like manner, if the common enemy encouraged by our division 
should prolong the war, interests of our sister States and the common 
cause be injured or distressed, we trust we shall stand acquitted 
before them and the whole world ; and if the eft'usion of human blood 
is to be the i-esult of this unhappy dispute, we humbly trust that the 
great Governor of the universe, who delights in peace, equity and 
justice, will not impute it to ns." 

But all this had small effect upon the authorities of Virginia; for 
the Legislature, which met in May, enacted that a further time of 
eighteen months was allowed to obtain certificates from the commis- 
sioners to enter their claims, provided they did not secure sucli 
certiticates to land north of Mason and Dixon's line, claimed by 
Pennsylvania, yet her surveyors continued to act under Virginia 
authority, as late as June, 1782. 

Finally, on the 23d of June, 1780, the Virginia General Assembly' 
took up the matter of boundary and agreed to the terms adopted by the 
Ealtin:ore commission, but with this important, and to Pennsylvania, 
humiliating condition: "On condition that the private property and 
rights of all persons acquired under, founded on, or recognized by 
the laws of either country previous to the date hereof, be saved and 
confirmed to them, although they should be found to fall within the 
other, and that in the decision of disputes thereupon preference shall 
be given to the elder or prior right whichever of the said States the 
same shall have been ac(piired under; such persons paying to that 
State, within whose boundary their land shall be included, the same 
purchase or consideration money which would have been dne from 
them to the State under which they claimed the right; and where any 
such purchase or consideration money hath, since the Declaration of 
American Independence, been received b}^ either State for lands which, 
according to the before cited agreement, shall fall within the territory 
of the other, the same shall be reciprocally refunded and repaid. 
And that the inhabitants of the disputed territory, now ceded to the 
State of Pennsylvania, shall not before the first day of December, in 
the present year, be subject to the payment of any tax, nor at any 
time to the payment of arrears of taxes, or impositions laid by either 

Though distasteful and manifestly unjust to Pennsylvania, yet 
" determining to give to the world the most unequivocal proof of 
their earnest desire to promote peace and harmony with a sister State, 
so necessary during this great conflict against the common enemy," 


it agreed to the terms proposed, and the legal forms of settlement 
were finally at an end. 

Nothing now remained to be done but to have the actual surveys 
made upon this basis of settlement, and to set up the bounds, in order 
to close the controversy. On the 21st of February, 1781, John 
Lukins and Archibald McLean were appointed on the part of Penn- 
sylvania, and on the 17th of April, James Madison and Kobert An- 
drews, on the part of Virginia, to make these surveys. Thomas 
Jefferson was at this time Govei-nor of Virginia, and he recom- 
mended that the five degrees of longitude be determined by astrono- 
mical observations, as being the most accurate, though Mason and 
Dixon had made actual measi;rement and reduced it to horizontal 
distance, and offered to send westward the instruments necessary, 
viz: "a good time-piece, telescopes and a quadrant." That there 
should be no interruption from disaffected parties, James Marshall 
was ordered to call out accompany of militia to the number of forty 
to act as a guard. As the careful shrvey and marking of the line 
would unavoidably consume considerable time, Governor Jefferson 
proposed that a temporary line be run from the point where Mason 
and Dixon stopped on Dunkard Creek, a distance of thirty-six miles, 
in order that the settlers might know as soon as possible under what 
State government they were living. Mr. McLean was appointed on 
this service from Pennsylvania, and the Surveyor-General of Yoho- 
gania County for Virginia. In the meantime it was ascertained tliat 
there was a party among the settlers who were strongly opposed to 
the running of the line, preferring to i-emain under Virginia rule, 
and gratified to see the question kept open, as thereby escaping the 
payment of taxes and doing military service. 

Benjamin Harrison succeeded Thomas Jefferson as Governor of 
Virginia, and in a communication of the 26th of April, 1782, he 
objects to commencing to survey from Dunkard Creek where 
Mason and Dixon left it; but insists that it shall begin at 
the point where the west line of Maryland cuts Mason and Dixon's 
line. But now a new impediment is interposed to the running of 
the temporary line; for Mr. McLean writes to Governor Moore of 
Pennsylvania, " We proceeded to the mouth of Dunkard Creek, where 
our store were laid in on the 10th day of June, and were preparing 
to cross the river that night, when a party of about thirtj' liorsemen 
armed on the opposite side of the river, appeared, damning us to 
come over, and threatening us to a great degree; and several more^ 
were seen by our bullock guard, which we had sent over the river, 
one of which asked them if they would surrender to be taken as 
prisoners, with other language of menacing." A conference was 
proposed, and a ;Committee of the settlers opposing was met, but no 
arguments were of any avail with them. "The cry," writes Mr. 


\y^(:pf Cylfci-^' 

-^-77 zJf-^' 


McLean, " against taxes in specie is general; this, together with the 
idea of a new State, which is artfully and industriously conveyed, are 
only expedients to prevent the running of the line." 

Finally, on the 26th of Marcli, 1783, John Dickinson, who liad 
now hecome Governor of Pennsylvania, issued his proclamation, coni- 
manding all persons within the limits of the commonwealth to take 
notice of the provisions made by the two States for running tiie line, 
and " to pay due obedience to the laws of this commonwealth." On 
September 11, 1783, the following persons were appointed on the 
part of Pennsylvania: Jolin Ewing, David Rittenhouse, John Lukens 
and Thomas llutchins, and on August 31 the following, James 
Madison, Robert Andrews, John Page and Andrew EUicott, on the 
part of Virginia, were designated to make a final settlement of the 
bounds. Their joint report is as follows: "AVe, the underwritten 
commissioners, tosether witli the gentlemen M'ith whom we are 
joined in commission, liave, by corresponding astronomical observa- 
tions made near the Delaware and in the western country, ascertained 
the extent of the said five degrees of longitude; and the underwritten 
commissioners have continued Mason and Dixon's line to the termin- 
ation of the said five degrees of longitude, by which work the south- 
ern boundary of Pennsylvania is completed. The continuation we 
have marked by opening vistas over the most remarkable heights 
whicli lie in the course, and by planting on many of these heights 
in the parallel of latitude, the true boundary posts marked with tlie 
letters P and V, each letter facing the State of which it is the initial. 
At the extremity of tliis line, wliich is the southwest corner of the 
State of Pennsylvania, we have planted a squared unlettered white 
oak post, around whose base we have raised a pile of stones." At 
the Wilmington observatory the commissioners commenced their 
observations at the beginning of July, and continued observing the 
eclipses of Jupiter's satellites till the 20th of September, that they 
miglit have a sufficient number of them, both before and after liis 
opposition to the sun, making near sixty observations. At the other 
extremity of the line the observations were commenced about the 
middle of July, and between forty and fifty notes of the eclipses of 
Jupiter's satellites, besides innuinerable observations of the sun and 
stars were made, and "completed their observations with so much 
accuracy as to remove from tlieir minds every degree of doul)t con- 
cerning their final determination of the southwest corner of the 

Thus was settled the location of the southwest corner of the 
State, and consequently of Greene County. But the western bound- 
ary was still unmarked, though this, being a 'simple meridian line, 
was not difficult of adjustment. Accordingly a commission, consist- 
ing of David Rittenhouse and Andrew Porter, in behalf of Pennsyl- 


vania, Andrew Ellicott, of Maryland, and Josejjh Neville, of Vir- 
ginia, was constituted for this purpose, and on the 23d of August, 
1785, made this report: " We have carried on a meridian line from 
the southwest corner of Pennsylvania, northward to the River 
Ohio, * * * and we have likewise placed stones duly marked 
on most of the principal hills, and where the line strikes the Ohio." 
From the Ohio River northward the line was surveyed by Alex- 
ander McLean and Andrew Porter, Rittenhouse and Ellicott having 
been put upon the northern line, between New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, who made their final report on the 4tli of October, 1786, 
"that we have ascertained and completed said line by astronomical 
observations as far as Lake Erie, having opened a vista and planted 
stones in the proper direction, marked on the east side P., and that 
said line extends some distance in the lake." Thus was finally 
•settled amicably the question of boundary, which for the full space 
of a hundred years had vexed the inhabitants of the border and the 
governments of three of the original colonies, and which had re- 
peatedly been carried up to the place of last resort, the King in 
council. Considerable space has been given to this subject, that it 
might here be fully understood in all its bearings, as Greene is the 
county most nearly touched in this whole difficulty, and as it fur- 
nishes one of the most interesting topics of American history. 



Titles to Lands Lakoely Deuived from Virginia AuthokitV — 
Crl'mrink Gives Entries — P?;titions for a New Cointy — 
AVASiiiNciToN County Organized — County Officers — Tribula- 
tions — George Rogers Clark's Expedition — To Advocate 
New State, Treason — County Ofi-icers — Henry Taylor First 
JuDcjE — Alleghany County Erected — Portion taken from 
Washington County — Boundary of Tract taken from Wash- 
ington County, which Forms the Southern Part of Alle- 

AS we liave already seen, that portion of the present State of Penn- 
sylvania west o'^f tlip Laurel Hills and south of the Alleghany 
and Ohio rivers was embraced in three counties under Virginia 
authority, and though the County of Westmoreland with county seat 
at Ilannastown, near the present Greensburg, embraced this same 
territory, at which courts were held under Pennsylvania anthority, 
yet the greater share of the county court and county office record 
business in all that territory of Pennsylvania west of the Mononga- 
hela and south of the Ohio rivers was transacted in Virginia County 
courts, for a period of a dozen or more years, and until the southwest 
corner of Pennsylvania was iinally discovered, and a bound set to 
mark it. That spot which three great States had been searching for 
and struggling about, and which was disturbing the quiet even of 
the King in council, and rendering his life uneasy, was at last dis- 
covered and marked, and from that time forward the minds of the 
pioneers became settled, and Assembly, and Governors, and King had 
peace. Indeed that white oak post with the cone of stone piled 
about it was the great peace-maker, more potent in its authority than 
governments and courts. That post, which marks the southwest 
corner of Greene County, set up the Pennsylvania anthority over 
tliis region, which for the space of more than a hundred years has 
been unquestioned and undisturbed. 

It will be remembered that the commissioners of the two States 
of Pennsylvania and Virginia had agreed upon terms of settlement 
of the dispute, as early as the 31st of August, 1779, and had these 
terms been approved by the two State governments at once, and the 
astronomical oliservations been promptly ordered, the place of the 
corner might have been easily found, and the bound set up before 


tlie opening of the year 1780. But on account of the delay on the 
part of the Virginia assembly in acting, and then the seeming inter- 
minable delays in ordering out the surveying parties, it was the close 
of 1784 before the reports of the surveyors were adopted and the 
■whole subject legalized and set to rest. In all this time, therefore, 
the courts under Virginia authority were kept busy in making entries 
and perfecting titles to land. Hence, it will be found that 
a large proportion of the original titles to lands in the present limits 
of Greene County were obtained under Virginia authority. The 
records of these Virginia courts are of interest to the students of legal 
lore; but would probably fail to engage the attention of the general 
reader. Mr. Crumrine, in his history of Washington County, has 
made quite an extensive collation of these records, to which work the 
curious reader is referred. 

The settlers in the district of Pennsylvania, who were adherents 
of the Pennsylvania rule, as soon as tliey learned that the commis- 
sioners had agreed upon terms of settlement of the disputed bound- 
ary, commeiaced addressing the Governor upon the propriety of form- 
ing a new county of this territory. Among these was Thomas Scott, 
who had been prominent in Lord Dunmore's time. Governor Keed, 
who was now at the head of the government in Pennsylvania, regard- 
ing the subject favorably, in a message to the council of Nov. 6, 
1780, recommended the laying off of " one or more counties so as to 
introduce law, order, and good government, where they have long 
been much needtd." In compliance M'ith this recommendation, as ear- 
ly as the 28th of March, 1781, the act was passed erecting Washington 
County, to comprise all of the territory inclosed by the Monongahela 
and Ohio rivers and the south and west bounds of the State, em- 
bracing what are now the counties of Greene, Washington, and 
parts of Alleghany and Beaver. Authority was given for the elec- 
tion of inspectors of election of members of the Assembly and 
Council, two sheriffs, two coroners, and three commissioners. By 
the tenth section it was " made lawful to and for James Edgar, 
Hugh Scott, Van Swearingen, Daniel Leet, and John Armstrong or 
any three of them, to take up or purchase, and to take assurance to 
them and their heirs, of a piece of land situated in some 
convenient place in the said county, in trust and for the use 
of the inhabitants of the said county, and thereupon to erect 
and build a court-house and prison, sufficient to accommodate 
the public service of the said county." Full provisions were made 
for the transfer of authority from Westmoreland courts to Washing- 
ton, and the executive council appointed Thomas Scott to be protho- 
notary, James Marshall lieutenant, and John Cannon and Daniel 
Leet to be sub-lieutenants of the new county. 

It will be observed that the act creating the County of Washing- 


tou antedated the tiiial niiniing and marking of the boundary line by 
several years. During all this period of uncertainty there was con- 
stant friction and irritation. Indeed the organization of Washington 
as well as Westmoreland County, was effected in the midst of great 
tribulation, and the decision on the part of Pennsylvania, not to re- 
sort to force to assert authority, tended to encourage those favoring 
the 'C'irginia ownership in their lawless procedures. The Indians 
during the whole period of the Revolution, and until General "Mad" 
Anthony Wayne, by his victory over the Indians in his campaign in 
the northwestern territory, put a period to Indian barbarity, 
there was scarcely a day whe7i the settlers did not live in constant 
dread of the Indian war whoop. 

A commission, consisting of Edgar, Scott, Swaringen, Leet, and 
Armstrong, proceeded to divide the territory into thirteen townships, 
the number of the colotiies, Amwell, Bethlehem, Cecil, Cumberland, 
Donegal, Fallowfield, Hopewell, Morgan, Nottingham, Peters, Rob- 
inson, Smith and Strabane. Preparations were in progress, under 
George Rogers Clark, for an expedition against the Britisli and 
Indians in the northwest, and the Virginia authorities in 
the three counties of Ohio, Yohogania, and Monongalia, pro- 
ceeded to raise troops by drafting, and the irritation incident to en- 
forcing the draft tended to keep up the discontent. Again was the 
project for a new State revived, as the best panacea for all ills. This 
latter idea was so much advocated and kept before the settlers, that it 
Avas found necessary to pass an act declaring it was treason to longer 
agitate this question. 

At the first general election for Washington, the returns show 
that Dorsey Pentecost was elected counselor; James Edgar, and 
John Cannon were elected representatives; Van Swearingen, and 
Andrew Swearingen, sheriffs; William McFarlane and AVilliam Mc- 
Comb, coroners; George Vallandingham, Tliomas Crooks, John Mc- 
Dowell, commissioners. Henry Taylor as tlie first commissioned 
justice, was president ot the court, and was succeeded on the 31st of 
October, 1783, by Dorsey Pentecost; but on the 29th of November, 
1786, Pentecost having removed from the State, his commission was 
I'evoked hj the council, and Henry Taylor again became president 
judge, which office he held till he was superceded by the appointment 
of Alexander Addison, under the constitution of 1790. The limits 
of Washington County as originally laid out seemed very natural, 
bounded as it was by two great streams and the State limits. But 
the town of Pittsburg soon becoming a point of great commercial 
and manufacturing importance it proved a sore inconvenience for 
its inhabitants to post ofi" to Ilannastown for the transaction of legal 
business. Accordingly, on the 28th of September, 1788, Alleghany 
County was erected, by which Washington County gave up all that 


poition of its northern territory bordering on tlie Oliio and Monon- 
gahela rivers, and by act of assembly passed on the 17th of Septem- 
ber, 1789, a still further portion bounded as follows: "Beginning 
at the river Ohio, where the boundary line of the State crosses said 
river, from thence in a straight line to White's Mill (Murdocksville) 
on Kaccoon Creek, fi-om thence by a straight line to Armstrong's 
mill, on Millei-'s run, and from thence by a straight line to the 
Monongahela River, opposite the mouth of Perry's run, where it 
strikes the present line of the county of Alleghany." 



Act Cebating Geeene County — Name Given — Notice of 
General Geeene — Where Bueied — Acquiee Land foe County- 
Seat — Land of Thomas Slatee — Deed — Named Eden — 
Steeets Named — Cider and Whiskey — Name of the New 
Town — General Wayne, Notice of — Incident Described by 
Whitman — Purchasers of Lots — Prices Paid — Commissions 
Issued to .County Officers — Court of Common Pleas, Five 
Districts — Judge Addison — Notice of his Life — Impeached 
AND Removed — Charges Prefeeeed Against Him — Sentence 
OF CouET — Associate Justices — Judge Roberts — Thomas H. 
Baird Over the New Fourteenth District —NoricE of Judc+e 
Baird — National Road, Nathaniel Ewinc^ in 1838 — Term 
Ten Years — Notice of Judge Ewing — Samuel A. Gilmoee 
IN 1848 — Notice of Judge Gilmore- — James Lindsey" in 1861 
— Notice of JudctE Lindsey^ — Minute of Fay'ette County 

By these curtailments of Washington County on the north, and 
the farther one made on the 26th of March, 1800, for the forma- 
tion of Beaver County, the county seat, which had been established 
at what is now the town of Washington, was thrown considerably to 
the north of the centre of the territory, and the inhabitants dwelling 
in the southern portions of the county became restless, under what 
thej regarded an injustice in being compelled to travel so much 
farther to the county seat than those dwelling in the northern por- 
tions. Accordingly, in response to a memorial numerously signed, 


praying for tlie crcctidu of a new county out of the southern por- 
tions of Washington, tiie Legislature passed an act on tlie 9th of 
February, 1796, as follows: "Section 1. He it enacted, etc., That all 
that part of Washington County lying within the limits and bounds 
hereinafter described shall be, and is hereby erected into a separate 
county, that is to say l)eginning at the mouth of Ten Mile Creek, 
on the Monongahela River, thence up Ten Mile Creek, to the junction 
of the north and soutli forks of said creek; thence up said north 
fork to Colonel William Wallace's Mills [West Bethlehem]; tiience 
up a southwesterly direction to the nearest part of the dividing line 
between the north and south forks of Ten Mile Creek; thence along 
the top of the said ridge to the ridge which divides the waters of 
Ten Mile and Wheeling Creeks; thence a straight line to the head 
of Eulow's branch of the AVheeling; thence down said branch to 
the western boundary line of tlie State; thence south along said line 
to the southern boundary line of the State; thence east along said 
line to the river Monongahela; and thence down the said river to 
the place of beginning; to be henceforth known and called by the 
name of Greene County." 

, This gave a very compact and well situated body of land for a 
county, and connected by roads of easy grades for reaching its cen- 
tral portion, wherever the county seat should be erected. 13ut there 
being some dissatisfaction as to a portion of the northern line, the 
Legislature, at its session of 1802, made the following emendation, 
viz: " that the following alteration shall take place in the line between 
the counties of Washington and Greene, viz: beginning at the pres- 
ent line, on the ridge that divides the waters of Ten Mile and Wheel- 
ing creeks, near Jacob Bobbet's; thence a straight line to the head 
waters of Hunter's fork of Wheeling Creek; and thence down the 
same to the mouth thereof, where it meets the present county line." 
This gave back to Washington a small strip of territory, not material 
to Greene, but desired l)y Washington. 

' It will be seen that a patriotic motive swayed the originators of 
Washington County in giving its name. General Washington was 
then at the zenith of his military fame, and was approaching that 
period in his career when he should compel the British General, 
Cornwallis, to surrender with his whole army, which would pi-acti- 
cally put a period to the war. This county was the only one erected 
in the State during the period of the Bevolntion. What more suit- 
able name could be given it than that of the military leader whose 
name was on every tongue? 

If Washington was an appropriate name for all this stretch of 
country lying to the west of the Monongahela, what name more 
proper for the tract, cut from the side of Washington — the rib as it 


were — than Greene, that one of his Generals above all others, whom 
Waslungton loved? 

Nathaniel Greene was born of Quaker parents in 1740, at War- 
wick, Ehode Island. His father was a blacksmith, in which trade 
the boy was schooled, or rather an anchorsmith; for at this time this 
was one of the most considerable of all the States in mercantile ma- 
rine. While yet a youth he learned the Latin language, and became 
well-read in military history. He was chosen a member of the 
Rhode Island Legislature when he had scarcely attained his majority. 
When intelligence reached him of the battle of Lexington, his mil- 
itary ardor, as well as his burning patriotism, was aroused, and he 
determined to take up arms for the defense of his imperiled country, 
and was appointed to lead the three regiments raised in his State to 
the army of Observation then stationed at Koxbury, Massachusetts. 
This act of the young Quaker cost him his membership in that body. 
The practiced eye of Washington soon detected his cool judgment 
and zeal for the cause, and recommended his appointment in the fol- 
lowing year as Major-General in the Continental Army, a remarkable 
promotion from a plain officer of State Militia; but, as events sub- 
se(piently showed, worthily bestowed. He served with distinction 
in the battles of Trenton, Princton, Brandywine and Germantown, 
when he was appointed Quartermaster-General of the American 
Army, a position of great difficulty and responsibility in view of the 
straightened circumstances of the colonies, and the absolute neces- 
sity that the troops be fed. In 1780 he was assigned to active duty 
in the field, and was invested with the supreme command of the 
armies of the South, relieving General Gates. At the conclusion of 
the war he returned to Rhode Island; but soon after returned to 
Georgia to look after an estate near Savannah. Not mindful of the 
intensity of the Southern siin, he was overcome by the heat in what 
is commonly known as "sun stroke," and died from its effects on the 
19th of June, 1786, at the early age of forty-six. His body was 
placed in a vault in Savannah, but so imperfect was the bnrial that 
no name or o'her means of indentification existed, and when, in 
1820, a search was made for his remains, they could not be found, 
and no one knows the sepulchre of the ablest of Washington's Gen- 
erals. But the Congress of the new nation was prompt in acknowl- 
edging his services, and on the 8th of August of that year passed the 
following resolution: "That a monument be erected to Nathaniel 
Greene, Esq., at the seat of the Federal Government, with the fol- 
lowing inscription: 'Sacred to the memory of Nathaniel Greene, a 
native of the State of Rhode Island, who died on the 19th of June, 
1786; late Major-General in the service of the United States, and 
commander of their army in the Southern Department. The United 
States, in Congress assembled, in honor of his patriotism, valor, and 


ability, have erected this monument,' " It lias been said of him that, 
"In person General Greene was rather corpulent, and above the 
common size. His complexion was fair and florid; his countenance 
serene and mild. His health was generally delicate, but was pre- 
served by temperance and exercise." 

By the act ei'ecting the new county it was provided that David 
Gray, Stephen Gapin, Isaac Jenkinson, William Meetkerke and James 
Seals be appointed commissioners to procure by grant, bargain, or 
otherwise any quantity of land not exceeding five hundred acres, 
within five miles of the center of the county, and survey and lay out 
the same into town lots; and on due notice given sell lots at public 
auction, so many lots as to raise a fund sufficient, with certain Coun- 
ty taxes, to pay for the purchase of the land and the erection of a 
court-house and prison. Until a court-house was erected the courts 
were diretted to be held at the house of Jacob Kline, on Muddy 

In pursuance of the power thus delegated to the above named 
commissioners, a site for the county seat was selected in a fine sweep 
of the South Fork of Ten Mile Creek, on land owned by Thomas 
Slater, James Seals owning land to the north of it, and John Jones 
to the south of it. Among the first records in the books of the 
Prothonotary's office is " Deed of Thomas Slater and Uxor to the 
Trustees of Greene County. This indenture made the twenty-eighth 
day of October, in the year 1796, between Thomas Slater and Elenor, 
his wife on the one part, and David Gray, Stephen Gapin, William 
Meetkerke, Isaac Jenkinson and James Seals, trustees appointed for 
the county of Greene, by an act of the general assembly of the State 
of Pennsylvania, dated the 9th day of February, 1796, entitled an 
act to erect a part of Washington County into a separate county of 
the other part. Whereas, a certain tract of land called Eden, was 
granted to the said Thomas Slater by patent dated 7th of March, 
1789, and enrolled in the IlolFs office of said State in patent book 
number 14, page 507, etc. Now this Indenture witnesseth that the 
said Thomas and Elenor his wife, for and in consideration of the 
sum of $2,376, lawful money of Pennsylvania to them in hand paid 
by the said [commissioners], for and in behalf of of the county of 
Greene the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, and the said 
Thomas Slater and Elenor his wife, therewith fully satisfied and paid, 
have granted, bargained and sold, and by these present do grant, 
bargain and sell unto the said [commissioners] in trust for the use 
of the county of Greene, and for the purpose of erecting thereon a 
Court House and Gaol and other public buildings for the use of the 
said county all the following described and bounded part of the said 
tract of land that is contained in the following bounds and limits: 
Beginning at a post and running thence b}' said Slater's land east 


218 perches to a post in John Jones' line, thence with the same 
south 12° -J east 128 perches to a post, thence by said Slater's land 
west 188 perches, to a thorn bush on the bank of the South Fork of 
Ten Mile Creek, thence up the same, and by land of James Seals 
north 43° and ^ west 17 perches -^^ to a white walnut tree, north 
41° "I west 47 perches y^-j^.to a white oak, north 15° west 32 perches 
to the place of beginning, containing 158 acres -J strict measure, be 
the same more or less, together with all and singular, the appurten- 
ance unto the same belonging, or in any ways appurtaining, and the 
reversions, and remainder rents, issues and profits thereof. To have and 
to hold the said bounded and sold tract of land and premises with the 
appiirtenances unto the said [commissioners] and their assigns to the 
only proper use and behoof of the said [commissioners] in trust for 
the use aforesaid, and according to the true intent and meaning of 
the above cited act of Assembly, and the said Thomas Slater and 
Elenor his wife, for themselves, their heirs, executors, and admin- 
istrators do hereby covenant, promise and grant to and with the said 
[commissioners] and their assigns that they the said Thomas Slater 
and Elenor his wife, the aforesaid tract of land containing 158 acres 
and ^ strict measure against them and their heirs, and against all and 
and every other person or persons lawfully claiming the same shall 
and will warrant and forever defend by these presents. In testi- 
mony whei'eof they have hereunto set their hands and seals the day 
and year first above written. 

Sealed and Delivered in "] Received the day and year within writ- 
presence of I ten of 

Dan. McFaeland, f $2,376 being consideration money with- 

Philip Ketchum. J in mentioned in full. 

Thomas Slater. 

Witness Acknowledged before 

Jan. Thompson, Wm. Seaton. 

Chkistian Fair. Received 28 th October, 1796. 


John Bokeman, Recorder." 

This tract of land thus promptly obtained and secured by deed 
in trust, then only encumbered by the cabin of its owner, has come 
to be the home of a numerous and busy population, distinguished for 
intelligence, and the seat of justice for this beautiful and well settled 
county. It would seem by reference to the provisions of the above 
recited deed, that the original owner had given it the name of Eden, 
a name not inappropriate, when we consider its location, upon this 
commanding ground, the rich and beautiful vallej' stretching away, 
above and below, and the pleasant heights and verdant hillsides across 


the stream which sweeps around and seems to hold it in its fond 

A draft of the plot of the town accompanies the deed, and is ac- 
cordingly made of record. A street, running north from the extreme 
south bend of the creek, cuts the tract nearly at its center, and is 
designated Washington street, and parallel with this to the west are 
Morris street. Blackberry alley. Rich Hill street and West street, and 
to the east Cider alley, Morgan street. Whiskey alley, Cumberland 
street, Findlay alley and East street. Huniiiug east and west is 
High street cutting the tract near its center, and to tlie north in 
succession are Strawberry alley, Franklin street, North street, and be- 
yond it the common, fronting on which are the imposing buildings 
of Waynesbui'g College and the public school building, and on the 
summit still further to the north is the reservoir of the waterworks. 
To the south of High street are Cherry alley, Greene street. South 
alley, Lincoln street. Walnut alley. Elm street. Locust alley, First 
street and Water street. The railroad follows the valley up the 
northwest. Between Washington and Morris streets, running north 
and south, and High and Greene streets extending east and west, in 
the central and most commanding portion of the tract are located 
the county l)uildings, — court-house and jail, — on grounds which now 
seem contracted, considering that the commissioners could have ap-. 
propriated as much land and in such location as they chose. The 
names of the streets are in the main patriotic and descriptive of 
their location; but the two alleys, Cider and Whiskey, in close 
proximity to the courts of justice, seem in these days of prohibition 
to be misnomers, though in the age when given may have aifbrded 
the mouth a good flavor when pronounced. 

A name for the new town was early considered. It has been 
already observed that this section of the country had been for a 
period of over thirty years debatable ground for the savages, as it 
was in the meantime by the inhabitants of two neighboring States. 
During the quarter of a century preceding the formation of the 
town this section had been the scene of more Indian outrages, scalp- 
ings and burnings than any other equal area in the country. 
Though peace had been declared between the United States and 
Great Britain, British troops still occupied forts in the northwestern 
territory, and encouraged and led the Indians in their warfare against 
the United States. Two armies, one under Ilarmer and the other 
led by St. Claire, had Ijeeii defeated and sadly cut to pieces by the 
united strength of British and Indians, and as a consequence the 
savages were more active than ever in their work of blood. But an 
army led by General Anthony Wayne had proved more successful, 
and, having marched into the heart of the Indian country, inflicted 
so crushing a defeat that the tribes were glad to unite in suing for 


peace, and in giving hostages for an observance of their treaty stipu- 
lations. Nowhere were the happy effects ot this triumph more felt 
than in this territory of Greene County. What name, then, more 
suitable for the capitol of the new county than the honored one of 
Wayne, and hence Waynesburgh perpetrates the name of the hero. 
Perhaps none of the generals in the American army had so much 
the character of dash, of sleepless vigilance, of heroic daring in the 
face of the foe, as Wayne. He was born in Chester County in 
1745. He was in early life a surveyor, a member of the Assembly 
of 1774, the friend of Franklin and member of the Committee of 
Safety of 1775. Seeing war impending, he gave himself earnestly to 
the study of the military art. He was with Sullivan at Three Rivers, 
Canada, and had charge of the posts at Ticonderoga and Mt. In- 
dependence. In February, 1777, he was commissioned a Brigadier- 
General, and participated in the New Jersey and Brandywine cam- 
paigns with Washington. On the night of the 20th of September, 
1777, while encamped at Paoli, with 1,500 men, the location of his 
camp was betrayed to the British, when General Gray, with a strong 
detachment of the enemy, stole upon the camp, and put the occu- 
pants to the sword, an exploit in civilized warfare little better than 
a massacre. AtGermantown he led the right wing with gallantry, and 
received the especial commendation of Washington for his conduct 
in the battle of Monmouth. His surprise an capture of Stony Point 
gained for him the thanks of Congress. He was transferred to the 
South during the last of his service in the Revolution, where, by his 
ceaseless vigilance and energy, he gained no less renown than at the 
North. In councils of war he always favored the aggressive policy, 
and won the title of " Mad Anthony Wayne." In 1792 he was 
called from his farm in Chester County, to which he had retired, 
and placed in command of an army to operate against the hostile 
Indians. At Maumee, in August, 1784, after a two year's campaign, 
he gained so signal a victory as to put an end to Indian barbarities, 
and give peace to the settlers. The most subtle of the savage chief- 
tains had counseled against risking a battle with him, for " that man 
never sleeps," he declared. The event showed that he had judged 
correctly. Wayne was afterwards appointed sole commissioner to 
treat with the natives, and concluded a treaty in 1795, at Greenville, 
Ohio, which gave peace and secured the emigrant complete immunity 
from peril. In the autumn of 1796, having concluded the object of 
his mission, he embarked on a small vessel at Detroit, bound for 
Presque Isle, now Erie, on his way home. On the way down the 
lake he was attacked with the gout, a disease to which he was sub- 
ject. Upon his arrival he was taken, at his own request, to one of 
the block houses on the garrison tract, and a messenger was dis- 
patched for Surgeon J. C. Wallace, at Pittsburg, who had attended 


liiiii on liis campaigns, and was familiar witli his disease. The 
Doctor started at once, l)Ut on arriving at Franklin, on his way up, 
he was pained to learn that his old commander was dead, having ex- 
pired on the 15th of December, 1796. Two days after lie was buried, 
as he liad directed, with liis uniform and boots on, in a plain coffin, 
with the letters "A. W." cnt upon the lid, and his age, 51, and date 
of his deatli marked Ijy means of round brass headed tacks driven 
into the wood. At the age of thirty-two he was described as "about 
middle size, with a firm manly countenance, commanding port and 
eagle eye. His looks corresponded with his character, indicating a 
soul noble, ardent and daring. In his intercourse with his offices 
and men he was affable and agreeable, and had the art of communi- 
cating to their bosoms the gallant and chivalrous spirit which glowed 
in his own. His dress was scrupulously neat and elegant, his move- 
ments were quick, his manners easy and graceful." 

Here we might well put a period to the narrative; but a circum- 
stance connected with the remains occurred, so peculiar, that a brief 
account will be given of it as recorded by Ijenjamin AVhitman in his 
History of Erie County. " In the fall of 1808, General Wayne's 
daughter, Mrs. Atlee, was taken seriously ill. While upon her 
sick bed she was seized with a strong desire to have her father's 
remains moved to the family burying ground. Realizing that it 
was her last sickness, and anxious to console her dying moments, 
Colonel Isaac Wayne, the General's son, consented to come to Erie 
for the purpose of complying with her wishes. The journey was 
made in the spring of 1809, through what was then a wilderness, 
for much of the distance, with a horse and sulky. On arriving in 
Erie, Colonel Wayne sent for Dr. Wallace, the same one who had 
been called to minister to the General. The Doctor agreed to 
attend to the disinterment and preparation of the remains, and 
Colonel Wayne gave him entire charge of the operation, declining 
to witness it on the ground that he preferred to remember his 
father as he knew him when living. Thirteen years having elapsed, 
it was supposed that the corpse would be decomposed; but on 
opening the grave, all present were amazed to find the body petrified, 
with the exception of one foot and leg, which were partially gone. 
The boot on the unsound leg had decayed, and most of the clothing 
was missing. Dr. AVallace separated the body into convenient parts 
and placed them in a kettle of boiling water until the flesh could be 
removed from the bones. He then carefully scraped the bones, 
packed them in a small box and returned the flesh, with the imple- 
ments used in the operation, to the cotRn, which had been left undis- 
turbed, and it was again covered over with earth. The box was 
secured to Ci)lonel Wayne's sulky and carried to Eastern Pennsyl- 


vania, where the contents were deposited in a second grave, among 
those of the General's deceased relatives. In the labor of dissection, 
which took place on the garrison grounds, Dr. Wallace was assisted 
by Robert Murray, Robert Irwin, Kichard Clement, and others. 
General Wayne's sound boot was given to James Duncan, who found 
it fitted him, had a mate made for it, and wore the pair until they 
could no longer be used. At the time of the disinterment Captain 
Dobins and family were living on the garrison grounds in a large 
building erected for the use of the commanding officer. Mrs. Dobins 
M^as allowed to look at the body, with some of her lady acquaintances, 
and obtained a lock of the dead hero's hair. She had a vivid recol- 
lection of the incident when nearly in her hundredth year. The 
body she said was not hard like stone, but was more of the con- 
sistency of soft chalk. The hairs of the head pulled out readily, and 
the general appearance of the corpse was much like that of a plaster 
of Paris cast. In explanation of Dr. Wallace's course, it is argued 
that he acted in accordance with what the circumstances of the case 
seemed to require. It was necessary that the remains should be 
placed in as small a space as possible to accommodate the means of 
conveyance. Colonel Wayne is reported to have said in regard to 
the affair, ' I always regretted it. Had I known the state the re- 
mains were in before separated, I think I should certainly have had 
them again deposited there and let them rest, and had a monument 
erected to his memory.' * * * Largely through the efforts of 
Dr. Germer and Captain AVelsh, an appropriation was obtained from 
the Legislature, with which a substantial log block-house in imita- 
tion of the original was built to mark the site, and the grounds were 
surrounded by a railing with cannon at eacli of the four corners. 
The grave has been neatly and substantially built up with stone, 
and the coffin-lid, with other relics of the early days, is carefully 
sheltered within the block-house. The Wayne family burial ground, 
where the bones of the gallant General repose, is in the cemetery 
attached to St. David's Episcopal church, at Radnor, Delaware 
County, not far from the Chester County line, less than an hour's 
walk from Wayne Station, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, and four- 
teen miles west from Philadelphia. Not far distant is Paoli, the 
scene of the massacre, which was so brilliantly avenged at Stony 
Point. The Pennsylvania State Society of the Cincinnati erected a 
monument over the grave on the 4th of July, 1809." 

As soon as it was known that the site of the capital of the coun- 
ty had been determined and the tract acquired, building lots were 
disposed of rapidly. The records of the county, which were kept 
with care, the chirography being in a very even legible hand, which 
puts to shame some of the records made at a later date, show that 


the following named persons purchased lots of the commissioners, 
paying the snms set opposite their several names: 

1st. Rev. Robert Davis $25 

2d. John Denny 84 

3d. Phillip Ketchum 75 

4th. John Smith 34 

5th. John Smith 106 

6th. James Ilook 59 

7th. Job. Smith 12 

8th. Ignatius Ross 15 

9th. John Boreman 68 

10th. Samuel Clarke 

11th. Daniel McFarland 16 

12th. Daniel McFarland 78 

13th. Daniel McFarland 14 

14th. Daniel McFarland 13 

15th. Daniel McFarland 50 

16th. John Wilson 78 

17th. William Hunter 70 

18th. James Brown 65 

19th. Robert Adams & Patrick Moore 51 

20th. Robert Ilazlett & Robert Wilson 110 

21st. Isaac Jenkinson 139 

22d. Clement Brooke 50 

23d. Thomas Reinhart 50 

24th. Asa McClelland 40 

25th. William Wood 18 

26tli. James Eagan 50 

27th. John Baptist Nuglet 66 

28th. AVilliam Caldwell 70 

29th. Jacob Burley 42 

The forms and legal authorization of procedure in setting in 
motion the machinery of government over the new county were 
promptly observed. The first commission issued was to John Bore- 
man, executed under the hand of Governor Thomas MitHin, July 13, 
1796, which authorized him to administer oaths. The second com- 
mission was issued to 

John Minor to be Associate Justice under date of July 13, 1796. 

John Boreman to be Recorder of Deeds under date of March 17, 

John Boreman, Prothonofary, March 17, 1796. 

John Boreman, Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions, ]V[arch 
17. 1796. 


John Boreman, Clerk of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, March 
17, 1796. 

John Boreman, Clerk of the Orphans' Court, March 17, 1796. 

John Boreman, Eegister of Wills, March 17, 1796. 

David Gray was commissioned to sit as Associate Judge on 
March 17, 1796. 

As Greene County was a part of the Fifth Judicial District, the 
President Judge of that district continued to hold the courts for 
Greene County, as before its erection, for the same territory. By 
the constitution of 1790, the Court of Common Pleas became the 
principal court of the Commonwealth for the original hearing of 
causes. The judges, not fewer than three, nor more than four, in 
each county, were to be appointed by the Governor. At the session 
of the Legislature for 1791, an act was passed dividing the counties 
of the State into live judicial districts — Philadelphia, Bucks, Mont- 
gomery and Delaware to compose the 1st; Chester, Lancaster, York 
and Dauphin the 2d; Berks, Northampton, Luzerne and Northum- 
berland the 3d; Cumberland, Franklin, Bedford, Huntingdon and 
Mifflin the 4th; and Westmoreland, Fayette, Washington and 
Alleghany the 5th. When Greene was erected in 1796, tliat con- 
stituted a part of tiie hftli. The act provided that for each judicial 
district " a person of knowledge and integrity, skilled in the laws," 
shall be appointed and commissioned by the Governor to be Presi- 
dent of the courts of Common Pleas. Any two of the judges of the 
CJommou Pleas Court should constitute a quorum, which should con- 
stitute the Court of Quarter Sessions, of the Peace and Orphans' 
Court, and the Register of Wills. 

The first President Judge of tlie Fifth district was Alexander 
Addison. lie was a native of Ireland, where he was born in 1759, and 
was ediicated at Edinburgh, Scotland, and licensed to preach by the 
Presbytery of Aberlow. While yet a youth he emigrated to Amer- 
ica, and came to western Pennsylvania. Plaving been taken in 
charge by the Redstone Presbytery, he was given permission to 
])reach and ofhciated for a while at Washington. He subsequently 
turned his attention to the law, studying in the tiftice of David Red- 
flick, and was admitted to practice in the courts of Washington 
County. He was a man of strict probity, of large understanding, 
well schooled in the polite learning of the day, and was well fitted 
by native talent, by culture, and legal acumen to preside in the 
courts of justice. In conducting the courts of this district he had 
a difficult part to perform. It was at a time when the laws of both 
State and Nation were new and untried; the district was one of op- 
]>osing factions, composed of stui-dy frontiersmen; the tax upon dis- 
tilled spirits had to be enforced over unwilling subjects, among 
whom was inaugurated the Whiskey Rebellion. In the midst of all 

au/?^^ C]^^ 


these tvyiug circmnstaaces, he is acknowledged to have performed 
the duties of his high office with a strict regard to justice, and with 
honesty of purpose. J]ut he did not escape the shafts of party strife, 
and rancor, whicli finally culminated in his impeachment before the 
Senate of Pennsylvania. The formal charges were as follows: 

"1st. That Judge Addison, after Judge Lucas [an associate judge 
of Alleghany County], had in his official character and capacity of 
judge as aforesaid, and as he of right might do, addressed a petit 
jury, then and there duly impaneled, and sworn or affirmed re- 
spectively as jurors in a cause then ponding, then and there openly 
did declare, and say to the said jury, that the address delivered to 
them by the said Uohn Lucas, had nothing to do with the question 
before them, and they ought not to pay any attention to it. This 
question will be better understood l)y lawyers when informed that a 
justification was pleaded as a defense in an action of slander, and 
was unsupported by the testimony, and Judge Lucas' charge was in- 
tended to reduce the damages of the plaintift" to a small if not a 
nominal sum. 

"2d. That the said Alexander Addison did under pretense as afore- 
said of discharging and performing his official duties then and 
there in time of open court, illegally, and unconstitutionally stop, 
threaten, and prevent tlie said John Lucas, from addressing as he of 
right might do a grand jury of the said county of Alleghany then 
and there assembled." 

The sentence of the Senate, sitting as a court of impeachment, 
delivered January 27, 1803, was, "That Alexander Addison, Presi- 
dent of the several courts of Common Pleas, in the Fiftli district of 
this State, shall be, and he hereby is removed from his office of presi- 
dent aforesaid, and also is disqualified to hold and exercise the 
office of judge, in any court of law within the commonwealth of 

The associate judges during his term of office were Henry Tay- 
lor, James Edgar, James Allison, and Matthew Eitchie, commis- 
sioned August 17, 1791; AVilliam Hoge, commissioned April 6, 
1798, and John McDowell, commissioned April 7, 1S02. Samuel 
Roberts was commissioned president judge of the Fifth district on 
June 2, 1803. He was a native of Philadelphia, where he was born 
September 10, 1761, read law with "William Lewis, and was practic- 
ing his profession at Sunbury, when appointed judge. 

The judicial districts of the State were readjusted by the act of 
March 23d, 1818, by which Washington, Fayette, Greene, and Som- 
erset became the Fourteenth district, and Judge Eoberts remained 
over the courts composed of Alleghany, Beaver, and Butler. "Where- 
upon Thomas II. Baird, was ajipointed to preside in the Fourteenth 
district, his commission dating from October 19, 1818. By an act 


of the Legislature of March 29, 1824, Somerset County was taken 
from the Fourteenth district to form with Franklin and Bedford the 
new Sixteenth district, Greene, Fayette, and Washington remaining 
the Fourteenth district. Judge Baird was a son of Absalom Baird, 
M. D., and a grandson of John Baird, a Scotchman, who came with 
Braddock's army, was engaged in the battle under that ill-fated Gen- 
eral, and and was subsequently killed on Grant's Hill, in Major 
Grant's Highlander column defeated on September 14, 1758. The 
Judge was born at Washington, November 15, 1787, studied law 
with Joseph Pentecost, and was admitted to practice July, 1808. 
With Thomas McGiffin and Parker Campbell he was interested in 
the construction of the National Road through Washington County, 
and as early as 1830 secured the survey of a railroad up the Chart- 
iers Vallev, at his own expense. He resigned his commission in 
December," 1837, and died November 22, 1866. 

Governor Joseph liitner, who was then in the gubernatorial 
chair, appointed as successor to Judge Baird, Nathaniel Ewing, his 
commission bearing date February 22, 1838. In the same year of 
liis appointment the constitutional convention revised the organic 
law, so as to make the term of a president judge or any other 
judge who is required to be learned in the law, ten years, and associ- 
ate judges, live years. By an act of the assembly passed as early as 
1806, the number of associate judges was limited to two from each 
county. By the amended constitution of 1838, sheriifs, coroners, 
prothonotaries, and clerks were made elective. Judge Ewing was 
the son of William Ewing, who had emigrated from York 
County to Fayette, as a surveyor, in 1790, and was born July 18, 
1794. He was educated at Washington College, read law with 
Thomas McGiffin, and was admitted to practice June, 1816. He 
soon after removed to Uniontown, where he continued to reside till 
his death in 1874. He had the reputation of being an able jurist 
and a just judge. 

Samuel A. Gilmore was appointed at the expiration of the ten 
years' term of Judge Baird, his commission dating February 28, 
1848. Bj an amendment of the organic law, passed by the Leg- 
islature in 1849-'50, and ratified by vote of the people, the judges 
of the Supreme Court of the State were elected by the qualified 
voters at large, the president judges, and such as were required to be 
learned in the law, by tlie electors of the districts over wliich they 
presided, and the associate judges by the voters of the respective 
counties. Accordingly, at the next general election, on November 
6, 1851, Samuel A. Gilmore was elected to be his own successor, 
and was commissioned to serve for the constitutional period of ten 
years. Judge Gilmore was a son of John Gilmore, a lawyer, who 
practiced his profession at Butler. The son was a practicing attor- 


ney at the bar of that place wlien appointed judge. He resided dur- 
ing his term of office at Uniontown, where he continued to live till 
liis death in 1837. 

James Lindsey was elected president judge at the election in 
1861. He was a descendant of the first settlers. "Thomas 
Hughes, John Swan and Henry Vanmetre were," says Mr. Crum- 
rine, " among the first pioneers on the waters of Muddy Creek, com- 
ing thither from the Shenandoah Valley, in 1767-"68. Charles Swan, 
son of John, married Sarah, daughter of Henry Vanmetre, and their 
danghter Mary, marrying AVilliam Collins, became the mother of 
xinnie Collins who married John Lindsey. and became the mother of 
James, the young judge. John Lindsey's father was James Lind- 
sey, a Scotchman, who, coming from Lancaster County very early, 
settled at Jefferson, Greene County, and married Mary, a danghter 
of Thomas Hughes, Jr., who had married a daughter of John Swan 
before mentioned. Hughes was Irish, Swan was Sco'ch, Vanmetre 
German, Lindsey Scotch — three nationalities well blended into one. 
John Lindsey, the Judge's father, was educated at Jefferson College, 
at Cannonsbnrg, was a leading politician, once sheriff, and twice 
prothonotary of Greene County." 

Judge Lindsey was born November 21, 1827, was educated at 
Greene Academy, Cai-michael's, and was admitted to the bar at 
Waynesburg in 1849. At the Angnst term of 18G4 he presided 
over the conrt at Washington, and tiiough suffering from a slight 
attack of billious fever, he sat through the term, but on his way 
home was seriously attacked at Prosperity. He, however, reached 
his home a few miles out of Waynesburg, where he remained indis- 
posed, but not seriously so, until the 1st of September, 1864, when 
he suffered a relapse that terminated his life suddenly. 

An extract from the minute entered upon the records of the 
Fayette County Court will show the estimation in which he was held 
by the bar. " By those unac(]uainted with him misgivings were natur- 
ally felt when the judical ermine fell upon one so young. * * * 
But whatever fears Judge Lindsey's youth occasioned were quickly 
dissipated by masterly hand with which he laid hold of his offi- 
cial duties, and by the apparent ease with which he carried his great 

Upon the death of Judge Lindsey, Governor Curtin appointed 
James Watson, of Washington, to fill the vacancy until the next 
general election; but Mr. Watson feeling himself disposed to decline 
the honor, J. Kennedy Ewing, son of Nathaniel Ewing, was com- 
missioned on Nov. 19, 1864, to serve until the election of 1865. 
The choice of the people in that election was Samuel A. Gilmore, 
who was commissioned for a third term, in that grave and responsi- 
ble office. By an act of the Legislature, of January 25th, 1866, a 


Dew judical district was created, comprising tlie counties of Wash- 
ington and Beaver, designated the twenty- seventh judicial district, the 
fourteenth retaining Fayette and Greene, over which Judge Gilmore 
continued to preside. 

On the 3rd of November, 1873, a new constitution was adopted, 
which was to take effect on the 1st of January, 1874:. By the terras 
of that instrument the Legislature was to re-district the State. This 
was done, and forty-three districts were formed, all counties containing 
forty thousand or more inhabitants to constitute a separate judi- 
cial district. The time of the beginning of the judicial terra was 
changed, and instead of the iirst Monday of December it was to be 
the iirst Monday of January next succeeding the election. To fill 
out the unexpired terra the Governor appointed Edward Campbell, 
who was commissioned May 30, 1873, to serve until the first Mon- 
day of December, 1873. At the election held on the 6th of JSTovem- 
ber 1873, Alpheus E. Willson was elected for the term of ten years, 
Judge Willson was a lawyer of acumen and served witli credit to 
himself and advantage to his constituents. At the general election 
for 1883 James Inghram was elected. A full biography of the jndge 
will be found among the sketches given further on in this book to 
which the reader is referred. The business of this judicial district 
having accumulated beyond the ability of a single judge to transact, 
it was provided by the act of June 15, 1887, that an additional Judge 
learned in the law should be elected for this district. Accordingly 
Nathaniel Ewing was appointed and commissioned on August 
25, 1887, to serve until tlie next general election, when Judge Ewing 
was elected by the people and commissioned to serve for the full 
term of ten years. He belonged to the Fayette County bar and is of 
a judicial ancestry. 

A complete list of President and Associate Judges, who have 
served in Greene County since its formation, has been prepared for 
my use under the direction of Ex-Lieut. Gov. Stone, now Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth, from the records of his office, which is 
given below. 

Greene County — Formed of a part of Washington County, Feb. 
9, 1796. 


Fifth District or Circuit — Consisting of the counties of West- 
moi-eland, Washington, Alleghany, Fayette, Greene and Crawford. 
Alexander Addison, August 17, 1791. 

Fifth District — Composed of tlie counties, Washington, Beaver, 
Alleghany, Fayette and Greene. Samuel Eoberts, April 30, 1803. 

Fourteenth District — Composed of the counties of Wasliington, 
Fayette, Green and Somerset. Thomas IL Baird, Oct. 19, 1818. 


Tlesigned Dec. 31, 1S37, ivsiyiuitiun accepted by the Governor, Jan. 
3, 1888. 

Fourteenth District — Coin posed of the counties of Washington, 
Fayette and Greene. Nathaniel Ewing, Feb. 15, 1838; Samuel A. 
Gilmore, Feb. 28, 1848; Samuel A. Gilmore, Nov. (5, 1851. 

Fourteenth District — Composed of the counties of Fayette and 
Greene. James Lindsey, Nov. 20, 1861; James Watson, Nov. 9, 
1864, until the next general election. In place of Judge Lindsey, 
deceased, declined and commission returned. John Kennedy Ewing, 
Nov. 18, 1864, nntil the next general election; Samuel A. Gilmore, 
Nov. 7, 1865; Edward Campbell, May, 30, 1873, until 1st Monday 
in December, 1873. Alpheus E. Willson, Nov. 6, 1873; James 
Inghram, Dec. 11, 1883. 

Additional Law Judge — Authorized by Act June 15, 1887. 
Nathaniel Ewing, Aug. 25, 1887, until 1st Monday in Jan. 1888; 
Nathaniel Ewing, Dec. 23, 1887. 

Greene Coitntv — List of Associate Judges. 
John Minor, March 17, 1796. Some doubt having been entertained 
by Judge Addison, as to whether the commission issued to Judge 
Minor on March 17th, 1796, was constitutional, the same was com- 
municated by him to the Governor, who, to remove such doubt, (the 
Attorney-General being of the same opinion with Mr. Addison) is- 
sued a new commission to Judge Minor, dated the 28th of February, 
1797. John Minor's resignation accepted Oct. 7, 1833. John Flen- 
niken, March 17, 1796; John Badolet, March 17, 1796; David Gray, 
March 17, 1796; Wm. Crawford, June 13, 1822; Asa McClelland, 
March 6, 1834; Samuel Black, Feb. 10, 1837; Asa McClelland, Feb. 
28, 1842; Thos. Burson, March 3, 1843; Mark Gordon, Feb. 24, 
1847; Thos. Burson, Feb. 15, 1848, Commission from March 3 next; 
Benj. lloss, Nov. 10, 1851; James Crea, Nov. 10, 1851; Jonathan 
Gerard, Nov. 12, 1856; Isaac Burson, Nov. 12, 1850; Jonathan 
Gerard, Nov. 23, 1861; .Thos. P. Pollock, Nov. 23, 1861; 
George Ilaskiiison, Nov. 8, 1866; Israel L. Croft, Nov. 8, 1866; 
Wm. Cotterell, Nov. 17, 1871; Thos. lams, Nov. 17, 1871; 
Wm. Braden, Dec. 8, 1876; Geo. Sellers. Jan. 9, 1876, until first 
Monday of Jan. 1878; Thos. Scott, Dec. 26, 1877; Wm. F. Scott, 
Jan. 8, 1879, until first Monday of Jan. 1880; Silas Barnes, Dec. 4, 
1879; Jesse Philips, Dec. 8, 1881; John T. Elbin, Dec. 22, 1884; 
Bazel Gordon, Dec. 13, 1886. 



Value of Education — " Enoch Flower " Fiest Teachee — Feibnds' 
School — College Academy and Chaeity School — Founding 
Colleges — Founding Academies — Men and Women Make 
' Theie Maeks — Retaeding Causes — Insteuct the " Pooe 
GrEATis" — Speech of Stevens — Law of 1834 — Opposition of 
1835 — Law of 1836 — Goveenoes Wolf and Ritnee — Joue- 


Least Expected — Geeene County Slow in Adopting — Show- 
ing OF Greene in 1837 — Utilizing School Peopeety — Solici- 
tude foe its Safety — 1,000 Districts — 700 in Operation — 
Broad Plans of Bueroaves — Progress of a Pupil Through 
THE Whole — Defects Shown by Fifteen Years' Trial — Re- 
vised Law of 1854 — Opposition to County Superintendency 
— Non-accepting Districts — IIonorable Charles A. Black, 
Superintendent — Independent Districts — True Sphere of 
County Superintendent — Circular Letter — Beneficient In- 
fluence OF Law — Recommends Normal Schools — Normal 
School Law of 1857 — Ten Schools — One at California foe 
the Tenth District — Growth — School Arciiitectuee — Edited 
BY T. H. Burro WES — No Retrograde Steps — The Peoples Col- 
leges — Sources of Blessings. 

"VTO subject can be of more vital importance to any people 
i\| than that of a wise education of their youth. In presenting 
some account of the origin and progress of education in Greene 
County it will not be out of place to give a brief sketch of education 
in the State at large. At a meeting of the Council held at Phila- 
delphia ye 26th of ye lOtli mouth, 1683, the following record was 
entered as shown by the printed Colonial Records, Vol. I, p. 91: 
"Present William Penn Propor. & Gov, — Tho. Homes, Wm. 
Ilaigue, Wm. Clayton, Lasse Cock. The Govr. and Provil, Council 
having taken into their Serious Consideration the great Necessity 
there is of a Scool Master for ye Instruction & Sober Education of 
Youth in the towne of Philadelphia, sent for Enock flower, an In^ 
habitant of the said Towne, who for twenty year past hath been 
exercised in that care and Imployment in England, to whom having 
communicated their Minds, he Erabi-aced it upon these following 
terms: to Learne to read English 4s by ye Quarter, to learne to 


read and write Gs by ye Quarter, to learne to read and cast accot 8s 
by ye Quarter; for J3oarding a Scholar, that is to say, dyet, Wash- 
ing, Lodging and Schooling, Tenn pounds for one whole year." 

It should be borne in mind that this action was taken before 
Pennsylvania was in reality a year old, while the conies still bur- 
rowed unscared in the river bank, and the virgin forest encumbered 
the soil where is now the great city. The frame of government 
adopted provided that " the Legislature shall as soon as may be con- 
venient, provide for the establishment of schools, in such manner 
that the poor may be taught gratis." Among the most wise and 
sententious sayings of Penn was this, " That which makes a good 
constitution must keep it, viz.: men of wisdom and virtue; qualities 
that, because they descend not with worldly inheritance, must be 
carefully propagated by a virtuous education of youth." The Society 
of Friends established a school in Philadelphia in 1689. That was 
as soon as children born in the new city were old enough to go to 
school. Franklin, who had become a well-settled adopted citizen, 
and an acknowledged leader in every enterprise intended to build up 
the city, encourage progress, and diffuse intelligence, in 1749, with 
others, applied for and secured a charter for a " College, Academy 
and Charity school of Philadelphia." This was the beginning of an 
awakening throughout the State upon the suliject of higher education, 
and for the next half century the enterprise and skill of the people 
seem to have lieen directed to the founding and building up of col- 
leges. The University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, was char- 
tered in 1753; Dickinson College, at Carlisle, in 1783; Franklin and 
Marshall College, at Lancaster, in 1787; Jetierson College, at Can- 
nonsburg, in 1802, and Alleghany College, at Meadville, in 1815. 
This provision reasonably well accommodated all sections of the vast 
territory of the Commonwealth. For the support of these institutions 
the colonial assemblies, and subsequently the legislatures, made large 
grants of lands, and revenues accruing from public domain. 

Commencing near the beginning of the present century and con- 
tinuing for a period of over thirty years, great activity was shown in 
establishing county academies. The purpose of these academies was 
to furnish a school of a higher order than the ordinary common 
school, where reading, writing and arithmetic were alone taught, 
in order that a fair English and' classical education could be obtained 
without trenching upon the ground occupied by the colleges. They 
were, on the other hand, regarded as schools preparatory to the col- 
lege. During this period charters were obtained for academies in 
forty-one counties, viz.: Armstrong, Beaver, Bradford, Bucks, But- 
ler, Cambria, Center, Chester, Clarion, Clearfield, Clinton, Crawford, 
Cumberland, Dauphin, Erie, Franklin, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, 
Jefferson, Juniata, Lebanon, Lehigh, Luzerne, McKean, Monroe, 


Miiilin, Montgomery, Nortliuuiberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuyl- 
kill, Somerset, Tioga, Union, Venango, Warren, Wayne, AVestmore- 
land and York. 

It will be seen that Greene is one of the counties thus provided 
for. The State granted charters and money in sums varying from 
two to six thousand, dollars for the purpose of building structures at 
the county seats suitable for the proposed grade of schools, and in 
some instances extensive land grants were secured. The affairs of these 
academies were managed by a board of trustees, elected, as were the 
other county officers, and teachers were employed as they could be in- 
duced to teach for such compension as they could derive from the 
tuition of their jjupils, the invested funds yielding little more than 
enough to keep the buildings and premises in repair. 

Up to this time, a period of a hundred and twenty-five years, 
little attention had been given to the liberal views of the founder to 
make provision for "the education of the poor gratis," which he 
had inserted in the original draft of the organic law. As a conse- 
quence it will be found, by reference to the books in the registers 
offices throughout the several counties of the Commonwealth, that a 
large proportion of the men, as well as women, affixed their signa- 
tures to conveyances by a iqark. 

There were many causes why the common school idea of the 
State making public provision for the reasonable education of every 
child within its broad domain, free of any expense to the child, or its 
parents or guardians, unless they have property on which taxes are 
levied as for other purposes, was slow in taking root. The popula- 
tion was so sparse that in many sections it was impossible to bring 
enough children together to form a school! Diversity of origin and 
language operated as a strong impediment, as many persisted in 
speaking their native tongue and in having their children taught the 
language of the fatherland. Antagonisms of religious sects, and the 
prejudice in favor of having children taught exclusively in schools of 
their own religious denominations, operated as one of the most in- 
surmountable barriers, even after the common school system had be- 
come firmly established. 

By an act of the Legislature of April 4, 1809, provision was made 
for the education of the "poor gratis." The assessors in their 
rounds were required to enroll the names of children of indigent par- 
ents, and they were to be sent to the nearest or most convenient 
school, and the tuition paid from the county treasury. This enact- 
ment proceeded upon the supposition that schools were in existence, 
established by the voluntary contributions of neighborhoods, to which 
the indigent could be sent. This was really the case in many sec- 
tions of the State. This system was continued for a period of about 
a quarter of a century, and the treasurers' books in the several 




counties show considerable sums paid for tuition in tliis way. l!ut 
the natural pride of a free-born American citizen, rebelled at liav- 
ing his name inscribed on the books of the county as a pauper, too 
indigent to pay for the schooling of his children, and probably a 
large proportion of those M'ho were most deserving of help were the 
ones who scorned to receive it in that way. In a burst of impassioned 
eloquence, Thaddeus Stevens, in his great speech in favor of a general 
school law, made on the floor of the House of Reijresentatives in 1834, 
declared that such a law as that, instead of being called a public school 
law, ought to be entitled " an act for hrandhuj ami marklmj the 
poo7\ so that they may be known from the rich and proudy 

Eut tills system subserved a purpose, while the country was filling 
up with population, and the dense forests were being cleared away, 
and the wild beast subdued. It served to keep before tlie people that 
there was such a boon as public scliool education. The Governors 
of the Commonwealth had frequently, during the period that the 
system of educating the poor yratis was in force, from 1809 to '34, 
called the attention of the Legislature to the liecessity of a more 
efficient system. Finally, at the session 1834, the struggle came. It 
is well understood how natural it is for men to cling to established 
methods, and hence we can well comprehend how a radically new 
system would provoke lierce opposition. The new act was prepared 
by Samuel l>ri:eck, a member from Philadelphia, was passed tlirough 
both branches without serious opposition, and was signed by that 
sturdy patriot, Governor Wolf. 

But the law, though in the main just, proved in practice crude, 
and unwieldy, and when Legislature assembled at the session of 1835, 
the mutterings of discontent were heard on every hand. The almost 
universal sentiment seemed to be in favor of repeal, and of going 
back to t\\& poor gratis of 1809. It required the most adroit appli- 
cation of parliamentary rules and strategy of the friends of a common 
school system to ensure non-action for one year more, when it was 
proposed that a new bill, more simple and easily operated, should be 

Accordingly, at the session of 1836, the flnal struggle was to 
come. Dr. George Smith, a n\ember of the State Senate, from Del- 
aware, drew an entirely new bill, more simple and better adapted to 
the wants of the people in all their varied circumstances, and pre- 
sented it. So great was the antagonism engendered by the law of 
'34, that it was with the utmost difficulty that the great body of the 
members could be induced to listen to the provisions of a common 
school law ; but through the firmness and resolution of Governors 
Wolf and Kitner, and the sturdy virtue and powerful appeals of such 
jnen as Stevens, and Brteck, and Smith and ]>urrowes,tlie public school 
system, free alilce to rich and poor, to higli and low, was firmly 


established, and from that day to this has been increasing in power 
and perfection. To secure its passage it was necessary to adopt the 
piinciple of local option. It was left to a vote of the peoi^le of the 
several townships to decide whether they would accept the provisions 
of the law or not. But this did not injure the efficiency of the system 
where accepted, and it went rapidly into operation, until finally every 
vestige of opposition disappeared, and it lias steadily grown in favor. 

In order to explain the provisions of the new system and in- 
troduce it to the people of the State, Dr. Thomas H. Burrowes, then 
Secretary of State, and Em officio Superintendent of common schools, 
made a tour of the Commonwealth delivering addresses at the coun- 
ty seats to large assemblies of the people, and commending and en- 
forcing the desirable features of the system and answering objections 
that were brought against it. This official intercourse had an ex- 
cellent effect, and caused a more hearty attempt on the part of its 
friends to establish and improve the schools. 

The feature of the law, which allowed the people to decide by pop- 
ular vote whether they would accept the provisions of the law or 
reject, while it gave an opportunity to prevent its adoption at once 
and thns to retard the progress of tlie system, doubtless proved its 
salvation. For, while the opponents realized that they had the power, 
if they were in the majority, of rejecting the system, they were at 
the same time made to feel that in rejecting it they were assuming a 
fearful resijonsibility, and caused them to reflect that they might be 
guilty of an act that would one day return to plague the inventors. 

Secretary Burrowes, in his first annual report, and indeed the 
first common school report ever made in this Commonwealth, read 
before the liouse of Representatives on the 18th of February, 1837, 
in commenting on this phase of the law says, "We encounter results 
directly opposed to those which the same facts under ordinary circum- 
stances, would produce. Counties among the most intelligent enter- 
prising and devoted to the general interests of education are found to 
be among the most hostile to the system. Others which from their 
wealth, density of population, and moral character, might be sup- 
posed peculiarly adapted to its beneficial action, are scarcely less 
averse than the class just named. On the other hand, as he advances 
from the older counties, with a population somewhat of a homogeneous 
character, he finds the system increase in favor among the new and 
mixed people of the West and Southwest, while it is unanimously 
accepted by the recent and thinly inhabited settlements of the whole 

By reference to the tables of the secretary it will be seen that 
Greene was one of the counties which was at the first slow in adopt- 
ing the system. Under the head of amount of tax voted at the meet- 
ing held for Greene County on the 2d of May, 1836, the sum is 


given as $2,315.17. In a comparative statement showing the rela- 
tive standing of the scliools of the county for three years the follow- 
ing is the showing for Greene: Whole number of school districts 
14; for the year 1831 no return. For 1835 one accepting district, 
live non-accepting, and eight not represented. For 1830 ten accept- 
ing, none non-accepting and four not represented. When it is con- 
sidered that for the first few years all tlie resources were required 
for getting suitable school rooms in which to hold schools, and con- 
sequently ver^- little advantage would be obtained bj' way of in- 
struction, this showing is highly creditable. 

In the table for 1837 Greene County has the following school 
districts entered, Cumberland, Franklin, Jefferson, Marion, Moi'gan, 
Morris, Monongahela, and Kichhill. Of these Franklin is credited 
with 35 males and 15 females; schools kept open for two months, as 
paying §20 a month to male teachers, and the character and (pialifi- 
cation of teachers as " Good." Jefferson is credited with 6 schools, 
6 male teachers, 200 male pupils, and 218 female, as paying $20 a 
month for male teachers; four teachers qualified to teach reading, 
writing and arithmetic, and two grammar, geography and mathe- 
matics. Marion is credited with three schools, two male and one 
female teacher, 60 male pupils and 53 female pupils, schools kept 
open three months; paying male teachers $20 a month and females 
$10; qualification of teachers, "Equal to teachers of English schools 
generally." Morgan is credited with four schools, 4 male teachers, 
llO male pupils, 55 females; schools open 3 months; male teachers 
$20 a month, females .$10. Monongahela is credited with 4 schools, 
3 male teachers, 1 female, 75 male pupils, 50 females, salaries of 
male teachers $16.50, females $13. ''Character good, qualification 
various." Eeading, writing and arithmetic taught. Kichhill scliools 
" not yet in operation." 

In commenting upon the lessons to be gathered from a view of 
the tables presented in his report, Dr. Burrowes observes, " In other 
States, having one language, one people, one origin, and one soil, a 
system suited to one district, satifies the whole. Not so here. No 
project, however wisely planned, or systematically adapted, can be 
pronounced sufficient till approved by the test of experience. Hence, 
it becomes the policy — nay it is the duty of the Legislature, neither 
on the one hand, uuduly to press any part of the design, no matter 
how theoretically beautiful it may appear, if it have been con- 
demned in practice, nor on the other, ever to relinquish a point once 
gained in favor of the system however it may fall short of previous 
calculation. It is only by resting on and starting from such mutu- 
ally admitted points, that success can at all be achieved in any great 

In the first half dozen counties immediately about Philadelphia 


were assembled the great body of the Society of Fi-iends, followers 
of the great founder of the Commonwealth. To provide for the edu- 
cation of their children, as well as to make provision for their poor, 
is a part of the religions faith of these people. " Hence," proceeds 
the report, " in every one of these counties the common school sys- 
tem has not proved acceptable for the plain reason that a system of 
society schools is already in active operation. For this reason also, 
and in the abstract it is difficult to gainsay it, their citizens say that 
no new system is required by a community, who are already in pos- 
session of one sufficient for all their wants. This disposition is par- 
ticipated in by their immediate fellow-citizens, not members of the 
society, because they, to a certain extent, also receive the benefits of 
the society schools." 

It was not objected that schools and school pi'operty already in 
existence should be absorbed by the common school system. 
Indeed Secretary Biirrowes laid down in his report the following 
principles. " In its effects the system should be made, 1. To supply 
conamon schools, where no system was before in operation. 2. To 
improve and make common the defective primary schools that pre- 
ceded it, and 3, To aid with its funds and render common the good 
schools which it encounters. In a word its duty is to build com- 
mon schools where there are none, and to open the doors of the 
schools already built." In some localities in Gi'eene County at this 
time the inhabitants of a neighborhood had united in building a 
school-house, or in iitting up a room in some private dwelling, where 
schools had been supported by the voluntary contributions of the 
patrons. These were generally turned over to the management and 
support of the legally constituted directors under the common school 
law, and the immediate expense of securing school property was 
avoided; but in most portions of the county provision had to be 
made for setting up schools de novo. Of course the expense of 
either building school-houses, or of renting rooms was quite sorely 
felt, as the State gave nothing for buildings, and consequently 
there was less fund left for instruction. But when the sj'steui once 
got in operation the burden of building was relieved, and the ordi- 
nary workings of the system moved on in something like regular 
order. After classifying the several counties of the State according 
to the peculiar circumstances in which they stood related to the sys- 
tem, and explaining the causes which led to the results shown by the 
reports, the Secretary proceeds in this his first common school re- 
port to sum up the results as follows: 1st. " "We now have a system 
— an_admitted, permanent, and well understood starting point. To 
have attained this is a great advance to success. 2d. We have now 
a class of men set apart to watch over the cause of education in 


every iieighborliood — six scliotil directiirs. Tliey iimy not yet be 
quulitied for tlie trust, b^it they will be." 

It may seem straiige to us, who see tlie matter of common school 
education tlironghout the broad commonwealth regarded as a neces- 
sity, and as much an clement to be enjoyed as the air we breathe, the 
vapor of the clouds and the ceaseless How of water in the streams, 
that there should ever have been a time when any fear should have 
been entertained lest the systeui should be abandoned, or such legis- 
lation should be adopted as would greatly cripple or destroy its use- 
fulness. Yet there was scarcelj' a moment during the early years of 
the existence of the system when its friends did not entertain the 
deepest solicitude for its safety. 

Superintendent Durrowes in o])eniiig liis report for 1838 says: 
"It is true the system is neither in full operation, nor its machinery 
perfect. But the momentous question, 'Can education be made as 
general and as nnbought as liberty?' has been determined in the af- 
lirmative by the intelligence of Pennsylvania." The occasion of liis 
speaking thus exultingly was an event which he sets forth in these 
words: " The whole couamonwealtli is divided into one thousand 
common school districts. Of these about seven hundred had tiie 
systeui in operation, ])revious to the lirst Tuesday of JMay, 1837, 
when its continuance or rejection was to i)e decided by a dii-ect vote 
of the people. On the day which was thus to determine the fate 
of the system, so far as information has been received [and it has 
been carefully sought fori, not a single district declared against the 
cause of free education. All stood tirm. And during the same sea- 
son sixty-five additional districts for the first time came out for the 
system. Thus the momentous question was forever settled, and at a 
time, and under circumstances too, the most unpropitious for such a 
result. The commou school system had been in existence for three 
years, but really liad been in operation in a majority of accepting 
districts, only as a system of taxation, and not of instruction. Its 
funds from the State were small, and, whether from the State or 
taxation, M'ere necessarily devoted for the first years to the procur- 
ing of school houses. Thus little or nothing was left for teach- 

Feeling now tolerably secure of his ground, and realizing lull 
well that the system was securely established, the Secretary know- 
ing that public school education would not be bound and confined 
to the bare rudiments of reading, writing, and the casting of ac- 
counts, but would gradually advance in facilities until a thorongli 
training would be aftbrded in its scope, proceeded to sketch the 
ultimate propositions which it would assume; but which it required 
a half century to realize. 

"The question," he says, ••which has beeu settled by the adop- 


tioii of the common school system, does not merely declare that the 
people of Pennsylvania will have reading, writing and arithmetic 
taught at the cheapest possible rate, to all, in, half a dozen comfort- 
able school houses in each townsliip. This, to be sure, is determined, 
and is of itself a great deal. But greater and better things have 
been willed by the same vote. In the deep and broad foundations 
of the primary common school are also found the bases of the more 
elevated secondary school, the practical institute for the teacher and 
man of biisiness, the academy for the classical student, the college 
for his instruction in the higher branches of science and literature, 
and the towering university from which the richest stores of pro- 
fessional learning will be disseminated. 

" In other ages and countries the lower orders might be confined 
to the rudiments of knowledge, while the higher branches were dis- 
pensed to the privileged classes, in distant and expensive semina- 
ries. But here we have no lower orders. Our statesmen, and our 
highest magistrates, our professional men and our capitalists, our 
philosophers, and our poets, our merchants and our mechanics, all 
spring alike from the mass, and principally from the agricultural 
portion of the community." 

In vision he contemplates the results, which he labored so earn- 
estly to establish, and which have actually been substantially realized. 
" The youth," he says, " enters the primary school at five years of 
age. In five seasons he is prepared to enter the secondary school. 
He is then ten. Four years liere fits him for the practical institute. 
He is now fourteen, and is supposed to have hitherto sustained him- 
self by devoting one-third, or even one-half, of each year to the busi- 
ness of his parent or employer. He attends two terms at the insti- 
tute, occup3'ing portions of two years, and in the interim earns 
enough to pay for his boarding and clothes. He is now sixteen 
years of age. He may next enter the academy 'and pass from it to 
the second class in college, or if his circumstances will permit this 
one year spent as teacher or clerk in a store, or in the business of 
agriculture during the day and close study at night, provides him 
with means and fits him for entering college without attendance at 
tlie academy. This he does at seventeen. The sanre process carries 
him through the collegiate course, and at twenty-one he is a gradu- 
ate, with industry and acqnirements, well calculated for the study of 
any profession." 

For a period of fifteen years the law thus inaugurated was kept 
in operation with varying results, producing rich fruitage where 
faithfully administered. But it was found after this length of trial 
tliat there were defects in the system that needed remedy. There 
was no competent authority provided for ascertaining and certifying 
to the qualifications of teachers. The annual reports of boards of 


directors, showing the openitions of tlie schools and the exjjeuditure 
of money were not certified by a disinterested party, school vistation 
by an intelligent examiner Avas only partially done, or not at all, 
teachers were not assembled in convention for instruction and stimu- 
lation in the work of their calling, and plans for building, seating, 
warming, ventilating and duly providing with necessary appa- 
ratus, were not provided. To remedy these defects a revision of the 
law was commenced in 185-t, by which tlie office of County Superin- 
tendent of Common Schools was engrafted upon it. This officer was 
charged witli the duty of examining all teachers who were applicants 
for schools, and granting certificates setting forth the degree of com- 
petency of each in the several l)ranches required to be taught, and of 
wholly refusing certificates to those deemed incompetent whether by 
lack of education or moral character. He was also to visit the 
schools as often as practicable and give sucli advice and instrnction 
to teachers as seemed proper, to organize teachers' institutes for the 
instruction and encoui-agement of teachers, and by lectures and con- 
ferences with parents, explain the provisions of the law and remove 
difficulties in the way of its successful operation, to certify to the cor- 
rectness of the reports maile liy boards of directors, of the length of 
each school term and statistics of attendance. The jnaking of these 
reports was made obligatory before the district could receive its 
share of the State appropriation. The school department, which had 
previously been an adjunct of the State department, was separated 
from it and made independent, with a superintendent of common 
schools at its head, with a deputy, and the necessary corps of clerks. 
A School Architecture was published by the State, and a copy deposited 
with each board of the school directors in the Commonwealth, illus- 
trated with plans of school-houses for all the different grades of 
schools, and provided with the necessary specifications for Mie 
builder. An act for the establishment of normal schools, and their 
eff'cient regulation was also passed, by which the State was divided 
into twelve normal districts in which a normal school might be set 
up and receive aid from the State under stipulated regulations, — ten 
acres of ground in one body, a hall capable of seating 1,000 persons, 
capacity for accommodating 300 pupils. It was also provided that 
cities of the requisite population should elect a superintendent, in- 
dependent of the county, and the attendance of teachers upon the 
annual county institute was made obligatory, and their pay during 
the time of its session was allowed by the districts employing them. 
Vigorous opposition was made to some of these changes, especi- 
ally to that providing for the election of county superintendent, 
chiefly on account of the expense incurred by spreading a swarm of 
new officials o\-er the State, whose services, it was claimed, could be 
dispensed with. This oppositioii gradually wore away before the 


labors of a competent and faithful officer. The value of his labors 
in eliminating from the schools incompetent and unskilled teachers, 
and bringing to the front the well qualified, was found to be very 
great, and the utility of bringing teachers together in institutes and 
stimulating them to the adoption of the best methods of instruction 
and government was incomparable. 

Strange as it may seem, tliei'e Avere a few districts scattered over 
the Commonwealth, which as late as 1863, and perhaps later, per- 
sisted in refusing to adopt the free school system, and consequently 
failed annually to receive their shares of the State appropriation. In 
the process of years these arrearages accumulated until they 
amounted to .a considerable sum. A statement of these accumula- 
tions was annually published in the State report of the superintend- 
ent, and the offer to pay them over when the system should be 
adopted which the people of the refusing districts could sec, until 
finally, if for no better nor stronger i-eason, they all were induced 
to accept the bait held out to them. 

The first annual report after the adoption of the revised system 
was made by the Hon. Charles A. Black, who was then Secretary of 
State, and Ex-officio Superintendent of Schools, and a citizen of our 
own County of Greene. It is with a degree of pride that some ex- 
tracts froni that admirable docninent, illustrating as it does an intelli- 
gent view of its spirit and best methods of administration are here 
given. Touching a matter which proved to be of vital importance 
in the sul)se(pient operations of the system, he says: "With us the 
rule has ever been to adopt the township lines as the proper bound- 
aries, and the exception to this is the independent districts under 
special acts of assembly. This evil once commenced it is easy to 
perceive how it might run into excess until every thing like order 
or"system-in the arrangement of school districts would be destroyed." 
This evil, thus intelligently characterized, was found in practice to 
be all that was here pictured, and proved one of the great disturbing 
elements to progress. 

The remarks of the secretary upon the adoption of the superin- 
tendency are most judicious. The addition, then, of this new 
feature of our common school system, was the result of an impera- 
tive necessity; and it was commended to the attention of the Legis- 
lature, not more by the favorable experience of other States, than 
the evident adaptation of the measure to the objects in view. It 
was foreseen, however, by the department that in all probability the 
institution would be received with some disfavoi', and more especially 
by the directors, whose actions it might seem designed to control. 
Great care was consequent!}' taken to convince them that such was 
not the purpose, but was designed to assist them in the performance 
of their duties, to relieve them of some of the most irksome of their 

^f^ 0u^ 


labors, and to elevate, if possil)le, the character of the entire system 
for usefulness and efficiency. In a circular addressed to directors, "it 
was urged that in making choice of county superintendent ' strict 
regard should be had to qualifications, habits of morality, industry 
and previous zealous support of education by common schools. Tiiat 
hiw requires tlie person elected to be of literary and scientiilc ac- 
quirements, and skill and experience in the art of teaciiing.'" 

The Secretary, in a circular addressed to County Superinten- 
dents, gave very judicious advice, which was well conceived for 
making successful tiie labors of this new officer and securing the per- 
manence of the office. The value of the counsel given in this circu- 
lar, at this juncture, can not be overestimated, and doubtless was tlie 
means of saving the repeal of this feature of the law — a- calamity 
which had befallen this provision in the neighboring State of New 
York. " Its usefulness,'' says the Secretary, " with us will depend 
materially upon the manner in which its duties are performed. In 
their intercourse with directors, wlio are essentially the vitality of 
our system, Superintendents should be careful to avoid atiy assump- 
tion of authority not conferred by the law. The jealousy which 
naturally exists towards the creation of a superior oftice, apparently 
intended to control tlieir actions, may Ije conciliated and entirely re- 
moved by a spirit of courtesy and forbearance, and a carefulness 
to avoid any interference with the rights and duties properly given 
by law to tlie directors. Their powers remain undiminished, and in 
some respects the duties of directors are increased by the new law. It 
may be proper and useful for a superintendent to give advice and in- 
struction when required, upon many points not prescril)ed by the 
law. * * * The intercourse of a county superintendent, with 
the directors of his county, should be as frequent and familiar as 
possible. In his visitations he should carry with him a spirit of 
courtesy, and endeavor upon all such occasions to have the personal 
presence of the directors. Teachers should always be examined 
in their presence. This is both the duty of superintendents and tlie 
right of the directors. * * * By being present at the examina- 
tion of teachers and visitations they can better judge of the qualifi- 
cation and worth of a teacher, the progress of the schools, and the 
ability and devotion of the su]ierintendent to the cause of education, 
and the manner in which he discharges his duties." 

" Whatever opposition has been manifested towards the office of 
county Superintendent, results more perhaps from opposition to the 
entire system of popular education than to this or any other particu- 
lar feature of the law. It is to be regretted that there are still those 
who are so blind to their own true interests as to oppose any system 
that would call upon them for taxes, and would be hostile to any 
system of education unless they were especially exempt from tax- 


ation. * * '■■• In the moral and intellectual culture of society, 
more than in the strong arm of the law, do they find the surest se- 
curity for the safety and protection of themselves and property. 
The law never interposes to prevent the perpetration of offence, ex- 
cept by way of example — never exhorts or entreats. Its only 
mission is to detect and punish, or to reform through jjunishiuent. 
Eut education, moral and intellectual, like a,n angel of mercy, pre- 
cedes the action of the law, and enables the young to guard against 
the temptations that might otherwise beset them through life. Has 
it ever struck the minds of sucli that just in proportion as we diffuse 
the blessings of education, we lessen the public expenditures for the 
administration of justice — for tlie support of jails and penitentiaries." 

It would be pleasant and profitable to quote still further from 
this admirable report of Secretary Black, the first to rejjort under 
the new law. It was fortunate for the State and for the new systeni 
that so able and liberal minded a man was at the helm at this criti- 
cal juncture, that his views were so admirably conceived and ex- 
pressed, and a great credit to the county of Greene that one of its 
own sons was the instrument of conserving and perpetuating so great 
a blessing to the commonwealth. 

As we have seen, the feature of the new law which was in great- 
est danger of failure was the county superintendency. Though this 
was preserved, and in its sphere was capable of effecting great im- 
provements of the system, yet it was not potent for securing all the 
increase in efticiency desired. One of the defects which it could not 
immediately remove was the lack of well instructed and skilled 
teachers. Upon tliis head the Secretary observes. " The great 
scarcity of well qualified teachers is still a source of grave com- 
plaint in almost every county of the commonwealth. It is an evil 
that lies at the very root of our system, and until it is entirely re- 
moved our schools cannot attain a permanently flonrishing condition. 
Much has been done during the past summer by means of teachers' 
institutes and kindred associations to infuse a proper spirit of emula- 
tion among the teacliers and the examinations by the county 
superintendents have, doubtless, contributed to the same 
results. * * * The subject of normal schools for the 
education of professional teachers, has been so frequently urged upon 
the attention of the Legislature that it is scarcely necessary on this 
occasion to repeat the arguments in their favor. It cannot be doubted 
that two Normal Schools, one in the eastern and the other in the 
western or northern part of the State, properly regulated and sus- 
tained by the liberality and bounty of the State, * * * would 
in a very few years not only supply our schools with competent 
teachers, but give a tone and character to the entire system that it 
never before enjoyed," 


No one can doubt that this recoinmendation of the Secretary was 
one of vital importance at this juncture, striking at the very root of 
the evils under whicli the system was groaning. The Legislature 
was not slow in seeing the reasonableness of his recommendation, 
and in acting upon if. For, at the session of 1857 a normal school 
law was enacted which provided for beginning with a single school, 
and for gradually expanding into that imperial system whereby twelve 
great Normal Institutions will be established in as many well detlned 
districts, representing equal areas and populations. The tenth dis- 
trict, of which Greene County forms a part, comprises the counties 
of Washington, Greene, Fayette and Somerset. Tlie school for this 
district was recognized as a State institution in 1874, and is situated 
at California. Washington County. The value of its buildings is re- 
ported to be .*95,000, furniture !?7,000, libraries SGOO, musical in- 
struments sl,000, apparatus sl,350, other property sl,oOO. The 
total number of students that have been educated in it males 2,287, 
females 2,232. Tiie annual attendance males 255, females 286. 
Schools have been established in ten districts, leaving only two still 
to be provided for. In these schools up to the present time liave 
been educated males 36,950, females 25,591 a total of 62,541, and 
the value of property in all the ten is f;l,566,813.32. From tlie 
modest recommendation of Secretary l^lack, in 1854, has all this 

Another improvement of vital importance to the system was el- 
fected in the administration of Secretary Black, that of publishing 
and furnishing each board of school directors in the commonwealth 
with a copy of School Architecture, furnishing improved plans and 
specifications for school houses, with directions for properly seating, 
warming, ventilating, and furnishing with suitable apparatus. After 
quoting the provisions of tiie law, the Secretary proceeds to say: 
" It is to be hoped that, ere long, the rude and unsightly buildings 
wliich still disfigure so many of our school districts, will be displaced 
by comfortable houses located upon pleasant and healthy sites, and 
built not only in reference to convenience and comfort, but to taste 
and beauty. I have already had occasion to suggest the intimate 
relation between the physical comfort and intellectual improvement 
of the pupil, and that it is scarcely possible for a child to make 
rapid progress in education, whilst confined within the damp 
walls of a log cabin or a rickety dilapidated frame, without the 
slightest pretension towards comfort or convenience. How 
can he forbear turning witii loatliing and disgust from 
his studies, in such a place, to the more pleasing thoughts 
of home and its genial comforts. It is indeed a matter of sur- 
prise how parents themselves can be so insensible to the mental 
training of their ciiildren as to overlook this important fact." 


The law authorizing the puhlicatioii of a school architectiire, con- 
templated the furnishing plans for schools from the humblest pat- 
tern required in the rural district to the most ample and best 
appointed in the crowded cities. The secretary accordingly secured 
the services of Messrs. Sloan and Stewart, architects of Philadelphia, 
to make the required drawings and entrusted the superintending of 
the engraving and furnishing the necessary descriptive matter to 
Thomas H. Burrowes, who had been the first secretary under the 
common school law, and whose life had been largely devoted to sub- 
jects of education. The book thus prodiiced has been of vast advant- 
age in securing suitable school buildings. 

In concluding his report at this critical period in the history of 
school education in the Commonwealth, Secretary Black takes a hope- 
ful and reassuring view. " Never before," he says, "were the entire 
body of the people so deeply interested in the results and siiccessful 
operation of the law; and although some unfortunately, will ever 
complain, and I confess that all have perhaps had cause to murmur 
at the unsatisfactory i-esults of former years, still I am firmly per- 
suaded that the great )nass of our citizens are ardently devoted to 
the cause of education by common schools, and would deplore any 
retrograde action at this time by the Legislature as a great calamity. 
The people of Pennsylvania are far too sagacious and patriotic to be 
insensible to the overshadowing importance of popular education to 
ever}'- relation in life. '■•' * * The character, habits and pursuits 
of the people of Pennsylvania above all others demand the elevating 
and enlightening agency of popular education. Nowhere else is 
labor more emphatically the active element of greatness and pros- 
perity; and it should be a matter of intense gratification, that none 
are more devotedly enlisted in the cause of education by common 
schools than the industrial interests of the State. The agricultural, 
mechanical and laboring classes, the true stamina of a commonwealth, 
find in the common schools a surer source of power than wealth it- 
self. For, whatever influence the higher institutions of learning have 
had, or shall have in the difi^usion of human knowledge, it is to the 
common schools, the peoples' colleges, that the great mass of the peo- 
ple must look for the advantages and blessings of education. In 
tiiese humble though mighty agencies labor will find the secret of 
its power and the means of elevating itself to that just and honor- 
able position intended by the Creator." 



Reports of County Supiokixtendexts — John A. GoRnox — Orrosixiox 
TO Common Schools — Assistance oe Messenger and Eaule — ■ 
Rev. G. W. Baker — Waynesburcj and Carmichaels Graded 
Schools — New Houses and Increased Attendance — A. G. 
McGlumphy — Institute Organized — John A. Gordon — Nor- 
mal School at Grkkne Academy — Gordon a Soldier — Prof. A. 
B. Miller — Prof. T. J. Teal for 12 Years — New Building 
at Waynesisurg — County Institute Under the New La\v — In 
1870, 113 Frame, 23 Brick, 2 Stone, 29 Log~Ari:.ay of 
T.VLKNT AT County Ixsti-i'ute — Mt. Morris Graded School — 
Dr. a. B. Miller, Rev. J. B. Soloxcon, Prof. Lakin, Rev. 
Samuel Graham — Jacksonville Graded — Centennial Report 
— Earliest Schools — ^•Qualifications of Early- Teachers 
Meager — Teach to Double Rule of Three — Names of Early 
Teachers — Stone School House in AYiiitley' Township. 

FROM the annual reports of the County Superintendents of schools 
may be traced the complete history of the origin and progress of 
cominon school education in this county. We have seen tliat by the 
report of 1837 and 1838 only the townships of Cumberland, Frank- 
lin, Jetierson, JNIarion, Morgan, Morris, Monongahela and Richhill 
reported, and these but very meager results. In the report of 1854, 
John A. Gordon, who was the County Superintendent, reports the 
schools 154 in number, presided over by 147 male teachers, and 20 
females, to be in a prosperous condition, the people everywhere man- 
ifesting a spirit of co-operatiun in his labors. In his subsei]uent re- 
ports he njentions opposition not so much to himself or to the office 
which he filled, as to the taxation which the support of the schools 
and building of the school houses necessitated. Public meetings 
were held and resolutions passed; but beyond this it took no more 
definite form. In the AYestern townships great difficulties were ex- 
perienced on account of the sparseness of settlement, great blocks 
of land having been held back by speculatoi'S, which ren- 
dered it difficult to secure scholars enough for a school within con- 
venient distance. It is pleasant to note, amidst the difficulties he had 
to labor under, the hearty manner in which he recognizes the prompt 
assistance rendered him by the W&ynashwvgMessenffet', and Waynes- 


burg Eagle; and also the aid and encouragement from the Revs. 
Jett'ries, Collins, Laughlin and Henderson, and. from J. Laughran, 
president of the Waynesburg College, and Prof. Miller. * * * 
" But to uone am I so much indebted as to liev. G. W. Baker, prin- 
cipal of the Union school at Waynesburg. No sacrifice of time or 
money appears too great for him to make in the cause of common 
schools. lie is always ready at the shortest warning to go where- 
ever the interest of the cause calls him. Neither rain nor frost can 
deter him." In this early day much unrequited labor was performed 
in clearing the way for the complete success of the common school 
system, and it is only simple justice that testimony be borne to these 
earnest and self-sacrificing toils. 

One of the first and most important improvements wrought by 
the revised school law of 1854, was the grading of schools eftected, 
and classification secured in ungraded schools and the uniformity of 
school books as a necessary concomitant. In Mr. Gordon's report of 
1856 he says, " There are two graded schools in the county, 147 in 
which a successful attempt has been made at classification, and none 
in which there is neither grading nor classification. One of the 
graded schools is the Union school at Waynesburg. It is taught 
by Bev. G. W. Baker, principal, and Miss McFerran and Miss Alison 
assistants. I have had frequent occasion to speak of this school in 
terms of commendation. The other graded school is in the borough 
of Carinichaels. This school has only had the experience of a graded 
school of two sessions. It was taught by Mr. Poundstone and Miss 

Some estimate can be formed of the personal of the teachers em- 
ployed during this year from the following statement.: "There are 
27 teachers between 17 and 21 years of age; 40 between 21 and 25; 
34 between 25 and 80; 32 between 30 and 40; 4 between 40 and 50; 
and 14 over 50 years; 185 were born in Pennsylvania, and 16 out 
of it." In his concluding report for the year 1857 Mr. Gordon re- 
ports two school houses as having been built after plans obtained 
from the new School Architecture furnished by the State. Of the 
materials employed, 70 are reported as of frame, 16 brick, 4 stone 
and 67 log. " Over 30 schools houses," he says, " have been erected 
during my term of office (3 years) one-fifth of the whole number. 
These houses, for the most part, are better located, are larger and 
better adapted to the purjjose for which they are intended, than the 
first ones." In summing up the condition of the schools he says, 
" The first year of my term the number of pupils exceeded any former 
year by more than one thousand. This year j udging from my notes, 
the attendance will exceed the iirst year by several liundreds." In 
making up his schedule of wants of tlie system he places at the head 
a larger State appropriation. This would relieve in a measure the 


burdensome taxation necessitated by sparseness of popnbition. A 
second is a more uniform and systematic visitation of scliools; a 
third tlie sympathy and co-operation of parents; and finally a host of 
thoroughly cpialilied teachers. 

The transition state from the inetiiciency which had prevailed 
under the old law, to the well regulated system under the new law 
of 1854: did not come until the second term of the county superin- 
tendency. In the attempt to build school houses and keep the schools 
open four months in the year, as was necessary to secure the State 
appropriation, some of the districts incurred indebtedness beyond 
their means, and consequently several of the townships were obliged 
to levy and collect taxes to pay debts, and therefore had no 
schools except such as were provided by voluntary contributions. A. 
J. McGlumphy was elected superintendent for the second term. In 
his iirst report he mentions three districts as having no schools open 
during the school year, at public expense, for the reasons given 

One of his early official acts was to issue a call " through the 
county papers for a meeting of teachers, directors, and other friends 
of education, to convene in the college hall at Waynesburg, to or- 
ganize a teachers' institute for the county. At the time appointed a 
few teachers appeared, and an organization was effected. Several 
practical and interesting lectures were delivered by the teachers pres- 
ent. A number of the citizens of Waynesburg attended every 
meeting and manifested a deep interest in the proceedings. The in- 
stitute met again in January. At this meeting there were more 
teachers present than at the tirst. Upon both occasions we had the 
assistance of Rev. J. P. Weethee, President of Waj'uesburg College, 
Professor A. B. Miller, of the same institute, and a number of the 
students." Provision was made for semi-annual meetings, and it is 
to the credit of Mr. McGlumphy's administration that the county 
institute was successfully organized. He retired at the end of the 
second year and was succeeded by G. W. Baker. In the report of 
the latter for ISfiO he says in six of the districts there were no 
schools during the last year for lack of funds. lie records very 
much to his credit and his interest in the schools: "I held some 
seven or eight teachers' institutes, during the fall and winter. They 
were all but one well attended. Judging from the interest mani- 
fested by both teachers and people, they were of great service. I 
lectured nearly every week once or twice of evenings, while perform- 
ing my school visitations. These were largely attended, and very 
frequently the schools I visited were crowded with spectators, eager 
to hear the performances of the children and the lectures given 
them. The increasing interest manifested by the teachers and peo- 
ple of this county augurs favorably for the future." These are 


the most encouraging words found in any of the reports hitherto 

At the election, which occnrred for the third term of the 
superintendency, John A. Gordon was chosen, entering upon his 
duties witli tlie experience of his former service, and the old time 
zeal, which manifested itself in the plan for work which he immedi- 
ately laid out. " I have made arrangements," he says, "with the prin- 
cipal of the Greene Academy, to hold a Normal school. It will open 
on the 26th of August and continue in session four weeks. At the 
close of the Normal school I shall commence a series of institutes, 
extending to the 1st of November, when tlie schools will open." 
This has the ring of the true metal, and such untiring energy as is 
here prefigured is sure of its reward. 

But now the horrors of our civil war were upon the nation, which 
overshadowed every other interest. On the 1st of November, 1861, 
Mr. Gordon resigned to take his place in the ranks of the Union 
army, and his companions in arms recognized his worth by electing 
him Captain. Professor A. B. Miller, A. M., was appointed to com- 
jtlete the term. In his report for 1863 Superintendent Miller says, 
"•The war has taken from the county several of its best teachers, sev- 
eral of whom have discharged the debt of patriotism with their 
lives; still the schools are supplied, and there is a gradual improve- 
ment in the general or aggregate qualifications." Though in the 
midst of war times he reports a good school-house erected in each of 
the following districts: Cumberland, Perry, 'Centre, Franklin, 
Whitely, and Morris; and a Union school building in "Waynesburg. 

Among the agencies which have exerted a potent influence for 
good over the common schools of Greene County is Waynesburg 
College. The superintendent says of it, " Waynesburg College is 
now in a prosperous condition. This institution is exerting a decided 
and beneficial influence upon the school interests of the county. It 
has educated many teachers, and its professors have ever manifested 
a most cordial co-operation with those who have had supervision of 
the public schools. Greene Academy has been, for a long time, a 
' light shining in a dark place,' and to it the county is greatly in- 

For the next four terms, embracing a period of twelve years, from 
1864 to 1876, Professor T. J. Teal held the office of superintendent. 
During this long period, the formative period of common school in- 
struction in the county, the reports show a steady improvement in 
the erection of new and better school-houses, in qualification of 
teachers, in intelligent interest of parents, and the greater efficiency 
of directors in managing the business of the districts. In these 
several reports there are from six to ten new school-houses reported 
as having been built each year. In the report of 1864 a good Union 



J^^ti^llC/ ^c^cc^^C^^; 


sclioul building is reported as having been built in Waynesbiirg on a 
commodious and commanding site on a line witii the Waynesbiirg 
College building, at a cost of $5,000, from plan No. 5 of the State 
School Architecture. The IJev. Dr. Sloan, of the Presbyterian 
Church, was the lirst principal, assisted by Miss Mattie II. Parker, 
!Miss Mary Hedge, Miss McCorinick, and Miss Annie Allison. The 
nation was still in the throes of civil wai-. " The great conliict," he 
says, " which has been raging for the last three years, has had a del- 
eterious effect upon the cause of education. Many of the ablest 
and most successful teachers have been called from their peaceful pro- 
fession to tields of carnage and strife. Some Ull soldiers' graves on 
distant iields; others are still in the ranks of war." In man 3' re- 
spects the Superintendent of Greene County could do more efficient 
work, and his labors were more satisfactory to himself and useful to 
the county, than in the larger and more thickly peopled counties of 
the State. With reasonable diligence the officer could visit all the 
schools each year once and some a second time. His examinations 
of teachers could be held in three weeks, which left him a fair 
amount of time for holding institutes and educational meetings. 
Since the lirst reports a great change had been made in the 
teaching force in the schools. Whereas in the lirst years the teach- 
ers were almost without exception males, now they stand 89 males to 
74 females. The whole number of visits to schools this year, 1864, 
was 172, varying in length from an hour and a half to two and a half, 
and all visited except two. 

In the report of 18(J6 an appeal was made for more ample school 
grounds, Ijetter locations, for fencing and ornamentation of lots. It 
is a sign of encouragement that fourteen of the eighteen districts 
of the county were supplied with globes and MitchelTs outline maps. 
This manifests a step in advance, and a sign of progress scarcely an- 
ticipated. In the report of 1867 the gratifying intelligence is given 
that Spriuohill, which, on account of sparseness of settlement and 
delays in taking up the lands had been retarded in organizing school.-^, 
tliis year had all its schools in operation, and consequently was ena- 
bled to draw its share of the State appropriation, and certain arrear- 
ages which had been accumulating. All the schools of the district 
were now in full operation. 

The Superintendent's report for 1868 shows a more encouraging 
and hopeful spirit than has previously been manifested since the pas- 
sage of the revised school law. " Teachers," he saj-s, " have a more 
thorough knowledge of the branches to be taught, and better meth- 
ods of imparting their knowledge. They read more books on the 
science of education and the art of teaching. They attend more 
educational meetings and teacher's institutes. These are the teach- 
ers who display superior skill and ability in managing schools." 


The labors of the superintendent during this year appear to have 
been more energetic and fruitful of good results than in any previous 
one. Twelve special institutes were held in different parts of the 
county with an aggregate attendance of one hundred and sixty teach- 
ers. In December, 1867, the county institute was organized under 
the provisions of tlie new act regulating these meetings. One hun- 
dred and three teachers, and a good number of citizens were in 
attendance. Professors A. B. Miller, J. C. Gilchrist, S. S. Jack, and 
J. M. Moore assisted the Superintendent. " In the number attend- 
ing, in the interest manifested, and in the practical workings of the 
institute, it far surpassed any educational meeting ever held in the 
county." But though great improvements are thus joyfully recorded 
the Superintendent's Report is not without a tinge of sadness in view 
of some of the obstacles which still were encountered. " Irregular 
attendance is one of the great opposing elements in the way of pro- 
gress. It destroys the classification of the schools, and obstructs the 
progress of the pupils. It discourages the teacher, and makes his 
work inefficient. It deprives many of a practical education, and 
throws them upon the bosom of society without those essential 
characteristics which constitute good citizenship." ■ By a provision 
of law which went into operation this year school directors were em- 
powered, if tliey were unable to obtain suitable ground in a desirable 
location for school-houses, to appropriate such and so much as was 
desired and pay for it by appraisement as in the case of land taken 
for roads. 

In opening his report for the year 1870 the Superintendent gives 
some statistics, which, compared with those given at the lii'st adop- 
tion of the system, are gratifying. The whole number of school- 
houses is reported at 167; of these 113 are frame; 23 brick; 2 stone; 
29 log. The county institute was reported from year to year as 
being. successfully conducted and growing in interest. Able educa- 
tors are reported as having been employed to give instruction and 
lecture. Among these were Hon. B. G. Northrop, Superintendent 
of the Schools of Connecticut; Hon. J. P. Wickersham, Superintend- 
ent in Pennsylvania; Andrew Burtt, author of Grammars; A. B. 
Miller, D. D., President of Waynesburg College; Prof J. A. Cooper, 
President of the State Normal School of the Twelfth district; J. 
Jackson Purnian, of Waynesburg; Prof F. A. Allen, President of 
the Normal School in the Fifth district; W. "W. Woodruif, Superin- 
tendent of Chester County; Prof. C. L. Ehrenfeld, President of the 
Normal School in the Tenth district; Prof. J. B. Solomon, President 
of the Monongahela College. Such an array of talent as this in the 
special line of institute work, embracing some of the most distin- 
guished educators and authors in the nation, rarelj^ falls to the lot of 
any one county to have employed, and it could not but exert an 


important inHneiice over the body of teacliei-.s assoniljled. A tVeo 
ackiiowledgnient of tlie progress and improvement of teacliers 
is made in the report of this year. '• The enterprising and progress- 
ive teachers are inakins; sacrifices to meet the constantly increasing 
demand of a higher order of qualification; these noble workers in the 
cause of liuman progress, deserve the approbation of a grateful peo- 
ple; their meritorious work is seen in the order, neatness, and clean- 
liness of the school-room; it is read in the happy faces and thoughtful 
countenances of their pupils/' 

The report of 1872 shows the erection of a suitable school edifice 
and the grading of the schools at Mt. Morris. The near completion 
of the Monongahela College edifice is also mentioned, and the success- 
ful opening of the institution. Special arrangements for the training 
of teachers were at this time made in Waynesburg College, under the 
charge of Dr. A. B. Miller; Monongahela College, under Ilev. J. B. 
Solomon; Gi'eene Academy, under Prof Lakin; and an Academy at 
Jacksonville, under Kev. Samuel Graham. While great improve- 
ment is annually reported in the qualitications of teachers, the 
lamentable fact is mentioned that many of the most experienced 
remain but a short time in the profession. They either go into other 
business or seek employment in other localities, where the compensa- 
tion is mofe remunerative. To remedy this crying evil directors are 
iniploi'ed to give better remuneration, and the almost annual recom- 
mendation is made that the Legislature make a larger State ap[)ro- 
priation, so that better wages can be paid worthy teacliers without 
making local taxation too burdensome. The very commendable 
practice of directors and citizens attending the institutes and the 
annual examinations of teacliers in the several districts is reported, 
thus evincing a growing interest in the progress of common-school 

In the report of 1874, the superintendent records fifteen local 
institutes as having been held, all well attended by directors, teachers 
and citizens, and the annual county institute as having been attended_ 
by 147 teachers. The institute was held in the court-house, and " a 
more than usual interest was manifested by the citizens of the place." 
In 1875 the schools in Jacksonville were graded and put in success- 
ful operation. With this report. Superintendent Teal, after twelve 
years of faithful, laborious, intelligent and efficient service, closed his 
official labors. The schools of Greene County "owe much to his 
skillful work during this protracted period. 

At the election of County Superintendents in 1875, Prof. A. F. 
Silvius was elected Superintendent of Greene County. In his first 
report he records the gratifying fact that eighty-three of the 
schools during the year were supplied with good school globes, and 
that directors are beginning to grade the wages of teacliers according 


to the degree of qualification, as shown by tlie certificate, and success 
and experience in teaching. Local institutes were held in fifteen 
districts, and the county institute was conducted by Hon. John 11. 
French, of Burlington, Vermont, and Dr. Miller, of Waynesbni'g, 
for three successive sessions. 

In the year succeeding the Centennial year of American Independ- 
ance, the State Superintendent of Common Schools called for special 
reports from the county and city sirperintendents embracing a history 
of education in their districts for the past hundred years, with the 
design of publishing a Centennial volume. From the report of 
Superintendent Silvius some interesting facts are gleaned. Of the 
state of education in the territory previous to 1796, when the county 
was organized, the information is traditional. 

" Of the early emigrants, but few conld read and Avrite. * * * 
They procured some nnoccupied cabin, made a few uncomfortable 
seats, and selected one of their number, who could read and wi'ite 
best, to teach the school. In some cases a room was fitted up in one 
of their cabins, and the woman of the house took in a few of the 
neighbors' children, and taught them with her own. The teachers of 
that day were very meagerly qualified. Of arithmetic, many knew 
little. To others who attempted to teach it, division was a mystery. 
The ability to solve examples by the rule of three was considered 
quite a scholarly attainment, and it was often inserted in articles of 
agreement, between patrons and teachers, that they would teach 
arithmetic only to the ' Double rule of Three.' The teachers who 
accomplished most were men of liberal education who had emigrated 
to this country from east of the mountains, and from foreign countries, 
and who from misfortune, habits of life, or other causes, had failed 
to follow the profession for which they were educated, and engaged 
in teaching as a necessity. Many of them were men of doubtful in- 
tegrity, and irregular lives. Though their example was bad, they 
accomplished much good, and our oldest citizens remember them 
with gratitude. 

'■ The earliest teachers of note were Kennedy, Van Emon, Ely, 
Denny, Wheelock, Webb, Duffy, Van Meter, Felix liughes, Frank 
Eraser, and Mrs. Arnold, followed by liale, Strowsnider, Foley, Mc- 
Courtney, Wood, Crawford, Kent, Rinehart, Johnson, Henry, 
Francis Bi'addock, Thomas Leasure, Moses Dinsmore, Stephen 
Uncles, James Taiie, W. B. Teagarden, Robert Cathei's and wife and 
Amos Stanberry. Of the few school-houses built at the early period 
before the inauguration of the free school system of 1834, by the 
voluntary subscriptions of neighbors, the most notable now standing 
is the stone structure in Whiteley Township, a monument of deyotion 
to education at a time M'hen money was scarce and little was being 
done. It should be ever kept in the best of repair and cherished as 


a link between that early period and the present. Few such nioii- 
unieiits exist within tlie borders of the Commonwealth. 

" Upon the adoption of tlie common scliool system of 1834, some 
opposition was manifested in (yreene County, and as the adoption or 
rejection of the system was left to a vote of the people, many districts 
chose not to accept its advantages. Bnt the accumulations in the 
State treasury of monies which would have been paid to non-accepting 
districts, finally became so great, money freely offered for tlie building 
new school-houses, that all accepted and organized under the pro- 
visions of the law. It was rnucli in favor of the law that some of 
the most influential citizens freely ^ave time and influence in favor 
of the system by serving as school directoi's, and pleading the cause 
of free school education." 

In his report of 1878, Superintendent Silvius publishes the report 
of a committee of teachers, before which he liad submitted some rec- 
ommendations upon the subject of gradation and promotion in the 
schools, which was adopted at the county institute. The following 
is the report: 1. Resolved, that we believe that the best interests 
of education demand a thorough classification of all the schools of the 
county, and to this end we favor the adoption of a graded course of 
studies that provides for instruction in proper order in all the com- 
mon school branches, and that we will use our influence and efforts 
to secure a course of studies and classification of all the schools of 
this county at the earliest practicable day. 2. That the County 
Superintendent, with the aid and co-operation of the school directors 
and teachers, hold examinations in each township for the purpose of 
giving those pupils, found worthy of the same, a certificate signed by 
the county superintendent, the board of directors and the teachers 
constituting the examining committee, stating that the liolder is a 
person of good moral character, and has completed the common school 
course of study. 

" In accordance with this report " the superintendent continues 
" I suggested a course of study, and near the close of the schools, 
held examinations at Garrard's Fort, Taylortown, Mt. Morris, New- 
town, Rogersville, Bridgeport, Carinichaels, Knisley school-houses, 
and Jolleytown, at which eighty-three pupils passed satisfactory ex- 
aminations, and were granted diplomas. Literary exercises were con- 
nected with the examinations, and the meetings gave universal 
satisfaction. I know of no better means to arouse emulation among 
pupils, schools and districts, and to give an impulse to education, 
than perfecting the system now introduced." 

At the election of county superintendents held in May, 1878, S. F. 
Hoge, Esq., of Jefferson, was elected for Greene. In his first report 
he TTientions a " wide-spread indifference" among the people to the 
best interests of the schools; an1 complains of incompetency on the 


part of teachers, tlie complaint being general among them that the 
wages paid are insufficient. He reports great improvement in the 
interiors of school-houses, and in the enlargement, planting, and 
fencing of school grounds. 

In 1881 William M. Nickerson, of Carmichaels,was elected super- 
intendent. A passage in his tirst report affords a fair index to the 
personel of teimhei's employed at this period: "Number of male 
teachers employed was 136; females, 59. One hundred and twenty 
held provisional certificates, forty-nine professional, twenty-one per- 
manent, and iive are graduates of Normal schools. Average age of 
teachers was twenty-four years. Forty have had no experience in 
teaching. '■■ * * Twenty-one pxiblic examinations were held at 
'which there were eighty directors and quite a number of citizens 
present. I examined 206 applicants. I issued 176 certificates, 2 
professional, and rejected 30. * '■• * The method of examination 
was the written and oral combined." In addition to the county in- 
stitute, wliich was linusually well attended, there were forty district in- 
stitutes held, usually beginning on Friday evening and closing on 
Saturday evening. In iiis report of 1884, the superintendent men- 
tions witli commendable pride the opening of the new school building 
in Waynesburg. wliich occurred on the loth of October, 1883. " The 
house," he says, '■ erected in Wayiiesburg deserves special notice. It 
is a three-story lirick building, containing eight school-rooms, a 
room for the principal of the school, and a hall or lecture room 
which can be used for school rooms. The building is heated with 
hot air, and is pretty well ventilated. The building will compare 
favorably with any in the western part of the State." 

At tlie triennial election, held in 1884, James S. Herrington, of 
Kirby, was chosen superintendent. In his report of 1886 he bears 
testimony to the steady improvement in school-houses, furniture, 
enlargement and improvement of school grounds, and the planting 
of shade trees. But one paragraph in his report shows still a great 
lack of system in the conducting of the schools. " I observed," he 
says, " that the greatest need of our schools was system and purpose 
in the school work. In many schools pupils were pursuing no 
definite course of study. They studied those books only which they 
happened to bring with them. Many were i-eceiving no instruction 
in language or grammar; but few studying or receiving instruction 
in all the branches. I at once prepared a course of study in five 
grades, together with a blank report, and got two published for each 
teacher in the county. These reports enrolled the name of each 
pupil in the school, showing in what grade he was placed and his 
standing in the grade; also the teacher's programme, and many other 
things necessary for a successful school. After being filled out by 
the teacher, one was sent to the superintendent, and the other placed 



in the teacher's report book for the inspection of the directors. This 
did very innch for the bettering tiie condition of the schools." 

At the triennial convention of directors held in May, 1887, 
A. J. Waychotf was elected superintendent, wlio is the present in- 

That a comparative view of the progress of education in (-rreene 
County by semi-decades may be seen at a glance, the main statistical 
items, drawn from the tables printed in the annual reports, are given 
below. The first entry is taken from Superintendent J')urrGwes' re- 
port, published in 1837, when the operations of the first common 
school law had been recorded. i'"ron^ that time until ISo-l, when tiie 
revised law went into effect, no itemized tables of statistics seem to 
have been published. In that year the I'eport of the Hon. Charles 
A. Black records the complete statistics, and from that time forward 
they have been regularly inserted in the annual volume. This table 
will possess interest, as illustrating the changes which have occurred 
in the half of a century. 






° s 








"3 . 
^ a 

o g 

a « 

3 t^ 


S .s 











> 3 






<;u 1 < 





4 1 

$20 00 

$17 00 




$635 70 

1854. . . . 



141 2K 

23 11 

16 40 




1,933 75 




131 37 

24 13 

18 64 




2,039 08 




105 71 

20 32 

18 83 




2,212 8(i 

18(i9 .... 



119 55 

35 44 

31 66 




3,061 00 

1874. . . . 



129 52 

33 5G 

39 85 

4,720 36,826 


4,188 01 




135 51 

27 87 

28 25 

5,296 33,683 


5,499 19 




119 78 

33 87 

30 25 

5,124 44,383 


6,256 95 




125 77 

33 93 

31 48 

5,500| 45,729, 


6,928 99 



Chaeter for Greene County Academy — $2,000 from the State — 
Principals Served a Useful Purpose — Pennsylvania Acad- 
emies Unsatisfactory — Law to Transfer Property to Com- 
mon School — Select Schools — Waynesburg College — Origin 
— Value of the Small Colleges — Madison and Beverly — 
Need of such an Institution — Pennsylvania Presbytery of 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church — Waynesburg Selected — 
Hev. J. LouoiiRAN Opened a School — Charter Obtained — 
Supplements — Margaret K. Bell Opens School in Baptist 
Church for Females — New Building Opened — First Classes 
• Graduate — Taken Under Pennsylvania Synod — Relations 
OF THE Church to the College — Miller Succeeds Fish — Rev. 
J. P. Wethee, President — Insists on Classification of Males 
AND Females Alike— Settled After Investigation — John C. 
Flenniken — Pev. Alfred B. Miller, President, in 1859 — 
His Devoted Labors — Debt of $3,000 — Struggles — Had 
Undertaken too Much — Church to Support Three Profes- 
sors — Unselfish Devotion of Dr. Miller — Mrs. M. K. B. 
Miller — Untimely Death — Resolutions of Trustees — 
Monongattela College — Rev. Joseph Sijith — Pev. H. K. 
CRAKt — Rev. J. B. Solomon — Scope of the College. 

AS we have already seen early attention was given to founding 
county academies. A charter for the Greene County Academy 
was secured in 1810. Hugh Barclay at this time represented the 
county in the Legislature, and secured the passage of the act grant- 
ing the charter. The school was located at Carmichaels. The fol- 
lowing six named persons were appointed its first trustees: Charles 
Swan, Jaraes Flenniken, George Evans, Robert Lewis, Robert 
Witehell and Hugh Barclay. The first building was the Episcopal 
church, and was under the charge of this denomination. An ap- 
propriation was made by the Legislature of $2,000, to be used for 
building purposes and for teaching poor children gratis under the 
law of 1809. Subscriptions of citizens helped to swell the endow- 
ment fund. But for some reason the school was not established for 
several years after obtaining the charter. The following are the 
principals who have presided over the institution from its original 
opening: Ely, Wakefield, Loughran, Whipple, George W. Miller, 

d^W^'c^^ (^yy. 



C A- cv C(^Q 

Joseph Horner, Iioss, Martin, Long, Baker, Craig, Orr, Lakiii and 
W. M. Nickerson. It was for many years the chief educational 
centre in tlie county. Many of those wlio afterwards rose to eminence 
received tlieir early instruction in this institution, and a large pro- 
portion of the common school teachers either directly or indirectly 
received tlieir training here. Dr. Miller, president of "Wayneshurg 
College, and Prof. G. AV. Scott, the eminent mathematician, received 
their early instruction in Greene Academy. 

When Dr. Thomas II. P>urrowes came to the head of the school 
department in 18G0 he instituted searching inquiries into the condi- 
tion of the county academies which had received aid from the State. 
Previous to this time these institutions had not heen considered 
within the purview of the State department. He found the condi- 
tion of these institutions in the main unsatisfactory. In the coun- 
ties of Adams, Alleghany, Cumberland, Fayette, Lancaster, Lj-com- 
ing, Philadelphia and AVashin<rton, the academy properties had been 
conveyed to or disposed of for the benefit of colleges or other institu- 
tions in those counties. In others they had been sold for debt. In 
a number of counties, by special acts of the Legislature, these prop- 
erties had lieen sold, and the funds paid over to the common school 
boards of directors for the benefit of the common school fund. In a 
considerable number of counties they were not in opei-ation, and oidy 
in twelve, Gi'eene being one, was* any degree of vigor exhibited. 
Over a hundi-ed thousand dollars had been appropriated by the State, 
exclusive of lands donated, to tliese county academies. The condi- 
tion of these schools as a Mliole was anj'thing but encouraging, and 
'• the question," says Dr. Bnrrowes, " arises as to the best mode of 
bringing this amount of educational capital into effective employ- 
ment. * ■'■' ■"' The enactment of a general law, authorizing the 
conveyance of academy property by tiie trustees to the common 
school district within which it is situated, is accordingly' recom- 
mended. Such a course would gradually lead to the establishment 
of efficient high common schools in the county and other large 
towns, and thus effect the generous views, in favor of the advanced 
branches of learning, which led to these numerous grants during the 
first portion of the present century." 

In compliance with this recommendation the liCgislature passed 
a general law authorizing such transfer of property, and in most of 
the counties where such pniperties existed the transfers were made, 
and among them the building and endowment funds of Greene 
County Academy were turned over to the school Ijoard of Carmich- 
aels, and a public high school took its place. 

Aside from this academy there have been select schools held at 
various points in the county, some of which have attained to con- 
siderable importance. Nineteen years ago, in 1869, the Rev. Samuel 


Graham establislied the Jacksonville Academy, which, during tlie 
first three years attained a membership of eighty-three, and main- 
tained a high grade of scholarship. At the present time, 1888, Mr. 
Graham has a select school at Graysville, which is of a high order, 
and quite liberally attended. At the Centennial church, near the 
borders of Aleppo and Springhill townships, Prof. David C. Comp- 
son has at intervals taught a school at which students from a con- 
siderable distance around, even as far away as Freeport, are in 
attendance. These are but examples of the methods of education 
beyond the common-schools in operation throughout the county. 

But by far the most important educational agency in the county 
is that of Waynesburg College. It is not only an institution in 
which every citizen may justly cherish a pride, affording as it does 
the highest grade of academic culture at his own door, but is a source 
of prosperity to the town, and indeed to the whole county, even to 
its remotest borders. Though not so numerously attended, nor so 
liberally endowed, nor so widely celebrated on account of age and along 
line of illustrious alumnorum, yet the elements of all liberal studies 
may as successfnlly be acquired here, as in the older and more noted 
institutions; for, after all, it is not what is put into a student by 
costly and elaborate appliances, biit what can be developed in his inner 
consciousness, and made to grow and strengthen with use, that is the 
main end of education, and it is 'a question which challenges con- 
sideration vvhetlier the ■ smaller and more secluded institutions are 
not more favorable for the development of tlie mental faculties, than 
those where crowds are gathered, where students must spend large 
sums of money, and squander much valuable time by night and by 
day to preserve their social standing. Of the eminent men, who 
have, by their talents, acquired national and even cosmopolitan 
prominence, the majority are the children of the minor institutions, 
and in the coming years the men who shall wield the liealthiest 
influence in church and State, and win for themselves imperishable 
fame, will come from the institutions which bend all their forces 
to the strengthening of the individuality of the student. 

Waynesburg College originated in a long-felt want on the part 
of the membership of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of 
Pennsylvania for an institution of learning in their midst of a high 
order. Madison College, at Uniontown, Fayette County, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Beverly College, at Beverly, Ohio, had been subjects of 
their patronage, and confident hopes had been entertained that 
these institutions would afford all needed facilities. But for rea- 
sons not necessary here to be set forth, these anticipations had not 
been realized. "A sense of the need," says Dr. Miller, in his 
history of the college, from which this sketch is chiefly drawn, "of 
better educational facilities must have pervaded the entire Synod. 


The number of candidates for tlie ministry was small, and tiie Pres- 
byteries felt that provision must be made to meet a demand so 
vital to the interests of the cliurcli. In this state of things the 
Pennsylvania Presbytery, at its meeting in Greenfield, Washington 
County, Pennsylvania, in April, 1849, passed the following: 

Whereas, the educational interests of this Presbytery impe- 
riously demand that an institution of learning be established in its 
bounds; therefore, 

Resoh^ed, That a committee of live persons be appointed to receive 
proposals for the location and establishment of such an institution 
and report at the next meeting of the Presbytery. 

The Reverends John Carv, Phillip Axteli, and J. II. 1). Hender- 
son, and Elders Jesse Lazear, and Samuel Mnrdock, constituted that 
committee. In the autumn of this year the Synod adopted resolu- 
tions upon the subject of education, of which the following is an 
extract: '' Many young men will continue in the ministry with only 
such preparations as the iiigh-schools afford. But, admitting a suf- 
ficient number of institutions, the want of a fund is a serious obstacle. 
To niau}^ .young men, such a fund is the only hope. Aided by the 
ehtirch, they can prosecute their studies and the ministry with high 
prospects of usefulness. Deploring, therefore, the difficulties of 
obtaining an education within our bounds, your committee are of 
opinion tliat the means of correction are in the hands of tlie Synod, 
uiul that no time should l>e lost in taking measures to that end." 

Applications for proposals made by the committee ai^)pointed for 
tlie purpose were responded to by the people of Wayneslnirg, the 
county seat of Greene County, a town at that time of some twelve 
hundred inhabitants, and of Carmichaels, a town of about half the 
population, situated in the central part of Cumberland Township, in 
the valley of the Monongahela Kiver, known as the seat of Greene 
Academy. Neither party offered a very large sum of money; but, 
as was shown by the report of the committee, the offers of citizens of 
Waynesburg were more considerable than those of Carmichaels, and 
it was accordingly adopted as the seat of the proposed college. 
Failing in the first proposal, the citizens of Carmichaels, in the fall 
of lS-49, proposed " to erect a building sixty feet long and thirty five 
feet wide, and three stories high, wliich they would tender to the 
Pennsylvania Synod, to be held l)y the S_ynod and used as a Female 
Seminary, in consideration of their extending to it tiieir patronage." 
But the Synod deemed it prudent t<i reject this offer, and concentrate 
all their patronage upon one institution. 

As yet no school existed at Waynesburg which should form a 
nucleus for the proposed college. Tiiat there might be something on 
which to build, in the autumn of 1849, the Rev. J. Loughran with- 
drew from Greene Academy, and opened a school of a high grade, 


which was merged into the college when the buildings were ready. 
The citizens of Waynesbnrg subscribed soine five thousand dollars 
for the erection of a building, tlie work upon which was begun in tlie 
autumn of 1850, and was completed and occupied in tlie spring of 
1851. It was a substantially built three-story brick edifice seventy 
by fifty feet, and was erected at a cost of $6,000. 

To give legal validity to its operations, application was made to 
the Legislature for a charter, which was granted in March, 1850, of 
which the following ai-e some of its provisions: 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly 
met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That 
there shall be and hereby is established in the borough of Waynes- 
burg, Greene County, State of Pennsylvania, a college or public 
school for the education of youth, in the English and other languages, 
literature and the useful arts and sciences, by the name and style of 
" The Waynesburg College; " the said college to be under the man- 
agement of seven trustees, a majority of whom shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business, and which trustees and 
their successors shall be, and they are liereby declared to be, a body 
politic and corporate, in deed and in law, by the name, style, and 
title of " The Waynesburg College," and by such name shall liave 
perpetual succession, and sliall be able to sue and be sued, plead and 
be impleaded, etc. 

Sec. 3. That Jesse Lazear, Jesse Hook, W. T. E. Webb, Bradley 
Mahanna, John Rodgers, Mark Gordon, P. W. Downey, William 
Braden, A. G. Allison, William W. Sayers, A. Shaw, John T. Hook, 
and John Phelan, are hereby a])pointed trustees of said corporation, 
to hold their oftice until their successors are elected in the manner 
hereinafter provided. By the further provisions of this section, 
three of the seven trustees were to be appointed by the stockholders 
of the building, and four by the Pennsylvania Presbytery of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian Cliurch, and if the stockholders at any 
time should fail to elect their part of the trustees, the Presbytery 
might elect the entire number; provided, that the said Presbytery 
should establish and maintain at least three professorships in said 
college within three years after being notified that the building had 
been completed, otherwise the stockholders were to elect the whole 
number of trustees alter a failure of said Presbytery to establish 
and maintain said professorships within said period. 

Sec. 4. The President and Professors of the said college for the 
time being, shall have the power to grant and conhrm such degrees 
in the arts and sciences to such students of the college and others, 
when, by their proficiency in learning, professional eminence or other 
meritorious distinction, they shall be entitled thereto, as thej' may 


see fit or as are granted in other colleges and universities in the United 
States, and to grant to graduates on whom such degrees may be 
conferred, certiticates or diplomas as is usual in othercolleges and 

To this charter two supplements were procured: The first in 
1852, increasing the number of trustees to twenty-one, the second 
in 1853, authorizing the Presbytery to elect twelve, and the stock- 
holders nine, of these trustees. In 1854 the stockholders declined 
to elect trustees, whereupon the Synod elected the whole number, 
which it has since continued to do. Thus the stockholders, on the 
one hand, early and cordially gave the college fully into tlie control 
of the Synod, while the Synod, on tiie other hand has ever respected 
the rights of the stockholders in the selection of persons to Hll the 
Board of Trustees. 

In the fall of 1850, Miss Margaret K. Dell was employed to take 
charge of a school of young ladies, with the design of founding a 
female seminary in connection with the college. A separate build- 
ing was proposed, but never erected, a seal and diploma were en- 
graved, and several classes of young ladies were graduated, and 
received diplomas under the seal of Waynesburg Female Seminary. 
During the summer of 1851 this female school was conducted in 
the Baptist church, and the college in the Cumberland Presliyterian 
church. Rev. P. Axteil assisting Prof Loiighran in the latter. In 
the autuHiu following, both schools were conducted in the new build- 
ing under the management and tuition of the following instructors: 
Rev. J. Loughran, A. M., President; Rev. R. M. Fish, A. P., Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics; A. E. Miller and Frank Patterson, Tutors; 
Miss M. K. Bell, Principal of tlie Female Seminary. " On the first 
Tuesday of November, says Dr. Miller, " the college weiit into 
formal operation in the new building, and that day marked my own 
entrance as a student, and also as a tutor, from which date my con- 
nection with the institution has been unbroken." 

Of the opening of this new institution. President Miller recalls 
most pleasant reminiscences. "This first term," lie says, "in the 
new building was a truly pleasant and auspicious beginning. As I 
now look l)ack upon that winter's work, it seems to me that no set 
of students and teachers were ever happier or more intent on the 
faithful discharge of duty. Unbroken harmony prevailed. ■•■ * ■" 
Twenty-six years of arduous and unremitting toil lie between the 
cheerful work of that winter and the grave responsibilities of the 
present ! 

" The opening of the spring term. May, 1852, witnessed a large 
increase of students, the number in all for this first year being 
one hundred and thirty. The end of the year was marked by the 
graduation of the first class in the Female Seminary: Elizabeth 


Liiidsej, Caroline Hook, and Martha Bayard. At the close of the 
second year, September, 1858, a class of four graduated. At the 
same date the first class of young men graduated from the college — 
A. B. Miller, W. E. Gapen, Clark Hackney, and James Kinehart. 
This commencement day, September 28, 1853, being the first in the 
college proper, was an occasion of great interest. The Pennsylvania 
Presbytery held a called meeting the day before, in Waynesburg, 
and the Synod met in the evening of that day, so that nearly all the 
members of the Synod were on the platform at commencement, as 
also other distinguished visitors, among them lion. Andrew Stewart, 
and Hon. Samuel A. Gilmore. The young men composing the class 
seemed not to lack in appreciation of the part they were to play, 
or the pre-eminence due them as the first class. Displaying their 
class motto, Duciinus, above them, they spoke to the apparent satis- 
faction of a crowded audience. " I may be pardoned," says Dr. 
Miller, " the egotism of saying it was my privilege to lead my own 
class, by delivering the first graduating performance, and thus to 
enjoy the distinction of the 'first born,' of the many sons of ^^ma 

Immediately following the commencement, the college was foi'- 
mally received under the control of the Pennsylvania Synod. This 
action had been delayed from the fact that the Cumberland Presby- 
terians of Ohio and Pennsylvania had formed one Synod, and it was 
deemed expedient that the college at Beverly, Ohio, which was 
already under the charge of the Synod, should be supported before 
adopting another institution. But when, in 1852, the Synod was 
divided, Beverly College was turned over to the Oliio Synod, and 
Waynesburg College was fully received under the fostering care of 
Pennsylvania Synod. The Synod set forth the grounds of its action 
in a long report, the leading points of whi-ch may be thus condensed: 
" (1). No denomination can maintain a respectable standing without 
institutions of learning. (2). No denomination can discharge its 
obligations to maintain the purity of the scriptures, and to present 
their doctrines in an efficient manner, without collegiate institutions. 
(3). Only institutions of a high grade can give character and efficiency 
to a church, in order to which an institution must receive liberal 
patronage. (4). The benefits of a union between churches and col- 
leges are reciprocal. (5). ' It will be better for the interests of the 
church that Pennsylvania Synod possesses one well established and 
influential college, than for the church to be burdened with several 
feeble ones.'" This report was prepared b}^ Revs. John Cary, J. 
Loughran and J. T. A. Henderson, and was unanimously adopted. 

Dr. Miller proceeds to state in the following succinct terms the 
relations of the Cumberland Presbyterian church to Waynesburg 


'• 1. The charter secures to the Synod the perpetual use of the 
property, provided the Synod sustains tlierein at least three profes- 
sors. The charter makes no requirement as to the manner in which 
the professors are to be supported. 

" 2. Of the twenty-one trustees, the charter grants to the Synod 
the appointment of twelve. The Synod has, in fact, for twenty-four 
years, appointed the whole number of trustees. 

" 3. By mutual agreement, it is a by-law that the trustees shall 
elect no person to a professorship until the Synod has first nominated 
the person for the place. 

'•4. The endowment fund of the CoUeg-e is held by another 
Board, styled the Board of Trust of the College Endowment Fund of 
the Pennsylvania Synod, consisting of tive members appointed by the 
Synod, and acting under a charter securing to this Board all needful 
powers, and perpetual succession." 

After two years of faithful and acceptable service, as instructor 
in mathematics, Prof. Fish resigned. Whereupon the Synod nomi- 
nated, and the trustees confirmed the nomination, to make Alfred B. 
Miller, Professor of Mathematics, to till the vacancy. The following 
is tJie resolution adopted by the trustees on this occasion: " Resolved, 
That Rev. Alfred B. Miller be employed as Professor of Mathematics, 
at a salary of one hundred and iifty dollars per session." As there 
were only two sessions a year, it requires no very profound compu- 
tation to show that the salary voted was not excessive. 

The first President of the College, Rev. J. Loughran, was educated 
at Jefferson College, and though he did not graduate, the college 
subsequently awarded him the degree of A. M. A man of large 
attainments and a ready expounder of learning, he was a popular 
instructor, but was not so successful in managing the financial 
problems which arise in all institutions, when but meagerly endowed 
and unprovided with sufficient funds to pay current demands. 
Doubtless discouraged by the outlook, in August, 1855, he resigned. 
To fill the vacancy the Synod nominated the Rev. J. P. AVeethee, 
and he was duly elected President. He had previously been Presi- 
dent of Madison College, at Uniontown, and later of Ijeverly College, 
Ohio. Simultaneously with his election, the Rev. T. J. Simpson was 
appointed financial agent of the college, and by his earnest laliors 
directed attention to the institution, and while he was not able to largely 
increase the endowment fund, he succeeded in bringing in a large 
number of new students, and created a kindly feeling among the 
members of the denomination towards the college, which bore fruit 
in subsequent years. Mr. AVeethee entered upon his duties as presi- 
dent with much zeal, and a strong desire was manifested on the part 
of the people to support his administration; but it proved not entirely 
harmonious, some of his religious views not being fully in accord 


witli those of liis supporters, and his nianageineut of the college 
itself not being in harmony with the views of certain members of the 

As has already been seen, there had been, previous to organizing 
under the College charter, a Female Seminary conducted in the 
Baptist church, over which Miss Bell, subsequently Mrs. Miller, pre- 
sided, and some classes in this department had been graduated from 
it under the title of the Female Seuiinary, before any graduations took 
place in the college proper. When the charter had become oper- 
ative, President Wethee insisted that the college should be conducted 
and classitication should be made without reference to the sex of 
the pupils. This was not in accord with the existing system, and 
accordingly provoked some opposition. The President maintained 
his position in a public address in the college chapel, previously an- 
nounced, before a large audience of teachers, students and citizens. 
He declared that the Female Seminary was without a charter, and 
without any title to recognition. This opened the way for a pro- 
tracted investigation before the constituted authorities, and a decision 
was finally reached that the institution must be regarded as " One 
College, with male and female departments." By-laws were also 
adopted, which prescribed the duties and privileges of the president 
and principal of the female department. In the fall of 1858 Presi- 
dent Wethee resigned. 

In his brief account of the college. Dr. Miller says, " Many of 
the friends of the college thought the prospects gloomy indeed, and 
feared that this educational efibrt would terminate in a repetition of 
the Madison College trouble. The regular meeting of the Synod 
was held at Carmichkels soon after the resignation, and in the records 
of that body I find abundant evidence of feelings of discouragement 
in such expressions as ' the educational enterprise within our bounds 
is considerably embarrassed;' 'there is but a partial faculty;' 'de- 
mand for immediate attention and action,' ' that the institution be 
conducted on the most economical plan possible.' " During the three 
years since 1855, a debt had been incurred of over three thousand 
dollars. The Pev. J. Loughran, who was now at the head of a school 
in Wisconsin, was addressed with a view of his again becoming Presi- 
dent, but without success. In this emergency, Hon. John'C. Flen- 
niken, a member of the board of trustees, lately State Senator, was 
elected President, ])ro tern., but exercised only nominal oversight of 
the institution. 

In 1859 the Synod was again called on to wrestle with the old 
problem, viz., how to carry on a college without money. A com- 
mittee appointed to fill the vacancy in the Presidential office, recom- 
mended to the trustees the name of Alfred B. Miller, who, as student, 







professor, and during the last year vice-president, since its foundin:^ 
had been connected with the college, and he was duly elected. 

In the face of many discouragements, and witli a certain prospect 
of great labors and uncertain reward, he accepted the position. His 
own account of his experiences in conducting the college and in hold- 
ing together and paying the salaries of professors, forms one of tiie 
most interesting chapters of collegiate history, and would indeed be 
amusing were it not in reality so sad. "I was made President of the 
college," he says, " as already noticed, in the autumn of 1859, though 
my management of its internal affairs began with the preceding 
year, Mr. Flenniken being only nominally president. As a student 
or professor I had been in the college from the first, and felt tlie 
deepest possible interest in its welfare. If I had any conviction of 
Providential direction of ray life, it is that God has led me in the 
course I have pursued in regard to our college. The institution was 
projected under circumstances by no means promising. Preceding 
efforts had been only failures, and there was even then a dead college 
on the hands of the Synod. When I spoke to an associate in an 
acadeni}', a noble young man, then a candidate for the ministry in 
the Presbyterian church, of my purpose to enter Waynesburg Col- 
lege as a student, he said in response, 'your people cannot sustain a 
college in Pennsylvania. They failed in Uniontown; they will fail 
in AVaynesburg. Come with me to Washington;that will be better.' 
I replied, 'I will go to Waynesburg College, and help to make it 
succeed.' Certainly, if I did not say so to him, I said it in my heart; 
and then and there was born the resolution on which rest these years 
of labor for the college. At various times I have earnestly desired 
to see the way open for me to leave; but as there are obstructions to 
a river on all its sides but one, so convictions of duty have ever shut 
me up to the direction in which my life of labor has been running 
on through all these years. How much better another man could 
have discharged the duties of the place, I cannot know. It is a 
source of comfort to have the internal assurance that I have done as 
well, as was in my power to do, in performing a work to which my 
Heavenly Father called me, and which I have been able to do only 
through a sense of his sustaining grace. 

"A debt of over three thousand dollars hung upon the college 
when it came under my control. A piano tliat had belonged to it 
had been sold for debt. My salary was very inadequate, and, worse, 
there was no reasonable ground of hope that it would be paid. Dis- 
sensions had turned a portion of the community against the college, 
and had begotten in the public mind a feeling of distrust in regard 
to the future. Accepting the position, and going to work under these 
unpromising circumstances, it seemed to me much more like an 
effort to make a college, than the honor of presiding over one — nor 

838 Mis*oiiY OF grEene coukty. 

have I _yet outgrown that feeling. My special aims were, first, to 
get the college, out of debt, and to establish confidence in its value 
and permanence. To accomplish the fonner, and to keep the neces- 
sary teaching force in the college without incurring debt, has been 
the constant, ever perplexing problem through all these years. After 
looking in vain for other sources of reliable pecuniary dependence, I 
found it necessary to assume toward the college, in fact, the relation 
of president, financial agent and board of trustees. Taught by bitter 
experience how great are these cares, thus thrown on a college pres- 
ident, and admitting that ordinarily such a course could promise 
only financial ruin, I must record my profound conviction tliat in 
tliis case, nothing but the unbounded liberty allowed me in the man- 
agement of the college could have saved it from hopeless failure. 
The struggle, that has been necessary on my part, would furnish ac- 
count of personal sacrifices and pecuniary expedients that would put 
ordinary credence out of the question, some of which, aside from my 
personal knowledge, are known only to Him from whom there is 
nothing hidden. I am sure that only the faith which 

Laughs at impossibilities, 
And cries, It shall he done, 

could have held me to my purpose throirgh the labors, perplexities, 
and responsibilities crowding these years. And yet these years have 
been full of pleasant work, full of occasions for devout thankfulness 
to Him who leads us in the way that is best, full of grand discipline 
and experiences that enrich the souls of men, and out of which come 
strength and patience and the noblest service and sympathy in all 
grand schemes for human well-being. 

" For the sake of my fellow educators, I wish to say to ray church, 
from my heartfelt sorrows in that respect, that an incompetent sup- 
port is a great hindrance to the usefidness of a college president or 
professor. I have been compelled to preach in order to live, some- 
times supplying points twenty miles distant; I have been compelled 
to deny myself books greatly needed; to stay at home when I should 
have traveled; to walk many miles because I could not afford to pay 
liack-fare; to be harassed witli debts that have eaten up the mind as 
cancers eat the flesh; in short to do a great many things, and to leave 
undone a great many things, which doing and not doing greatly 
hindered my usefulness as a public servant of the church. 1 once 
turned superintendent of schools, and walked all over Greene County, 
in order to save a little money, and still the college went on — while 
the nation was fighting battles. At anotiier time I edited the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian^ did all the necessary correspondence of the 
office and kept the l)ooks, at the same time teaching six hours a day 
in the college, exercising general over-siglit of its financial affairs, 
and often preaching twice on the Sabbath. How imperfectly all 


these things were done no one is more painfully sensible than the 
writer, and he sincerely prays that a like apparent necessity of trying 
to do so many things at the same time may never come again, though 
he is scarcely less bnsj^ to-day. The adage about too many irons 
in the fire, doubtless conveys a useful lesson in its ordinary appli- 
cation, but Adam Clarke used to say it conveys an abominable lie, 
and some lives seem to illustrate that there are men who can keep 
many irons going, and manage all of them reasonably well. If there 
is a position, however, whicli demands all the service of head and 
heart tiiat any man can give, that position is the presidency of a Col- 
lege, which aims at the noble work of training young men and young 
women, not onl}' in the knowledge of science, but for virtuous lives, 
and to be consecrated workers for the well-being of society. 

"In dismissing this reference to my own efforts to build up the 
college, perhaps already too long, I desire to state distinctly that it is 
not my intention to cast any reflection, directly or by implication, on 
the Pennsylvania Synod, the trustees of the college, or on any other 
party to whom it might reasonably be supposed I could have looked 
for pecuniary support. Any man who knows what it ret^uires to 
establish and sustain a respectable college will certainly agree with me 
that, considering the pecuniary resources of the community in which 
the college is located, the inaccessibility and obscurity of the place 
at the time, and especially that the sole ecclesiastical dependence was 
a single isolated synod, the prospect of success at the beginning 
must have been very moderate indeed. As early as the spring of 
1855, while Mr. Loughran was yet in the college, even Hon. Jesse 
Lazear, who had been chiefly instrumental in having the college 
located at Waynesburg, and who was its patron financially — if it then 
had any — wrote to myself and Mrs. Miller during the vacation, de- 
ploring the fact that he saw no reasonable ground of hope for re- 
muneration for our work if we continued in the college, expressing 
also the conviction that the church had perhaps undertaken entirely 
too much in attempting anything beyond an academy. Had we 
acted upon his suggestion tlie career of the college must have closed 
even then. The Synod has ever given the college a large share of its 
time, and has ever been willing to devise plans for raising funds, 
however unsatisfactory many of them liave proved; and the trustees 
have ever been willing to carry out any measures proposed either by 
the Synod or the faculty, but have found an easy relief from feelings 
of pecuniary responsibility by simply reiterating that the church is 
to support the professors. 

" Finally, for the encouragement of all who may be called to 
sustain like burdens, and without seeming presumptuous, I de- 
sire to reaffirm the sustaining and abiding conviction, that the Lord 
has signally opened the way for my support and success in this 


work. Congregations have encouraged and supported me. Many 
generous friends liave helped me and my family, 1 have been called 
to marry a great many people who gave me generous sums, and have 
been called to lecture before teachers' institutes in various parts of 
the country, which, though hard work, g^erally brought a liberal 
compensation, a portion of which has been devoted more than once 
to pay the salaries of our professors." 

The most remarkable example of unselfish devotion to the inter- 
ests of a public institution in the whole catalogue of our struggling 
colleges for existence and permanence is contained in these last 
statements of President Miller. Here is a man occupying the posi- 
tion of president of a college, a position of great responsibility, and 
entitled to Ijonum otium cum dignitate, but meagerly paid, if paid 
at all, earning something by marrying people, and devoting time, 
that should have been given to rest, to lecturing before teachers' in- 
stitutes, and then giving the money, which was clearly his own, 
and doubtless much needed by himself and family, to the payment 
of the salaries of professors and teachers. Such unselfish devotion 
as this deserves to live on the brightest page in the history of 
American colleges. Such devotion as this could not fail to make 
successful the effort to found "VVaynesburg College. 

As has been seen the female department was at the outset con- 
ducted as a Female Seminary, the graduates receiving a diploma em- 
blazoned with that title and embossed with its seal. The first prin- 
cipal. Miss M. K. Bell, who subsequently was united by marriage to 
President Miller, was largely instruraentalin giving the college repu- 
tation and standing for scholarship, and deserves mention with the 
presidents of the institution. She was the daughter of Andrew 
Bell, and was educated at the justly celebrated Washington Female 
Seminary. She was possessed of good natural abilities, well 
schooled, and a remarkable gift for teaching. Through all the 
years of her too brief life she served Waynesburg College with great 
acceptance, exerting a strong and healthful influence over her pupils. 
" On the evening," says Pi-esident Miller, " of February 10, 1874, 
after a day's ordinary work in the class-room while she was sitting 
at her own fireside, paralysis fell on the wearied brain and nerves, 
and released them from the tension in which they had for years been 
held by the power of a dauntless will. Ten weeks of helplessness 
passed, but not weeks of suffering, when the final fatal stroke came, 
bringing to the exhausted physical powers the unbroken rest of 
death, and dismissing the noble spirit to its joy and crown in 

On the occasion of her death the Board of Trustees of the col- 
lege passed the following resolutions: "Mrs. M. K. B. Miller, Prin- 
cipal of the Female Department of "Waynesburg College, having de- 


parted this life, the trustees of the iiistitiitiou pay this tribute to 
lier memory. 

" Many years ago she came to this place, in the bloom of 
life, and with a noble desire to do good, she applied with indus- 
try and zeal all the energy and resources of a vigorous mind, dis- 
charging the duties of principal of her de])artment in the col- 
lege to the entire satisfaction of the IJoard of Trustees, and of every 
one under her care. During all these years of unselfish devotion 
to the cause of education, she tilled iier position with consummate 
ability, and with the greatest advantage to the institution. With a 
mind pure and cultured, she endeared herself to all who knew her, 
and from the young ladies under her care for instruction she always 
received the highest proofs of uninterrupted coiiiidence and attach- 
ment. We may truly say, 

Her life was too pure for the pencil to trace, 

And her goodness of heart could be read in her face. 

"Although a mother, and having the care of a family, lier love for 
the institution she fostered and so nobly had helped to sustain, never 
slackened, but seemed to grow more intense, until she was stricken 
by death. Her demise occasions a vacancy in all her relations 
to the society she so much adorned, and one that will be ditHcult to' 

Monongahela College, located at Jefferson, Jetiersou Township, 
Greene County, was chartered by the Legislature in 1867. The af- 
fairs of the institution are managed by a Board of Trustees of which 
the original organization was as follows: Hon. A. A. Parman, presi- 
dent; Kev. li. W. Pearson, vice-president, and liev. C. Tilton, secre- 
tary. The buildings are located just outside the borough, on a beau- 
tiful plat of ground containing some fourteen acres. It was founded 
by meml)ers of the Jiaptist denomination of southwestern Pennsyl- 
vania, and West Virginia. Though under the maiuigement of mem- 
bers of this denomination it is no way sectarian in its practical 
workings. The Rev. Joseph Smith, A. M., was its first president. 
In 1877 Mr. Silvius' in his centennial report of education in Greene 
County, says: "Money has been subscribed to liquidate all indebt- 
edness of the college, and it is supported by a permanent endowment 
of §30,000. The total income of the institution i'"^'' aniuim is 
§3,800. The friends of the college are securing philosophical and 
chemical apparatus, and have begun the collection of books for a li- 
brary. The faculty of the college is as follows: Rev. II. K. Craig, 
president; Rev. J. M. Scott, D. D., professor of mathematics and 
physical science; W. P. Kendall, A. B., professor of Latin and 
Greek; Miss Lizzie Patton, principal of the female department, and 
Mrs. II. K. Craig, teacher of music." Rev. J. B. Solomon, A. M., was 
afterward made president of the institution, and Mrs. Solomon princi- 


pal of the female department. Miss Nannie Pollock was appointed as- 
sistant teacher and snbseqiiently became principal. The course of 
stndy marked out is similar to that pursned in other American col- 
leges granting the degree of A. B. It also has a normal depart- 
ment in which large numbers of the common school teachers have 
been trained. The college has latterly been suspended. 


Tub AVaynesbukg " Messengee" — The Waynesbueg " EEruBLicAN" 
— The Waynesbueg "Independent" — The Geeene County 
" Demockat." 

THE Waynesburg Messenger, the oldest newspaper in Greene 
County, was established in 1813, and has been published continu- 
ously under the same name since. It was originally edited and published 
by Dr. Layton. He was succeeded by John Baker, and Baker in 
turn by Thomas Irons. The latter subsequently associated with him 
his brother, John Irons, who finally became sole proprietor. The 
changes thus indicated covered some fifteen years of the early exis- 
tence of the paper. John Irons was an excellent practical printer. 
He was of Irish birth, and had served an apprenticeship of fourteen 
years in the office of the Washington RejMrter. He was a gentleman 
of fine ability and high sense of honor. He conducted the paper with 
marked skill until the spring of 1837, when he sold it to John 
Phelan, who had learned the business in the office of the Messenger. 
Mr. Irons removed to St. Clairsville, Ohio, where he bought the 
St. Clairsville Gazette, and published it for six months, when he sold it, 
returned to Waynesburg, and at the end of Mr. Phelan's first year, 
in the spring of 1838, repurchased the Messenger. This was the 
year of the Gubernatorial contest between David Rittenhouse Porter, 
Democrat, and Joseph Eitner.Whig, or Anti-mason, as the party was 
designated at that time in Pennsylvania. The contest was a heated 
one, and the Messenger conducted the canvass with great spirit and 
success, the majority for Porter in the county reaching over 700, 
neai-ly double the Democratic majority up to that time. Mr. Irons 
retained control of the Messenger until the autumn of 1840, when 
he sold it to Chai-les A. Black, and went to Uniontown, where he be- 
came proprietor of the Genius of Liberty. 


Mr. Black was a polished writer and gained deserved reputation as 
an editor. But be retained the paper but two years, when he sold it 
to Jaines W. Hays. At the expiration of two years more Mr. 
Hays sold it to W. T. II. Tanley in the fall of 1844, just prior to 
the election of James K. Polk to the Presidency of the United 
States. The Democratic majority in this election reached about 900. 
Mr. Pauley sold the paper in the spring of 1852 to John M. Stock- 
dale and James S. Jennings, but at the expiration of a year the Mes- 
senger reverted to Mr. Pauley. In the sprinij; of 1857 Mr. Pauley 
sold a half interest in the paper to James S. Jennings, and in the 
spring of 1859, having rented his half interest, retired to a farm 
where he remained till the spring of 1867, when he again took full 
control of the Messenger. Mr. Pquley conducted it with liis usual 
success until January, 1883, when he leased it for a term of five years 
to Col. James S. Jennings, who in turn i-ented it to Messrs. Wood- 
ruff and Dinsniore, and before the expiration of the original lease of 
five years the paper had been transferred to A. E. Patterson. 

On the 1st of January 1888, at the expiration of the five years 
lease, the Messenger reverted to its owner, W. T. II. Pauley, who 
associated with himself his two sons, Jaines J. and John F. 
Pauley, by whom it is iiowjinblished. With the exception of a period 
of four years, from 1838 to 1842, Mr. Pauley senior has been closely 
associated with the Messenger, in the various capacities of appren- 
tice, publisher, owner, and editor, for a term of over fifty-five years, 
— having first entered the oftice as an apprentice to John Evans, on 
the 14th day of Maj', 1833. The Messenger has always been a Demo- 
cratic paper, and radically so while under the editorial control of 
its present senior editor. 

The AVaynesburg Ilepuhlican was founded in 1833 by Job Smith 
Goff, the editor and proprietor. The first number was issued on 
Tuesday, May 14. of that year, under the title of " The Greene 
County Repuhlicanr It was published weekly. After an existence 
of a year or more the paper lapsed for want of support. In 1838, 
however, the type and presses were purchased by Jaines W. Moor- 
head, and the paper was again started under the title of the Greene 
County Whig. A brother of Mr. Moorhead afterwards acquired 
possession of it and it was published until 1841, when it again lapsed. 

In 1843 it was revived by S. Sigfried, Jr., who had charge of the 
paper until 1851, when it passed into the hands of Thomas Porter, a 
young man of spirit and enterprise, who purchased a new press and 
type. Young Porter died, and as a consequence the paper was not 
published for some months. In 1852 the leaders of the Whig party 
in Greene County purchased it and induced General J. H. Wells to 
assume charge of it. At the retirement of General Wells the press 
and outfit of the oflice were purchased by Joseph Cook, who changed 


the name of the paper to the Wayiiesburg Eagle. In 1856 E. R. 
Bartleson became the editor and proprietor. Under his charge the 
original name, Greene Coanty Republican, was again restored. From 
his liands the paper passed to the charge of L. K. Evans,\vho remained 
as editor during the period of the civil war 1861-5, though dxiring 
the period that Mr. Evans was in the army the paper was in charge 
of George Cook, but with the name of Evans appearing as editor. 

The paper subsequently became the property of Ridde and Clark, 
and was placed first in charge of A. Watkins and afterwards was con- 
ducted for a short time by G. W. Daugherty. In 1866 it was purchased 
by James E. Sayers, under whose management the paper floiii-ished. 
He gave it its present name, the Waynesburg RepvMican, making 
the change in order to identify the paper with the town. In 1868 
Mr. Sayers disposed of the paper to James N. Miller, who changed 
its name to the Repository, but only retained possession of it for 
two years, when he sold it to W. G.AV. Day, who remained in charge 
of the paper for a longer period of time than any of his predecessors. 
He again restoi-ed the name Waynesburg Republican. He proved 
himself a spirited and able editor, and during his ownership the 
paper was enlarged and improved. He purchased a new press and 
introduced steam power. 

In 1884 Mr. Day disposed of a half interest in the paper to I. 
li. Knox. It was conducted under the charge and editorship of Day 
and Knox until February, 1885, when Mr. Day disposed of his re- 
maining interest to G. W. Kay and J. P. Teagarden. The firm of 
Knox, Kay, and Teagarden, now publishing the paper, was then formed 
with Mr. Knox as editor and manager. The paper is the only organ 
of the Kepublican party in Greene County and is one of the foremost 
country papers in the commonwealth. 

The Waynesburg Independent was founded in 1872 by two 
])rinters, Z. C. Ragan and J. W. Axtell, who conceived the idea of 
establishing a paper untramelled by partisan interest, and especially 
devoted to the growth and prosperity of Greene County. Before the 
first number was issued over 1,100 subscribers had been obtained. 
At no time has its patronage been less, and at present it has a cir- 
culation beyond most county papers of the State — 3,100. The enter- 
prise was not, however, without its share of good and ill fortune; 
but in face of the predictions of failure, and the trials incident to so 
large an outlay dependent upon the caprice of public patronage, it 
has attained a firm footing, and in May, 1875, the proprietors in- 
troduced the first power steam printing press in Greene County. 
This was regarded as a remarkable indication of enterprise and skill. 
In the fall of 1877 Mr. Axtell disposed of his interest to W. W. 
Rodehauer, who continued a member of the firm for about three 
years. In the fall of 1880 he sold his interest to W, W. Evans, 



previously of the Moundsville liejwrter, who is still associated with 
Mr. Ragaii, one of the original founders. As in its inception, the 
paper continued to meet with opposition. The Independent had 
taken a firm s'and against the lifjuor traffic, and other sources of 
evil, which provoked bitter resentment. In November, 1884, the 
office of the Independent, machinery and entire outfit, were utterly 
destroyed by fire, entailing a loss to its proprietors of nearly $5,000,. 
on which was an insurance of only $2,000. This was a discouraging 
reverse, and one which swept away at one blow the accumulations of 
many years, and threatened to stamp the Independent out of exist- 
ence. But the gentlemen who were at the head of the enterprise 
were of that stufi'that knows no such word as fail, and after the lapse 
of four years, with its rebuft's and struggles, it has been re-established 
with something more than its pristine strength and vigor, and still 
maintains unswervingly its original motto. 

The Greene County Democrat. Through the solicitation of promi- 
nent independent democrats, who believed that it would be for the best 
interests of their party as well as of the people, to have two Demo- 
cratic papers published in a county where the majority of the 
dominant party is so large, J. F. Campbell, an experienced news- 
paper man of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, came to Waynesburg in the 
fall of 1881, and with the assistance of D. R. P. Ilass, an attorney 
of the Waynesburg bar, established the Greene County Democrat. 
The material with which the paper was first printed had been used 
iti the publication of the Washington (I). C.) Standard, a paper that 
had ended its existence after a brief career, and M'as purchased at the 
National Capital by Mr. Ilass. The first number of the Democrat 
was issued Saturday, December 17, 1881. Mr. Campbell published 
the paper with varying success until March, 1882, when he disposed 
of his interest to a company of Waynesburg capitalists, wlio held it 
but a short time until it was sold to Simon R. Hass, Jr. 

Mr. Ilass entered upon his duties as editor and proprietor April 
15, 1882, and under his management the paper prospered in the in- 
crease of its circulation and popularity. On the 11th of July, 1884, 
the entire property was purchased by F. M. Spragg, who conducted 
the paper with the aid of Mr. Ilass, who was retained as associate 
editor, with credit to himself and satisfaction to its readers. On 
April 11, 1885, a half interest was sold by Mr. Spragg to Colonel 
James S. Jennings, whoso experience in the newspaper business ex- 
tended through many years. IMessrs. Spragg and Jennings, editors 
and proprietors, with Mr. Ilass as associate editor, published a paper 
that was generally recognized as an excellent local sheet, and the 
organ of the party of commanding infiuence, in Greene County. 

James AV. Hays, Jr., became sole editor and proprietor on Oc- 
tober 3, 1887, and under his able management its circle of readers is 


daily widening. The Democrat is in the convenient form of a folio, 
22x28, and is printed on a large Taylor steam cylinder press. To 
the old Standard oiitlit much new material has been added from 
time to time by its successive publishers until the paper now ranks 
among the best equipped country printing offices in the State. The 
job department is complete, its facilities for plain and fancy work 
being: unexcelled. 


The Cumbp:eland Road — Recommended by Washington — ^Canal — 
Ohio Admitted in 1802— Act Authoeizing Road in 1806 — 
AtBEET Gallatin — Refuses to Inteefeee — Peesident Madison 
— By "Washington — Finished in 1820 — Specifications — Ar- 
peaeed Excellent — Mateeial Defective — Teaffic Immense — 
Speedy Rei'aies — Delafield and Cass — Limestone Renewal — 
Ceded to the States — Toll EIouses — "OysteeLine" — Monkey 
Box Line — 1852 Pennsylvania Raileoad and Baltimoee &, 
Ohio Opened — Baltimoee & Ohio Pushed Out of Penn- 
sylvania — Cause of Opposition — Washington & Waynesbueg 
Raileoad — By the Hills — Ciecuitous — Novel Experience. 

''ILLS CREEK, or, as it was subsequently called, Cumberland, 
Maryland, was regarded as theextreme verge of civilization in the 
early stages of colonization. It was by this route that the early pioneers 
from Maryland and Virginia went as they penetrated into the Monon- 
gahela and Oliio country. This route Washington followed on his 
expedition which terminated in the disastrous afi'air at Fort Necessity, 
on the 4th of July, 1754, and this Braddock pursued in his un- 
fortunate campaign of the following year. An apology for a road 
was cut through this rugged country for the passage of artillery and 
trains, on the occasion of these expeditions, to Redstone on the 
Monongahela River; but the frosts of winter, and the rains of spring 
and fall, soon effaced the small improvements made, until there was 
scarcely a trace left of them. The later military expeditions followed 
the route of Forbes, which was wholly in Pennsylvania, correspond- 
ing to the Pennsylvania Railroad as that by Cumberland did to the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

As we have already seen the progress of the earlier settlers was 
very slow and toilsome in the first years of settlement in reaching 


the lands upon tlie Monougabela. The war of the Revolution 
coming on, for eight years the subject of a great highway to the west, 
which had begun to be seriously considered, was interrupted. Soon 
after the close of the war. General Washington, who had come to feel 
a fatherly care for all that pertained to the welfare of his country, 
and who had long meditated the necegsity of easy communication 
between the East and the West, made a journey of exploration to the 
Ohio country. His favorite project was a great water-way from the 
waters of the Potomac to those of the Ohio. He conceived that a 
canal might be cut by way ol the head-waters of the Potomac to some 
point on the Monongahela lliver which could easily waft the vast 
tonnage and passenger traffic which he clearly forsaw would soon set 
towards this delectable country, the new Eldorado. In the year 1784 
he made the journey. From Cumberland to Redstone was familiar 
ground; but when arrived at the head-waters of the Youghioghany 
lie took to a canoe, and floated down that stream to the Falls of the 
Ohio; thence he rode across the country to the Monongahela; thence 
up that stream into Virginia, and finally across the country to the 
Ohio River. At convenient points he met the settlers, and made 
particular inquiries in regard to the feasibility of the several routes. 
It was while on this journey that he met, for the lirst time, Albert 
(Tallatin, then a young man, who subsequently became eminent as an 
American statesman, by whose opinions and testimony Washington 
was much impressed. 

Put Washington became convinced, that, in the financial em- 
barrassment of the country, it could not undertake the vast out' ay 
needed to build a canal over the Alleghanies; but he was strongly 
impressed with the feasibility of a great national road across the 
mountains. In his administration of eight years the subject was 
kept before the people; but was not urged, as debt still rested, like 
an incubus, on the young nation. In Adams' administration the 
subject was brought before Congress, but failed of any action. Pres- 
ident Jefferson in his first message recommended action, but nothing 
resulted from it. Finally, in 1802, Ohio was admitted into the 
Union as a State, and in the act of admission it was ]irovided that 
one-twentieth of tlie proceeds of the sale of lands should be devoted to 
the construction of roads from the Atlantic sea-board to the Ohio 
country. In 1806 an act was passed authorizing the laying out and 
making of a road from Cumberland to the State of Ohio, and com- 
missioners were appointed for its survey. If a straight line be 
drawn from Cumberland to Wheeling, Virginia, the objective ])oint 
aimed at, it will pass through New Salem and will cut Jefferson, 
Nineveh and West Finley. It was not, of course, practicable to lay 
the road on an entirely straight line; yet it was, eventually, laid on 
almost exactly such a line until it reached the Laurel Ridge, when 


it was made to veer to tlie north, passing tlirough Uniontown, and 
extending to Brownsville or Redstone. To this point the route rec- 
ommended by the commissioners was oilicially adopted and pro- 
claimed by President Jefferson. " From thence," he says, " the 
course to the Ohio and the point within the legal limits at which it 
shall strike that river is still to be decided." 

But the work on the road was slow. It was 1811 before appro- 
priations were made, and Congress made one of the pittance of but 
$50,000. During the term of office of Mr. JeiJerson, the road was 
only located as far as Brownsville. Great strife was manifested by 
those living along the line of the proposed routes to secure its loca- 
tion by their own doors. Especially was their solicitude about its 
terminus on the Ohio Biver, as it was confidently anticipated that, 
wherever that terminus should be, a great town would spring np. 
Albert Gallatin, a man of strong native ability, having taken up a body 
of land on the right bank of the Monongahela River, about Mt. Moriali 
or New Geneva, and having been appointed Secretary of the United 
States Treasury, was supposed to have great influence in locating it. 
Properly he would have had, by ^^irtue of his office, the right to de- 
cide the question finally. But it appears by the terms of a letter 
which he wrote, in reply to importunities that he would use his 
authority to secure its location in a particular course, that influenced 
by a fine sense of honor he could take no part in the controversy. 
He says, "I thought myself an improper person, from the situation 
of my property, to take the direction which would naturally have 
been placed in my hands, and requested the President to undertake 
tlie general superintendency himself." Had he used his influence to 
carry it further south, instead of north of the direct line, as was done, 
then this great highway would have passed through Greene County, 
and taken the valley of South Ten Mile and Wheeling Creeks. But 
having passed through Uniontown and Brownsville it was thought 
to be necessary to pursue a more northern course. 

When James Madison became President in 1809, he approved the 
course of the road adopted by Mr. Jefferson, and the contracts were 
given for the completion of the road to Brownsville. It was 1815 
before these contracts were completed. In the meantime the war of 
1812 had been carried to a successful issue. When peace was con- 
cluded in 1815, President Madison ordered the commissioners to 
complete the surveys from Brownsville on the Monongahela to 
Wheeling on the Ohio. They surveyed two routes, one by the way 
of Washington and West Alexander, and the other tlirough the south- 
ern portion of the county. In their report they favor the southern 
route as the most direct and most favorable for building a road. But 
tlie influence brought to bear from Washington finally prevailed, and 
it was located through that place, It was nnd-winter of 1830 be. 


fore the road was completed from Cumberland to AVheeling, and 
opened for travel. Thus nearly a quarter of a century from the time 
when Washington began in earnest to advocate its construction was 
consumed in making this stretch of a little more than a hundred 
miles. Any good company now would agree to put a railroad around 
the earth in that time. But the road was a good one, well built, and 
subserved a great purpose. The following specifications will give an 
idea of the manner of its construction. " The natural surface of the 
ground to be cleared of trees, and other wooden growths, and also 
of logs and brush, the whole width of sixty-six feet, the bed of the 
road to be made even thirty-two feet in width, the trees and stumps 
to be grubbed out, the graduation not to exceed five degrees in ele- 
vation and depression, and to be straight from point to point, as laid 
off and directed by the superintendent of the work. Twenty feet in 
width of the graduated part to be covered with stone, eighteen inches in 
depth at the centre, tapering to twelve inches at the edges, which are 
to be supported by good and solid shoulders of earth or curb-stone, 
the upper six inches of stone to be broken, so as to pass through a 
ring of three inches in diameter, and the lower stratum of stone to 
be broken so as to pass through a seven inch ring. The stone part 
to be well covered with gravel and rolled with an iron-faced roller 
four feet in length and made to bear three tons weight. The acclivity 
and declivity of the banks at the side of the I'oad not to exceed 
thirty degrees." 

The passenger, carrying, and freight traffic of the road from tiie 
start was immense, and ever increasing until the opening of through 
lines of railway reduced it to a common local thoroughfare. When 
first opened it seemed to be thoroughly and substantially built, and 
it was believed would last a quarter of a century. But it was soon 
found that in many parts sandstone had been used in its construction, 
especially in the part over the mountains. It only required a few 
passages of heavily loaded teams over this material to reduce 
it to sand, and heavy rains would soon wash it away into the valleys. 
But a short time elapsed before the whole eighteen inches of stone 
was cut through and ground to powder, and was found encumbering the 
the lowland of the farmers, leaving the gullied road-bed next to im- 
passible. At the opening of the road, it seemed a perfect structure, 
and the passage over it was delightful. the vehicles rolling along as on 
a Belgian pave. The traffic was l)eyond all expectation. The tallyho 
coaches for passengers and mails, the broad-wheeled Conestoga 
wagons with their enormous tonnage, droves of cattle, and sheep, 
and hogs, from the valleys of the Wabash and the Scioto, passing in 
almost continuous clouds, and horsemen making more expeditious 
journeys, gave this great highway the appearance of a city 
thoroughfare. To feed such a continuous column, going and coming 


at the slow rate of travel, was a subject which taxed the ingenuity 
and resources of the country. Taverns for the accommodation of man 
and beast sprang up in almost continuous line alonoj either side of 
the avenue, with yards for teams and pasturage for droves. " It was 
frequently the case that twenty-five stages, each containing its full 
complement of nine inside, and a number of outside passengers 
' pulled out ' at the same time from Wheeling, and the same was true 
of the eastern terminus at Cumberland. As many as sixteen 
coaches, fully laden with passengers were sometimes seen in close and 
continuous procession crossing the Monongahela bridge between West 
Brownsville and Bridgeport. The lines ran daily each way, and it 
was sometimes the case that thirty stages, all fully loaded with pas- 
sengers, stopped at one hotel in a single day." 

As we have indicated, the necessity of repairs came speedily, 
and the Government was called upon for appropriations. These 
were made. But as traffic increased these calls for repairs were louder 
and ever multiplying. Not ten years had elapsed before it was found 
that these demands were becoming burdensome even to the general 
Government. The United States could not lay tolls, and had from 
the first left the road entirely free. With the State rights doctrines 
of Gen. Jackson, who came into power in 1829, arose opposition 
to further appropriations. It was accordingly proposed to cede the 
road to the States through which it runs, with the understanding 
that they would build toll houses along its entire length, and thereby 
realize enough to make the road self-supporting. But the road was 
terribly out of repair and the State Governments refused to accept 
unless the United States Government would first put it in perfect 
condition. Captain Delafield, of the topographical engineers, with 
Gen. George W. Cass made a thoroi^gh inspection of the road and 
recommended that it be macadamized throughout its entire length 
with limestone, the only material that would stand the ceaseless 
grinding of the steel banded wheels. This at first view seemed utterly 
impracticable, inasmuch as the lime underlies the sand-stone, and was 
supposed to be unapproachable except in the deep valleys. But valuable 
quarries of the best quality of lime were discovered and opened, 
along the line, which furnished inexhaustable supplies for the 
road, for building purposes, and as a fertilizer for the soil as well. It 
was 1833 before the macadamizing was completed, though the acts of 
the several Legislatures were passed in 1831-2. The toll-gates were, 
accordingly, erected, and the road finally passed under the control of 
the several States. 

And now the traffic upon the way was greater than ever. In 
1835 the Adams Express Company established a line over this road. 
It was inaugurated by Alvin Adams and Mr. Green, and Maltby and 
Holt, oyster dealers of Baltimore. It was at first known as the 


" Oyster Line," having been originally established to supjjly the 
West with fresh oysters. Light four-horse wagons with relays were 
employed, and soon other packages besides oysters were carried, un- 
til liiially it grew into the express system of the present day. In 
1837 a horse-back express, requiring nine horses at each relay, and 
three boy riders for carrying short messages, drafts and paper money, 
was established between St. Louis and Washington. Later an ex- 
press mail was established, which was provided with light carriages, 
which held the mail box and seats for three passengers only. From 
the peculiarity of the wagons it was known along the route as " Monkey 
Box Line." 

In 1852 the Pennsylvania railroad was opened to Pittsburg, and 
in the same year the Baltimore and Ohio to Wheeling, and the glory 
of the " Monkey Box " was at an end. 

We have seen how the National road veered to the north, out of 
the direct course, in order to pass through Uniontown and Washing- 
ton, even though the route further south was more favorable for 
building. Thus Greene County was left to one side, though it was 
reached indirectly as was all that entire region. 

When the surveys came to be made for the Baltimore and Ohio, 
railroad lines were examined through the southern section of Greene 
County, which were found feasible, and it was the earnest desire of 
the company to adopt one of them, crossing a long stretch of its ter- 
ritory. But now, when the prospect that the county would be 
opened up by one of the great trunk roads running east and west, 
and bringing the best markets of the continent to the very doors of 
its people, the strange spectacle is presented of the very people, 
whom it would most benefit, opposing its location through their ter- 
ritory. The frivolous excuses M-ere made that the locomotives would 
set fire to their haystacks, that the flocks and herds which were 
driven through by the highways, would be carried in the cars, and 
thus a great source of revenue would be cut off, and that their live- 
stock would be killed by the locomotives. 

But the i-eal cause of the opposition was probably deeper seated. 
The Pennsylvania railroad company, as we have seen, was also build- 
ing a trunk line through the heart of the State, which would lie the 
rival of the Baltimore and Ohio, and it was the policy of this com- 
pany to retain the entire territory of the State to be reached by its 
own road and its branches. Consequently, it was for the interest of 
this company to inspire in the minds of the inhabitants along the 
line of the proposed location of the rival road, opposition to it, so 
that there would be argument for the Legislature to refuse a charter 
to the Baltimore company. The tactics of the Pennsylvania com- 
pany were successful, and this great thoroughfare, one of the most 
prosperous and powerful in the country, was crowded beyond the 


limits of tlie State, the busy traffic circling in almost continuous line 
around its corner screaming out notes of derision and defiance as 
it passes. 

Greene was, consequently, among the last counties in the State 
to be penetrated by a railroad, though the stations along the Balti- 
more road, on the southern and western borders, became convenient 
avenues for travel and traffic for the inhabitants of that section. But 
the county seat linally attained to so much importance, as the center ' 
and metropolis of a wide farming country, that a railroad had be- 
come a necessity, and its citizens determined to bnild a road on 
their own account. Surveys were accordingly commenced with the 
design of locating one by the best route from Waynesburg to Wash- 
ington, where it could connect with roads leading in all directions. 
The most natural and feasible route for this was found to be by 
the Chartiers Creek Valley, through Van Buren and Prosperity, 
substantially on the line of the old plank-road. But, as is now 
asserted, tlie men of means living along this line refused to aid in 
the construction of the road and accordingly the surveyors took to 
the liills. The route finally adopted, by West Union and Hopkin's 
Mills, is by a series of interminable hills, and while picturesque and 
beautiful to the last degree, it was proportionately unsuited to a 
railway by the usual straight line reduction. The only alternative, 
therefore, was to strike for the summits, and wind by the graceful 
and endless curves which nature has imposed. 

In passing over this road into Greene County for the first time 
there is a constant cloud of uncertainty hovering over one. He pulls 
away for a while and seems to be leaving Washington behind him, 
and he feels sure that in the schedule time he will arrive in Waynes- 
burg. But he has not gone many miles before the sun, which was full 
in his face at setting out, is now at his back, and he is haunted with 
a suspicion that he has taken the wrong train, and is on his way to 
Pittsburg. But while he casts an admiring glance at the land- 
scape, changing at every instant and presenting an endless variety of 
hill, and vale, and winding stream, he suddenly finds himself turned 
quarter round, and he is making direct for Ohio, and begins to 
fear that he is on his way to the far West. But that solicitude 
has scarcely had time to get a lodgement before the train, by a mi- 
raculous transformation, is turned completely about, and is rushing 
on over the steel banded way directly for the Delaware Water Gap, 
the gate to New York City. In his perplexity he is just upon the 
point of calling the conductor and inquiring where he is really go- 
ing to, when the train pulls around, and seems to be making in the 
direction of his destination, and he feels ashamed of himself for 
doubting the integrity of his ticket. So he pulls out a book and 
settles down to a snatch of romance. But all at once he is brought 


^^^-^'^?-^Zyt^ "p^c^^^^ 


up in the middle of ti sentence by the train starting ofi" on a perfect 
masquerade, circling around as though out on a cruise for pond-lil- 
ies, and when it has made the complete circle and he feels sure that 
he is about to strike the track on which he came, and go back to 
Washington, the engine by a dexterous jump veers to the left, and 
Avith a scream of laughter at the deception it has practiced, it runs 
joj'fully on its way, and before the traveler is aware of his location 
the spires of the city and the massive front of "Waynesburg College 
break upon his view. The road is indeed a marvel. 

"It wriggles in and wriggles out, 
And leaves the matter still in doubt, 
Whether the snake that made the track, 
Was going out or coming back." 


Methodist Episcopal Ciiukch — The Cumbekland Presbyterian 
Church — The Baptist Church — The Presbyterian Church — 
The Way'nesburo Catholic Church. 


THIS church tirst appears on the records in 1803 as a part of amis- 
sion circuit called Deeriield, with Shadras Bostune as missionary. 
Its first place of worship was erected about this time in what is now 
known as the "Old Methodist Graveyard," just east of the present 
borough limits. In 1843 the society built a large brick edifice near 
the center of the town and removed thereto. The church was rebuilt 
in 1876 on the site of the old building, and dedicated the same year 
by Bishop Peck and Dr. I. C. Pershing. The Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania, by special act passed in 1845, incorporated the church under 
the name and style of "The Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Waynesburg," and under this charter the church and par- 
sonage property is held. From 1803 to 1846 the Waynesburg ap- 
pointment was a part of a circuit embracing about all of the central 
and southern part of the county, together with several appointments 
in the State of Virginia. In 1846 the Mt. Morris circuit of seven ap- 
pointments was taken off the "lower end" of the Waynesburg circuit. 
For a number of years after this Waynesburg was still a part of a 


large circuit, but for several years past its position has varied from 
station to circuit and the reverse. At present it is a station with 155 
members and -Rev. Nelson Davis is pastor. 

The Sabbath School, organized in 1845, has continued in success- 
ful operation down to the present time. It has an enrollment of 130 
members. "VV. W. Evans is its present superintendent, and Nellie 
.Donley, secretary. ' From 1804 to 1846 Waynesburg circuit had for 
presiding elders: Thortin Fleming, James Hunter, Jacob Gruber, 
Christopher Frey, Asa Shinn, James Painter, George Brown, "Will- 
iam Stevens, David Sharp, Robert Hopkins, James G. Sansom,T. M. 
Hudson, Samuel Wakefield, William Flunter, John Spencer and S. E. 
Babcock; and for preachers: Thomas Dougherty, Thomas Church, 
and William G. Lowman, John West, Asa Shinn and James Wil- 
son, James Riley, John Meek and Wesley Webster, Thortin Flem- 
ing and Allen Green, William Monroe, Jacob Dowell and Joshua 
Monroe, James Laws and John Connelly, John Watson, Asby Pool 
and Jacob Snider, George Irwin, Henry Baker and Nathaniel Mills, 
Amos Barnes and Thomas Beeks, Thomas Jamison and Elias Brewin, 
David Stevens, T. M. Hndson, P. G. Buckingham and R. Armstrong, 
John. Tacksberry, Henry Furlong and John Moffitt, Simon Lauck, 
John White, S. E. Babcock and Samuel Worthington and Wesley 
Smith, George McCaskey and James L. Reed, William Tipton, J. K. 
Miller, John Summerville and F. H. Reed, Jeremiah Phillips and 
Walter Chaifant, John L. Williams and Hosea McCall, Heaton Hill, 
Isaac N. McAbee and M. A. Ruter, B. F. Sedgwick, Henry Ambler 
and Thomas McCleary, S. Cheney, J. W. lieger, G. A. Lowman, 
John Gregg, M. L. Weakely and Dyos Neil. 

From 1842 to 1846 the circuit was in the Ohio district, Pittsburg 
conference; prior thereto it was in the Wheeling district. In 1847 
it Avas in the Uniontown district, with J. J. Svveagee as presiding 
elder, and Thomas Jamison and N. C. Worthington as preachers. In 
1848 it was in the Moi'gautown district, Simon Elliott, presiding 
elder, and P. F. Jones and J. F. Dorsey, preachers. 

From 1849 to 1857 it was again in the Wheeling district withC. 
D. Battell, T. M. Hudson, Edward Burkett and C. A. Plolmes as 
presiding elders; Louis Janny and A. Deaves, Joseph Woodruff, J. 
L. Irwin, C. E. Jones, John White and J. D. Turner, L. R. Beacom, 
Robert Laughlin, James Kenny and E. H. Green, and Daniel Rhodes 
as preachers. 

From 1858 to 1861 the circuit was in the Washington district, 
Pittsburg Conference; C. A. Holmes and D. L. Dempsey as presid- 
ing elders, and J. J. Hays, J. J. Jackson, J. N. Pierce and J. F. 
Jones as preachers. From 1862 to 1867 it was part of the Union- 
town district with C. A. Holmes and A. J. Endsley as presiding 
elders, and II. II. Fairall, M. B. Pngh, and John Mclntire as minis- 


ters. It was in tlic South Pittslnirg district tVoiii 1868 tu 1875; L. 
R. Beacon and Iliraui Miller as presiding elders; Samuel Wakeiield, 
J. L. Stiffej, D. A. Pierce, J. H. Henry and R. J. White, pastors; and 
for part of 1876 in the West Pittsburg district with J. A. Miller as 
presiding elder and R. B. Mansell as preacher; from 1876 to 
1888 it lias been in the Washington district with S. II. Nesbit, J. W. 
Baker, James Mecliem and J. F. Jones as presiding elders, and M.M. 
Sweeney, ^Y. I). Slease, G. II. Iluft'man, E. S. White, L. II. Eaton, 
N. P. Kerr and Nelson Davis as pastors. 


Local Preacher — Rev. Charles A. Martin. 

Class Leaders— L. W. Jones, Z. W. Phclan, M. II. Ilunnill, AV. 
W. Evans. 

Board of Stewards — W. W. Evans, R. Calvert, Mrs. M. A. Cal- 
vert, Mrs. R. T. Guiher, Z. W. Phelan, M. II. Ilunnill, John Ander- 
son, J. B. Donley, S. W. Scott, A. M. Kline, W. S. Pipes. 

Board of Trustees — J. B. Donley, president; I. H. Knox, secre- 
tary; S. W. Scott, treasurer; Z. AV. Phelan, A\'. W. Evans, F. H. 
Horner, A. M. Kline, S. R. Sanders, R. Calvert. 


The lirst Cumberland Presbyterian church established in Greene 
County M'as organized at JeHerson, in the year 1831, with forty 
members. In November of the same year, at the instance of the 
Rev. Mr. Loughran, a Presbyterian minister, who subsequently be- 
came a Cumberland Presbyterian, a small Cumberland Presbyterian 
chnrch was organized in Waynesburg, consisting of twenty mem- 
bers. The Revs. John Morgan and A. M. Bryan conducted the 
services and eifected the organization. The occasion of the visit 
of these truly great and good men was a personal invitation extended 
to them by Mrs. Mary Campbell, of AVaynesburg, who had heard 
them preach at a camp-meeting in AYashington County in the 
neighborhood of the present village and Church of Old Concord. 
Messrs. Bryan and Morgan are tenderly and lovingly remembered 
by many of the old citizens as among the most eloquent and 
godly ministers who have ever labored in Western Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Bryan, who afterward settled in Pittsburg, where he organized, 
and for many years was pastor of the First Cumberland Presbyterian 
church, was a man of great popularity. He was a man of the finest 
presence, and gifted with a voice of marvelous sweetness. His or- 
atory was of a high order of merit and popular with the masses. 
The churcli in Pittsburg was very prosperous under Mr. Bryan's 


ministry. He fell in the pulpit at the Bethel church in Washington 
County. Mr. Morgan was a man of different type. He was of great 
bodily stature and of most commanding ability. His power with men 
was remarkable. He died in his thirty-sixth year, Mdiile pastor of the 
church at Uniontown, which flourished under his flaming ministry. 
The Church of Caruiichaels was organized August 20, 1832, "by 
the Kev. Leroy Woods, who had been sent by the general assembly 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian clrarch to supply the Greene Coun- 
ty churches. Mr. Woods had arrived in the coimty from the south 
on July 7, 1832, having made the entire journey on horseback. He 
died at Waynesburg in the autumn of 1879 while serving the church 
as pastor for the second time. There are now Cumberland Presby- 
terian churches in Greene County as follows: Jefferson, Waynesburg, 
Caruiichaels, Clarksville, Muddy Creek, Jacksonville, Nineveh, Ten- 
Mile, West Union, Clay Lick and Hewitts. With one or two excep- 
tions these churches are prospering. Several of them have elegant 
houses of worship. 


The Waynesburg Baptist church was organized, as shown by the 
church records, in the following manner: " For the purpose of ex- 
tending the visible kingdom of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, 
and securing to ourselves and families the privileges of the gospel, 
and at the same time bearing our testimony to the truth in our own 
vicinity, and in the county town, from which an influence for good or 
evil goes out in every direction, we whose names are annexed to the 
following proceedings met agreeably to appointment at Hills' school- 
house near Waynesburg on the 30th day of June, A. D. 1843. 1. 
After sermon by brother James Woods, he was appointed moderator. 
2. Resolved, That we be constituted into a regular Baptist church of 
Waynesburg, on the 10th day of July next. 3. Resolved, That we 
invite brother Samuel Willinms, of Pittsburg, and Francis Uownej', 
to assist brother Woods in the services. 4. Resolved, That we invite 
the Smith's Creek, Muddy Creek, Union, Jefferson, Bates' Fork, and 
South Ten Mile churches, to send one or more delegates to sit in 
council with us. Signed by the constituents: Anna Moore, Cynthia 
Ann Stayhorne, Jane McCormick, Rebecca Carpenter, Nancy Hos- 
kinson, Mary Jennings, Sarah Jennings, Ann Dolison, Eliza Zollers, 
Neal Zollers, Carl Moore, Charles Carpenter, Thomas Hoskinson, 
J. S. Jennings, Alfred Chawler. 

" Waynesburg, July 10th, 1843, after sermon by Elder Samuel 
Williams, the Waynesbui-g Baptist church was organized in the usual 
manner by Elder Williams and James Woods, with the advice and 
assistance of brethren from sister churches attending by invitation. 


Brother James Woods was invited to take charge of the church and 
preach as often as his otlier duties would permit. A declaration of 
ikith and church covenant was adopted by tlie church." And thus was 
it brought into existence and sent'upon its course to bear some part 
in the current of luuiian events. The pastors who have presided over 
it are as follows: Rev. James AVoods, supply; S. Seigfried, four 
years; Rev. S. il. Ruple, one year; Rev. S. Seigfried, one year; Rev. 
W. Whitehead, one and a half years; Rev. Samuel Moreliead, half 
year; Rev. R. M. Fish, supply; Rev. A. J. Colliers, two years; Rev. 
Francis Downey, supply; AVilliam Wood, one year; Rev. Charles 
Tilton, two years; Rev. S. Kendal, three years; Rev. II. K. Craig, 
seven and a half years; James Miller, three quarters of a year; Rev. 
W. W. Hickman, two years; Rev. W. M. Rj'an, the present pastor, 
eight years. The following are the names of the deacons who have 
served the church: Carl Moore, Thomas Iloskinson and Neal Zol- 
lers, chosen December 23, 1843. Those subsequently elected were the 
the following: Jesse Hill, Isaac Hooper, A. A. Purman, George 
Iloskinson and J. M. Hoge. The following brethren have served as 
church clerks: J. S. Jennings, S. Seigfried, Jr., J. Y. Brown, Jesse 
Hill, J. J. Purman, L. K. Evans, J. Yoders, J. M. Hoge, W. E. Hill. 
The members of the church organized were largely from the 
country. The membership in 1881 was seventy-two. There have 
been added during the eight years of Mr. Ryan's ministry seventy- 
tliree. In that time sixteen have died; sixteen have been given 
letters to other churches, and nine have been excluded, leaving the 
present membership one hundred and four. The house of worship, 
which formerly was a frame structure, in the progress of a hurricane 
which swept through the valley was seriously wrecked, having been 
taken up bodily and twisted from its base. It was accordingly 
decided to tear down and Iniild anew. A neat and commodious brick 
structure in the gothic style of architecture, with stained-glass win- 
dows was erected to take its place. The cost of the new church was 
$6,565.91, all of which was raised and paid, so that the church is 
wanting in that very common appendage, a cliurch debt. 


The Presbyterian church of Waynesburg was organized by tlie 
Rev. David Hervey, and Rev. John D. Whitam, a committee from 
the presbytery of Washington, June 11th, 1842. The ruling elders 
chosen at the organization, and duly entering upon the duties of 
that othce were Obadiah Van Cleve and William Braden. The last 
named has continued with the church and held the office ever since, 
and with R. A. McConnell and D. H. Haines constitute the elder- 
ship of the church at the present time. 


The elmrcli was incorporated by the court of common pleas of 
Greene County on the 29th day of September, 1848. The first 
trustees were R D. Mickle, Dr. E. S. BUickley, Obadiah "Van Cleve, 
William Braden and Matthew Dill, Jr. 

A number of worthy ministers have supplied the church at dif- 
ferent times, viz.: Eev. J. T. Calhoun, Kev. Mr. Ewing, Eev. A. E. 
Day, Eev. J. W. Scott, D. D., J. B. Graham and Ashabel Bronson, 
D. D. The following served for a longer period, viz. : Eev. S. H. 
Jeifrev, who. was pastor for a term of six years, ending in 1859 with 
his death. Eev. James Sloan, D. D., stated supply from 1862 to 
1868; Eev. E. P. Lewis, pastor 187.3 to 1875; Eev. George Frazer, 
D. D., supply from 1875 to 1881, and present stated supply, wlio 
came to the cliurch in 1882, the Eev. J. A. Donahey. 

The first church building was erected in 1849. It was situated 
on Morris street, just north of the Walton House. It was occupied 
njitil 1877. The present house of worship was erected in 1878. It 
is a neat and substantial brick structure, located near the centre of 
tlie town. The church also has a very substantial brick parsonage, 
which was erected during the year 1887. It is located at the corner 
of Eichhill and Greene streets, on ground devised by the will of Mrs. 
Margaret Bradford. The foundation of the parsonage fund was laid 
by Mrs. Mary Hook, who left to the church twenty shares of Bank 
stock, one-half of which was to be used in procuring a parsonage 
when the church should determine so to do. 

In Greene County are churches at Greensboro, at Jefferson, and 
New Providence at Carmichaels in the Eedstone Presbytery, and 
Unity at Harvey's, and Waynesburg in the Washington Presbytery. 
Vr^ayneshurg Catholic Churcli. — In the years 1828-'29 a brick 
structure \vas erected on the site of the present Catholic Church 
edifice, but for some time it remained unfinished. Three brothers, 
John, Joseph and Andrew Friedly, witli others, contributed to the 
completion of the building, and were fortunate in organizing a 
society and securing the services of a pastor in the person of Father 
Michael Galagher, of Brownsville, Fayette County, a man of great 
personal influence, and who had officiated as the agent of the Catholic 
Church west of the Alleghany Mountains, which office he continued 
to exercise until 1843, when the Diocese of Pittsburg was fornied 
with Michael O'Conner as its Bishop. At successive periods this 
church has been ministered to by Fathers Kearney, (Jerome, Dennis 
and James) Hickey, Farren, ISfolan, Scanlon, McHugh, McEnroe, 
Sheehan, Tahaney and Herman. During the pastorate of Father 
McHugh the old edifice was torn down, and a more elegant and con- 
venient one was erected in its place. 


Inteoduc'toky Note to Military History. 

FllOM tlie earliest period the patrioti.sni of tlie inliabitants of 
Greene County has never been questioned. As we have ah-eady 
seen at tlie very inception of the American Eevolution, when the first 
intelligence came of the battles of Lexington and Concord, the settlers 
along all the Monongahela valley, thoufrh at the time torn and liar- 
rassed by bitter strife over the (juestion of State allegiance, vied with 
each other in expressions of loyalty to the American cause, and 
pledged their services and contributions of arms, ammunition and 
nints in a struggle for the rights of the colonies. The number of 
officers and men from this section found in the Continental army in 
its long conflict with British arms was not excelled in proportion to 
its population b3'any part of the Commonwealth. 

When the war of 1812 came, and the call was made for soldiers 
to vindicate the imperilled honor of the nation, the ear of the true- 
hearted denizen of Greene County was not heavy, and the olFer of 
service came from hill-top and valley along all its broad domain. 
Contentions might be maintained over disputed State authority, and 
the right or wrong of an excise tax on distilled spirits, as in the 
whisky rebellion; but when the honor of the Flag was touched there 
existed but one mind and one heart — that of intense devotion to the 
national cause. 

The war with Mexico found here a like devoted spirit, and the 
regiment of John AV. Geary, which moved with the column of Gen- 
eral Taylor, had within its ranks many citizens of this county. 

The war for the suppression of the Kebellion is too recent, and 
the memory of trials endured and hearthstones made desolate is too 
fresh, to require the telling of how the calls for men were responded 
to from mansion and cabin in all its borders. 

It would be a fitting recognition of the patriotism displayed by 
the people of the county if the name and record of every man who 
served in any capacity in the national armies should be given in this 
History. But unfortunately this cannot be done. In a few cases 
complete company organizations were made by Greene County re- 
cruits, and the full records of these are given below. But it was the 
misfortune of the smaller and less populous counties that, instead of 
companies, small squads of a dozen or score would join in com- 


panics forming in other counties, and thus their identity would be 
lost, as there are no means now existing of identifying the citizen- 
ship of individual soldiers. A considerable number joined regi- 
ments recruited in West Virginia and were accredited to the quota 
furnished by that State. It is now ascertained that there were no 
less than twenty-seven regiments known to have contained recruits 
from Greene County, the complete identity of whom cannot now 
be traced. The Fourteenth, Sixteenth and Twenty-second Pennsyl- 
vania Cavalry, the Sixty-first Pennsylvania Infantry, Two Hundred 
and Fifth Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery, and the First, Third 
Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, Eleventh, Twelfth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth 
West Virginia Infantry, and First West Virginia Cavalry con- 
tained varying numbers of Greene County volunteers. Those who • 
thus volunteered, who died and whose graves have been marked, have 
been identified, and their names and records are given in connec- 
tion with this compilation. 

The date of muster in of the -major part of the companies is 
given at the Jieading of each organization. Where a different date 
of muster in from that thus given was found, it is placed after 
each individual name. This will account for the date of muster 
in not being given with every name. The records have been 
chiefly drawn' from my own " ITistory of Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers," and from a manuscript compilation made by Colonel John 
M. Kent, of Waynesburg. 


Company I, TniEXY-SEVENTir Regiment of Infantry, Eighth Re- 
serve — Organization — Battle of Meciianicsville — Gaine's 
Mill — Charles City X Roads — Second Bull Run — South 
Mountain — Antietam — Fredericksburg — Wilderness — 
Spottsylvania — Mustered Out — Record of Individual Mem- 
bers OF Company. 

AT the opening of the civil 'war so many volunteers responded to 
the call of the President for 75,000 men to serve for three 
months from Pennsylvania that all could not be accepted. At a 
camp of rendezvous twelve miles above Pittsburg, on the Alleghany 
River, designated Camp Wright, forty-three companies were as- 




seiubled, inost of which could not be received. Hence Greene 
County ]iad no organized companies in the three months' service, 
tliongh many of its citizens were found in organizations in other 
counties, and in West Virginia. 

The Eighth Regiment of the Pennsylvania Ileserve Corps, in 
which was Company I from Gi'cene County, was formed from the 
companies assembled at Camp Wright for the three montiis' service, 
but could not be accepted. It was commanded by George S. Hays, 
subsequently by Silas M. Eaily, and was brigaded with the Fifth, 
First and Second Reserve Regiments, the brigade being commanded 
by that eminent soldier, John F. Reynolds. This Reserve Corps 
was composed of lifteen regiments, thirteen of infantry, one of 
cavalry and one of artillery, their place in the line being from the 
Thirtieth to tlie Forty-fourth, and Avas originally commanded by 
George A. McCall. It was formed in compliance with an act of the 
Legislature, and was originally designed for exclusive State service, 
for the defense of the long stretch of exposed border on the Mason and 
Dixon's line. 

But in the gloomy days succeeding the tirst battle of Bull Rnn, 
when fears were entertained for the safety of tlie capital itself, the 
Government, in casting aboiit anxi(jusly for help, found this splendid 
corps already organized, and in prompt response to the call for its 
services, it was sent forward, was mustered into the service of the 
United States, and was never returned for State service. 

Company I was originally commanded by Silas M. I'ailey, but 
upon his promotion to Major, John M. Kent was promoted from 
acting Adjutant to succeed him as Captain. In the battle of Mechan- 
icsville, on the 26t]i of June, 1802^ which was the lirst real lighting 
which it saw, with Companies A, D, and F, under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Oliphant, Company I was sent forward on the skirmish line, in front 
of Easton's Battery, on the margin of the swamp. "A brief artillery 
contest, in which the shells burst in rapid succession in the very 
midst of the intantry, was followed by the advance of the rebel 
columns, and the battle became general. A charge of the enemy 
below the swamp, with the design of capturing Easton's Battery, 
caused the skirmishers to be recalled, and the regiment moved to its 
support. But the enemy being repulsed by other troops, it returned 
to its former position. Three times the close columns of the enemy 
charged down the opposing slope with determined valor, but was as 
often repulsed and driven back. At night the men rested upon the 
ground where they had fought." 

The Reserves having been ordered back, retired during the night 
to Gaines' Mill, wlrere the Eighth was posted in the second line of 
battle, holding a cut in the road which aftbrded some protection. But 
the solid shot and shell of the enemy tore wildly through the ground, 


scattering the earth over tlie heads of the men. Hill in his book, 
" Our Boys," says: " Suddenly I heard an explosion a little to my 
right that pierced my very brain. I naturally turned in the direc- 
tion, and saw a sight that is before my eyes yet. Twenty or thirty 
feet from me, where the banks were not high enough to afford much 
protection, I saw a cloud of dust and smoke in the very midst of 
Company A. I saw a man throw his hands wildly above his head 
and fall backward, covered with blood, a moment he lay quivering 
convulsively, then he lay still — perfectly still. lie was dead. Another 
stooped and picked up his own arm, which had been torn off by the 
shell as it descended, and rnshed wildly towards a small hospital 
some distance to the rear, flourishing his dismembered limb above 
his head and shouting in the broad tongue: — ' Och, docther, me 
airm's off.' A percussion shell had struck fairly among the boys 
killing three ontright, and wounding four." The enemy were led 
by some of their most trusted leaders, Stonewall Jackson directing 
his celebrated corps. At five o'clock, after a day of desperate 
fighting, the enemy grew impatient, and pushed forward dark masses, 
determined to win the day. Finally word came for the Eighth to 
push forward. Colonel Hays gallantly led the charge. The valor 
of those men was unsurpassed, and the enemy was swept back to 
a piece of wood where he had cover, and made a partial stand. 
The firing was now desperate, and a perfect shower of missiles was 
poured upon the foe. Eeinforcements were speedily brought up 
by the enemy, when the regiment, rent and torn, was forced back, 
but retired in good order. Early in the fight Major Bailej' was 
wounded and borne from the field. The loss of the regiment was 
twenty-four killed and eighteen severely wounded, among the latter 
being Captains Johnson, Wishart, Gallupe and Carter. Elijah Mc- 
Clelland, of Company 1, was among the killed. 

On the night preceding the battle of Charles City Cross Eoads, 
the Eighth was sent out on the road leading to Richmond on 
picket duty; but was unmolested. The fighting on the following 
day on this field was desperate, and the regiment had its full share 
of bloody woi'k. The Sixth Georgia was on its front, and when the 
time came for the regiment to charge, the Georgians were driven 
and scattered like the chaff upon the summer's threshing floor. 
Charge and counter charge were delivered with terrible 
effect, until, in the chances of the battle, the regiment 
was forced by overpowering numbers, and took its place 
in the new line of battle, where it rested for the night. 
Hiram H. Lindsey, of Company I, was among the killed, and the 
regiment lost sixteen killed and fourteen severely wounded. The 
regiment lost in the entire seven days' fight two hundred and 
thirty. By the time the regiment reached the Second Bull Run 


battle-ground it liad become reduced to less than a hundred strong, 
and Company " I " to fifteen men. Its chief duty in this battle 
was to defend the artillery, which was employed almost constantly 
on tiie part of the field where it was placed. In this sanguinary 
battle the regiment lost five killed and seventeen wounded and 
thirty missing. James M. Wells, of Company I, was among the 
killed. At South Mountain, in Maryland, the old enemy was again 
found ensconced liehind rocks and a stone wall, and from his secure 
hiding place poured into the breasts of the Reserves the deadly 
missiles. Taken thus at a great disadvantage the losses were grievous. 
But resolutely charging up tiie steep acclivity of tiie mountain, the 
enemy was finally routed, and the summit was cleared. The loss 
in this stubborn fight was seventeen killed and thirty-seven wounded. 
Under the gallant Hooker tlie Keserves were sent forward to open 
the battle of Antietam. More sanguinary than any preceding 
field was this, the enemy fighting with a desperation l)red of pre- 
vious successes. On tiie morning of the 17th of September the 
Eighth was ordered to push forward to the verge of the noted 
cornfield, where it was subjected to murderous fire from the' foe, 
as lie rose up from his concealment and poured in a rapid discharge. 
Tiie loss in this battle was twelve killed and forty-three wounded. 
Among the killed in Company I was Clark Ingraham. 

Scarcely was one campaign ended, and the absentees and recruits 
brought in and drilled, before it was plunged into another desperate 
encounter. In the battle of Fredericksburg the Reserves performed 
a conspicuous part, attracting the attention of the whole army, and, 
indeed, of the whole country, gaining the only decisive advantage on 
that sanguinary field. " In the heroic advance of this small division, 
in the face of the concentrated fire of the enemy's intrenched line, in 
scaling the heights, and in breaking and scattering his well-posted 
force, the Eighth bore a conspicuous and most gallant part. ^'ever 
before had it been subjected to so terrible an ordeal, and when, after 
being repulsed and driven back by overwhelming numbers, it again 
stood in rank beyond the enemy's guns, scarcely half its luimber 
were there. Twenty-eight lay dead upon that devoted field, eighty- 
six were wounded, and twenty-two were captured. Adj. J. Lindsey 
Ingraham, Corp., John P. Burk, Samuel Churchill, Wesley S. Crago, 
George Delaney, George W. Granilee. Joseph McCullough, Sergt. 
Joseph C. Minor, F. A. Phillips, M. Bill. Rinehart, Isaac Riggs, 
Richard Stewart and William Woody were either killed or mortally 
wounded, and Col. Paily, Captains R. E. Johnston, J. Eichelberger, 
H. C. Dawson, William Lemon, and J. M. Kent, and Lieuts. Samuel 
McCandless, J. A. Diebold, S. B. Bennington, H. H. Maquilken 
were wounded. 

After this battle, which bore so heavily upon Company I, and in- 


deed upon the whole body, the corps was ordered to the defences of 
"Washington. Since its arrival at the fi-ont this celebrated corps had 
been put upon the advance line and made to bear a brunt of the 
lighting in nearly every battle, and had fairly won a chance for re- 
cuperation. Indeed there was but very little left of it. Company I, 
with the reginient, remained here until the opening of the campaign 
under Grant, in the spring of 1864. On the 5th of May, the old 
enemy was found on the Wilderness field and brisk skirmishing en- 
sued. On the following morning the regiment was Tnoved up the 
Gordonsville Pike, where it formed and drove the enemy. Companies 
D and I were here thrown forward as skirmishes, and moved up with- 
in seventy-live yards of the enemy's fortified line. Plere for three 
hours a hot skirmish fire was kept up. Company I losing two killed, 
John Lockhart and Corjx James Lucas, and ten wounded. Hastily 
marching by the flank, the enemy was again met on the 7th, and the 
fighting was renewed with even more bitterness than ever, and for a 
week longer tlie sound of battle scarcely died away. But now the 
thi-ee years terra of service for which the regiment enlisted had ex- 
pired, and transferring the veterans and recruits to the One-hundred 
and jS[inety-first, the Eighth was relieved at the front on the 17th, and 
moving to Pittsburg was thei-e mustered out of service on the 
24th. ■ 

Company I, Thiety-Seventh, Eighth Reseeve Infantey. 

iiecruited at Waynesburg, Greene County, mustered in June 20, 

Silas M. Bailey, Capt., pro. to Maj.; wd. at Gaines' Mill, June 
27, 1862; pro. from Capt. Co. I to Maj., June 4, 1862; to Col., March 
1, 1863; to brev. Brig.-Gen., March 13, '65; mus. out with Keg. 
May 24, '64. 

John M. Kent, Capt. pro. fr. 1st Lieut, to Capt., June 16, '62; 
wd. at Wilderness; mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

A. H. Sellei's, 1st Lieut., pr. from Sergt. to 1st Sergt., Oct. 10, 
1861; to 1st Lieut., Aug. 4, 1862; wd. at Wilderness; mus. out May 
24, '64. 

Charles C. Lucas, 2d Lieut., detached for duty as Quartermaster, 
May 1st, '62; j:ot mus., res. Oct. 3, 1862. 

J. Lindsey Ingrahara, 2d Lieut., mus. in June 13, '61; pr. fr. 
Sergt. to 1st Sergt., July 22, '61; to Sergt.-Maj., Oct. 10, '61; to 2d 
Lieut., Aug. 4, '62; to Adj., Oct. 1, '62; not mus.; killed at Fred- 
ericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 

James A. Wood, 2d Lieut., pr. fr. Cor. to Sergt., Oct. 10, '62; to 
2d Lieut., July 1st, '63; wd. at Charles City Cross Roads, June 30, 
'62, and May 22, '64; abs. in hos. at mus. out. 

History of greene county. 371 

li. M. Blacldey, 1st Sergt., tr. to Reg. Band, July 20, '61. 

Joseph W. Smith, 1st Sergt., pr .fr. Sergt., July 1st, '62; mus. 
out with Co. May 24, '64. 

Joseph C. Minor, Sergt., killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 

George G. Crow, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp., Feb. 4, '63, mus. out with 
Co. May 24, '64. 

O. S. Pratt, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp., Aug. 1, 62; dis. on Surgeon's 
certilicate Feb. 13 '63. 

Edwin 11. Minor, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp., Dec. 4th, '62, wd. at 
Gaines' Mill, June 27, '62,"mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

George W. Scott, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp., July 1st, '63; wd. at Wilder- 
ness; mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

H. J. Bowler, Sergt., pr. to 1st Sergt., tr. to 191st Reg., P. Y., 
May 15, '64; Vet. 

William S. liinehart, Corp., died at Camp Pierpoint, Va., Jan. 
4, '62. 

John P. Burk, Corp., killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 

Adam Laughlin, Corp., tr. to Vet. Res. Corps, July, '63. 

James Lucas, Corp., mus. Sept. 14, '61; wd. at Charles City 
Cross Roads, June 30, '62; killed at Wilderness, May 6, '64. 

A. J. Bisset, mus. in July 15, '61, tr. to 191st Reg., P. V., May 
15th, '64, Vet. 

Neil Gray, Corp., wd. at Wilderness, mus. out with Co. May 24, 

William Laughlin, Corp., mus. out with Co. May 25, '64. 

Samuel R. Estle, muc, pr. to prin. muc. July 1st, '62. 

Adams, Robert, disch. May 27, '63, for wds., with lossj of arm 
at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 

Anderson, Samuel, died at Georgetown, D. C, Oct. 22, '61. 

Axtun, Joseph M., killed at Charles Cit}' Cross Roads, June 30, 

Boon, Henry, disch. oij Surg. Cert. Sept. 30, '61. 

Bane, Asa, disch. Jan. 22, '63, for wds. rec'd. at Gaines' JVIill, 
June 27th, '62. 

Bell, John, disch. on Surg. Cert. July 16, '62. 

Baily, William N., mus. in July 15, '61, tr. to Reg. Band 
July 20, '61. 

Bradley, Charles R., mus. in July 15, '61, tr. to Reg. Band 
July 20, '61. 

Burk, Thomas C, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, 64; Vet. 

Brown, A. B., tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, ''64; Vet. 

Bulor, Hugh, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V.. May 12, '64; Vet. 

Batson, Wilbur F., mus. in Marcli 24, '64; wd., tr. to 191st 
Reg. P. v.. May 15, '64. 

3'7'2 HiS'lrORY OF GREEJNrE COtTNtt': 

Bare, Baker, mus. in March 29, '64, wd. tr. to 191st Eeg. F. V., 
May 16, '64. 

Babbitt, Plarrisoii, mus. in Marcli 29, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. P. 
v.. May 16, '64. 

Belford, David, mus. in April 7, '64, tr. to 191st Keg. P. Y., 
May 15, '64. 

Batson, Elislia, mus. in Sept. 8 '62, died at Belle Plain, Jan. 
13, '63. 

Chapman, Silas, mus. in July 15, '61, wd., mus. out with Co. 
May 24th, '64. 

Curtis, James P, mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

Casnei-, Thomas, mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

Church, Henry, mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

Church, James M., wd. at Charles City Cross Roads June 30, 
'62, mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

Carter, Charles W., mus. out with Co. May 24, '64. 

Chapman, Joseph, mus. in July 15, '61, disch. on Surg. Cert. 
July 19th, '62. 

Carson, J. H., disch. March 6, '63, for wds. rec'd. in action. 

Coleman, James A., mus. in Sept. 9, '62, disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Dec. 8 th, '62. 

Chaplin, Albert C, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Sept. 25, '63. 

Copeland, Samuel, mus. in Sept. 9, '62, disch. on Surg. Cert. 
March 19, '63. 

Conrad, David, mus. in July 15, '61; wd. at Wilderness; tr. to 
191 St. P. v.. May 15, '64; Vet. 

Clovis, Solomon R., mus. in March 29, '64, tr. to 191st P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Cornhill, William, mus. in March 29, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. 1'. 
Y., May 15, '64. 

Chisler, James, mus. in March 24, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. P. Y., 
May 15, '64. 

Cooper, Charles W., died at Georgetown, D. C, October 16, 1861; 
bur. Mil. Asylum Cera. D. C. 

, Churchill, Samuel, died Dec. 17, '62, of wds. reed, in action. 

Crago, Wesley S., killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 

Deems, George R., mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Daugherty, Solomon, disch. March 14, '64, for wds. reed, in 

Dutton, John W., miis. in Dec. 26, '63, tr. to 191st Reg. P. Y., 
May 15, '64. 

Dean, Henry, mus. Sept. 8, '62, tv. to 191st Reg. P. Y., '' 
15, '64. 


Delaiiy, James, uius. in Sept. 8, '62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Dean, Benjamin F., mus. in March 24:, '64, \vd., tr. to 191st 
Reg. P. v.. May 15, '64. 

Delany, George, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, died Jan. 10, '63, of wds. 
reed, at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 

Engle, Joseph, mus. out with Company May 24, '64. 

Eisiminger, Abraham, mus. in March 29, '64, tr. to 191st Rec. 
P. v., May 15, '64. 

Eisiminger, Isaac, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, killed at Spottsylvania, 
May 10, '64. 

Fordyce, John G., mus. in Sept. 8, '62, mus. out with Co. May 
24, '64. 

Fetters, A. J., disch. on surgeon's certificate Aug. 3, '62. 

Fordyce, S. R., mus. in Sept. 9, '62, wd., tr. to 191st Reo-. 
P. v., May 15, '64. 

Franks, Ely, mus. in June 29, '61, tr. to 191st Reg. P. Y., May 
15, '64; Vet. 

Franks, ^Ym. M. F., tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64; Vet. 

Franks, Job, mus. in Mar. 12, '62, wd. at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 
'62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64, Vet. 

Franks, Emanuel, mus. in March 15, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Funk, William, mus. in July 15, '61, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15, '64, Vet. 

French, James A., mus. in Feb. 27, '64, wd. at Wilderness, tr. 
to 191st Reg. P. v., May 15, '64. 

Grooms, William, mus. in June 20, '61; mus. out with Co., 
May 24, '64. 

Gooden, James, mus. in April 7, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Gooden, Francis, mus. in April 7, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Grainlee, John W., killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62. 

Hays, John W., mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Harrington, Allen, mus. out with Co., M&y 24, '64. 

Huston, George A., mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Horner, James H., mus. in Sept. 14, '61; disch. by general order 
War Dept. Jan. 14, '63. 

Hager, Abijah, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64; Vet. 

Hager, Penjamin, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64; Vet. 

Hart, John B., tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64; Vet. 

Hickman, Perry, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V. 
May 15, '64. 


HofFinaii, Levi, inns, in Sept. 8, '62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V. 
May 15, '64. 

• Hains, Elijah, mus. in March 29, '64; wd. with loss of leg at 
Wilderness; tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64. 

Ilillen, John, mos. in July 15, .'61; drowned at Alexandria, 
Aiig. 29, '62; buried at Alexandria, grave 188. 

Headley, Erastus, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, killed at Spottsylvania, 
C. H., May 14, '64. 

Inghram, Clark, mus. in July 20, '61, killed at Antietam, 
Sept. 17, '62. 

John, James M., mus. in Sept. 9, '62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15. '64. 

Kees, David, mus. in Dec. 12, '63, tr.' to 191st Reg. P. Y., 
May 15, '64. 

Lawson, Elisha, wd. at Wilderness, mus. out with Co., May 
24, '64. 

Leonard, D. P., mus. in July 15, '61, mus. out with Co., May 
24, '64. 

Laughlin, G. W., mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Long, William, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. Y., 
Mav 15, '64. 

Lemley, G. W., mus. in Sept. 8, '62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. Y., 
15, '64. 

Litzenburg, Alexander, tr. to 191st Reg. P. Y., May 15, '64, Yet. 

Lemley, Basil, mus. in July 15, '61, wd. at Wilderness; tr. to 
191st Reg. P. Y., May 15, '64, Yet. 

Lockhart, John, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, killed at Wilderness, 
May 6, '64. 

Lemley, Spencer, mus. in July 15, '61; died at Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 17, '62. 

Lindsey, H. H., killed at Charles City Cross-roads, June 30, '62. 

Leonard, Asa, mus. in July 15, '61, disch. on Surg. Cert. Nov. 
10, '62. 

Levi, Philip, disch. on Surg. Cert., March 7, '63. 

Mildred, Albert, mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

McClelland, J. H., mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Minor, W. F., wd., mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Morris, Harrison, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, disch. Feb. 16, '63, 
for wds. reed, in action. 

Morris, James P., mus. in Sept. 8, '62, wd., tr. to 191st Reg. 
P. Y., May 15, '64. 

Morris, Francis M., mus. in March 29, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. 
P. Y., May 15, '64. 

Morris, Richard, died Dec. 13, '61, of wds. reed, accidentally. 

McClelland, Elijah, killed at Gaines' Mill, June 27, '62. 



McCuUongh, Joseph, inus. in July 15, '61, killed at Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 13, '62. 

JMngeiit, John, nius. out with Co., May 24, '61. 

Ogden, Perry, wd. at Wilderness, May 8, '64, ab. at mus. out. 

Ogden, Marion, pris. from May 9, '64, to Marcli 3, '65; diseh. 
April 1, "65. 

Plants, Georjje AV., mus. in July 15, '61; inus. out with Co., 
May 24 '64. 

Province, Joseph, mus. in Sept. 9, '62, disch. on Surer. Cert. 
Feb. 12, '63. ° 

Phillips, Allen, disch. Oct. 27, '62, for wds. at Charles City 
Cross jPoads, June 30, '62. 

Phillips, James, inus. in Oct. 4, '61, disch. on Surg. Cert. Nov. 
24, '62. 

Phillips, G. W., mus. in Sept. 8, '62, tr. to 191st Peg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Pethtel, Richard, mus. in Feb. 27, '64, wd. at Wilderness; tr. 
to 191st Reg. P. v.. May 15, '64. 

Phillips, F. A., inns, in Sept. 8, '62, killed at Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 13, '62. 

Parkinson. James II., died April 18, '63; buried at Philadelphia. 

Rush, Silas, pris. from May 9, '64, to March 3, '65; disch. 
April 1, '65. 

Rinehart, John, mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Riggs, Maxwell, mus. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Rose, Edward J., mus. in Sept. 8, '62, disch. March 10, '63, 
for wds. reed, in action. 

Rogers, II. J., mus. in Sept. 8, '02, tr. to 191st Reg. P. Y., 
May 15, '64. 

Rice, Alfred, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64, Vet. 

Renshaw, J. L., tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64, Vet. 

Roberts, Justice G., mus. in March 29, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. P. 
v.. May 15, '64. 

Ritter, Joseph, mus. in March 29, '64, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Rinehart, M. Dill., mus. in July 15, '61, killed at Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 13, '62. 

Riggs, Isaac, mus. in July 15, '61; died July 11, '63, of wds. 
received in action; buried at Alexandria, grave 676. 

Summersgill, Robert, mus. out with Co., May 15, '64. 

Seals, James M., wd., tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64; Vet. 

Smith, R. II. L., wd., tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., May 15, '64; Vet. 

Stewart. A. A., mus. in Sept. 8, '62, tr. to 191st Reg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 


Sayres, Eobert A., miis. Nov. 2, '61; wd. at Gaines' Mill, June 
27, '62; tr. to 191st Eeg. P. V., May 15, '64. 

Spicer, John H., nius. in March 29, '64, wd., tr. to 191st Reg. 
P. v.. May 15, '64, 

Spicer, William, mus. in March 29, '64; wd., tr. to 191st Eeg. 
P. v., May 15, '64. 

Shields, John, mus. in March 29, '64, tr. to 191st Eeg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Stewart, Eichard. mus. in Sept. 8, '62; died, Dec. 28, '62, of wds. 
reed, in action; buried in Mil. Asylum Cemetery, D. C. 

Sylveus, William, mus. in Sept. 8, '62, died at Annapolis, Jan. 
12, '63. 

Tuttle, Amos, miis. out with Co., May 24, '64. 

Tnttle, William A., mus. in Feb. 29, '64, tr. to 191st Eeg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Turley, John, mus. in April 25, '62, tr. to 191st Eeg. P. V., 
May 15, '64. 

Woody, William, mus. in Sejpt. 8, '62, killed at Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 18, 62. 


Company F, Forty- foukth Eegiment, Fiest Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
Fifteenth Eeserve. 

Organization of Eegiment — Camp Pierpont — Dranesville, Cross 
Keys and Port Eepublic — Eobertson's Eiver — Cedar Moun- 
tain — Second Bull Eun — Fredericksburg — Death of Bayard 
— Mud March — Chancelloesville Campaign — Brandy Sta- 
tion — Aldie and Upperville — Gettysburg — Siiepherdstown — 
Mine Eun Campaign — Wilderness — Eaid to Eichmond — 
Hawes' Shop — Barker's Mill — St. Mary's Church — Beam's 
Station — Weldon Eailroad — Mustered out — Eecord or men. 

BY the provisions of the act authorizing the organization of the 
Eeserve Corps, it was to contain one regiment of cavalry. Hence 
the Fifteenth and last of the corps belonged to that arm of the 
service. Company F, of this regiment, was formed at Carmichaels, 
Greene County, and v;as mustered into service at Camp Curtin, near 
Harrisburg. Fortunately, this regiment had for its first Colonel one 


ot' the most accomplished cavalry officers in the service — George D. 
J^Hjard, whose career was too soon ended, at Fredericksburg, on the 
13ch of December, 1862. But in the establishment of liigh soldierly 
qualities at the outset, and in the drill of the regiment, his impress 
was set upon the organization and was not effaced in its brilliant 
career of three years. He attended to the minutest details, even to 
the selection and purchase of the horses and equipments. 

At Camp Pierpont, Virginia, the winter of 1861 was passed, 
where daily a detachment of thirty men was sent on picket duty. 
On the 27th of Novemlier, 1861, Col. Bayard led the regiment on 
an expedition to Uranesville, where a few prisoners were obtained. 
On the return, the head of the column was tired on by guerillas, and 
in the skirmish which ensued, Bayard was wounded and had a horse 
shot under him, and two of his men were killed and two wounded. 
In the battle of Dranesville, which occurred on the 19th of December, 
the regiment was sent in to unmask the position of the enemy, and 
subsequently supported Easton's battery. In the movement upon 
Manassas, at the opening of the spring campaign, it was put upon 
exhausting service, at the conclusion of which it was posted at Falls 
Church. It accompanied McDowell on his advance upon the Rappa- 
hannock, and on the night of the 13th of May had a sharp skirmish 
with the enemy, in which company F bore a conspicuous part. 
x\t this juncture Col. Bayard was promoted to Brigadier-General, 
and Lieut.-Col. Owen Jones was selected to succeed him, John P. 
Taylor, Lieut.-Col. Sylvester D. Barrows, and Josiah H. Ray, of 
Company F, to Majors. Ordered forward to join McClellan on the 
Peninsula, this regiment took the advance by Fredericksburg, and 
had arrived within fifteen miles of the right wing of the army of 
the Potomac, when it was ordered back to the support ot Banks 
and Fremont, operating against Stonewall Jackson in the valley. 
At Strasburg, Baj^ard came up with the enemy, and brisk skirmish- 
ing ensued. The enemy was driven beyond Woodstock. At Har- 
risonburg a brisk skirmish occurred. Subsequently the regiment 
participated in the battle of Cross Keys on the 8th, and finally at 
Port Republic, closing a month of active campaigning. 

Under Pope the regiment opened a new campaign on the Rap- 
pahannock, Bayard's brigade of cavalry guarding the ci'ossings of 
the river, and beating back the foe. At Robertson's River a warm 
engagement was had with the advance of Stonewall Jackson's corps, 
in which the regiment lost two killed and two wounded. Con- 
testing the ground as he withdrew his brigade in the face of 
Jackson's whole army, by skillful maneuvering the enemy's column 
was delayed until the forces of Banks' reached their position on the 
Cedar Mountain battle ground. At a crisis in the battle Knapp's 
battery was in imminent peril of falling into the enemy's hands; but 


a handsome charge made by Major Falls, with the first battalion, 
saved the gnns and drove back the foe. Of two hundred and sixteen 
men who entered the conflict, but seventy-one came back mounted. 
In the retirement of the Union column before the advance of the 
army of Northern Virginia, Bayard's brigade formed the rearguard. 

On the evening of the 28th the regiment liad tlie advance of 
Sigel's corps in its progress to Thoroughfare Gap, wliere Long-street's 
corp was held in check for six hours. In the two following days, daring 
the desperate fighting on the field of the Second Bull Eun, the regi- 
ment held a position on the extreme left of the army. At the close 
of the campaign, with a force of one hundred available horses and 
two hundred men, it went into camp at Munson's Hill for rest and 

On the 12th of December, preparations having been made under 
Burnside for the battle of Fredericksburg, the regiment moved across 
the river, now under command of Lieut. Col. John P. Taylor, and 
was deployed as skirmishers, and ordered to advance until the enemy 
was found. A mile from the river, near the railroad track, the enemy 
was met and a brisk skirmish ensued, until the infantry came to its 
relief. On the following day, the day of the great battle, the regiment 
was deployed as skirmishers on the left wing, where it was under 
fire of the enemy's artillery. At three o'clock in the afternoon, at 
the moment when the battle was raging fiercest. Gen. Bayard, who 
was now in chief command of the cavalry, was struck by a fragment 
of a shell and mortally wounded. " The original commander of the 
First Cavalry, he had endeared himself to its members not less by his 
devotion to their instruction and improvement, than by the heroism 
he displayed in the hour of danger." 

Upon the abandonment of Burnside's second campaign, familiarly 
known as the " Mud march," in January, 1863, Col. Jones resigned, 
and Lieut.-Col. Taylor succeeded him as Colonel. Major David 
Gardner became Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain William T. McEwen, 
Major. On the 12th of April the cavalry moved on the Chancellors- 
ville campaign under Hooker. The operations of the cavalry in this 
whole movement, wearing and exhausting to the last degree, resulted 
in little efiective service. Gen. Stoneman, who was in command, 
studying to shun the enemy rather than to find and fight him. 

Scarcely had the regiment rested and remounted, when it was put 
upon the march for the Gettysburg campaign. At Brandy Station, 
on the 9th of June, the cavalry fought in one of the warmest engage- 
ments hitherto participated in by this arm of the service. Following up 
the charge of the First Maryland, " Col. Taylor led a desperate charge 
upon the left and rear of the foe, reaching the Barbour House, where 
were Gen. Stuart, his staff" and body guard, surrounded by cavalry. 
Here a desperate encounter ensued, the men using the cavalrymen's 


true weapon, the sabre, with terrible eti'ect. A lunnber of prisoners 
were brought oil', inchiding Stuart's Assistant Adjutant General." It 
was subsequently engaged at Beverl}' Ford, under the immediate 
command of Bnford. The loss was three killed and eleven severely 
wounded. At Aldie and Upperville, on the 21st and 22d of June, 
Stuart was again met and severe fighting ensued, the regiment being 
engaged on the 22d in pushing back the enemy, and acted a.s extreme 
rear guard to the army on its way to Gettysburg. At 9 o'clock on 
the 2d of July it arrived u])on that sanguinary tield, and was detailed 
fur duty at Gen. Mead's headquarters, where it served to the end of 
the campaign. At Shepherdstown, after the crossing of the Fotomac, 
in the pursuit from Gettysburg, the regiment was warmly engaged, 
and in position along the Charlestown pike held its ground against 
the repeated attacks of the foe. 

The enemy was driven beyond the Rapidan by the 17th of Sep- 
tember, the regiment being actively engaged in tiie campaign and 
suffering some losses. The necessity" which caused the withdrawal 
of Meade's army to Centerville brought the cavalry into severe duty, 
and at Auburn and New Hope Church its endurance and bravery 
were severely tried. The campaign ended in tlie fiasco at Mine Run; 
but the winter of 1863-4 was one of little rest for the cavalry. 
Picket duty, scouts, guards, and details through the mud, and frosts, 
the sleet and rains of that inclement winter kept it actively employed 
the whole season through. 

The spring campaign of 1864 opened on the 4th of May. Grant 
was now at the head of the army. Crossing the Rappahannock, at 
Kelly's Ford, and the Rapidan, at Ely's Ford, the regiment moved 
with cavalry to the Spottsylvania Court House and thence to Todd's 
Tavern, and on the 5th was hotly engaged. Asa S. Allfree, of Com- 
pany I, was among the severely wounded. On the 7th it advanced 
dismounted in line with the Sixth Ohio, and after a stubborn fight 
drove the enemy, his dead and wounded being left in the hands of 
the victors. On the 9th Gen. Sheridan commenced his grand raid 
upon Richmond. Crossing the Massaponax, Ny, Po, and Ta rivers 
tlie enemy's cavalry was met at Childsburg and a severe action 
occuri'ed in which the P'irst suffered some losses and the foe was 
roughly handled. Arrived within sight of tlie spires of Richmond, 
less than two miles away, near Meadow bridge, the ene ny came out 
in heavy force intent on effecting the rout and utter destruction of 
Sheridan's forces; but with undaunted braver}' every attack was met 
with courage and gallantry not excelled by troops fighting to save 
their capital from capture. Pushing forward, the columns reached 
Haxall's Landing on the James River, and after a rest of three days 
returned by White House and Aylett's, and rejoined Grant at Ches- 
terfield Station on the 25th, having made a campaign in less than 


twenty days, which covered the gi'ound of the whole summer's 

At Hawe's Shop a sanguinary battle was fought by the cavalry, in 
which the regiment bore a conspicuous part and suffered heavy losses. 
Lieut. Samuel Greenlee was killed and George W. Beam, of Company 
I, was mortally wounded here. Though reduced to scarcely two 
hundred men, it expended over eighteen thousand rounds of ammu- 
nition. It was again hotly engaged at Barker's Mill, where it ex- 
hibited unsurpassed gallantry and courage. 

The tireless energy of Sheridan gave the cavalry little time foi* 
rest, and seizing the hrst opportunity when he could be spared from 
the front, he was off on his Trevilian raid. The destruction of the 
Virginia Central Bailroad having been accomplished for many miles, 
in the face of a vigilant foe, which required incessant activity to 
defend the working parties, the regiment finally found itself entrapped 
in a narrow opening of the forest, and only saved itself from 
utter annihilation by the most conspicuous coolness and gallantry, 
losing three officers and thirty-live men killed, wounded and 
prisoners. As the columns of Grant neared Richmond the enemy 
grew more and more desperate. At St. Mary's church the rebel 
cavalry was supported by infantry, and Sheridan found himself hard 
pushed. It was in this battle that Company I suffered grevious loss. 
Captain Alexander Davidson was killed, and Thomas Crago and 
George W. Crawford were missing in action. Crossing the James 
on the 12th of July it was again engaged at Beam's Station, and 
returning again across the James, it met the enemy at Malvern 
Hill, where a severe encounter occurred in which Abner Murdock, 
of Company I, was killed. At Lee's Mills, at Gravel Hill, and 
finally at Beam's Station, on the Weldon Bailroad, the regiment 
in quick succession met the foe, and at the latter point, after three 
years ot honorable service, fought its last battle. The veterans 
and recruits, four hundred and one in numbei', were organized in a 
battalion under command of Major Falls, which was subsequently 
consolidated with the Sixth and Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry 
forming the Second Fro s'isional. Having been relieved at the 
front, the regiment proceeded to Philadelphia, where, on the 9th 
of September, 1864, it was mustered out of service. 

Company' F, Foety-Fouetu, Fifteenth Beseeve, Fiest Cavaley. 

Becruited at Carmichaels, Greene County, mustered in August 
16, 1861. 

John M. Harper, Capt, resigned Oct. 19, '61. 

Josiah H. Bay, Capt., pro. fr. 1st Lieut, to Capt., Nov. 14, 
'61; to Major, March 1st, '62; resigned Feb. 23, '63. 

iiistoi:y of greene county. 383 

Alexander Davidson, Capt., pr. fr. 2nd Lient., Dec. 8, '61; to 
Capt. March 1, '62; died Aug. 1, '64, of wds. reed, at St. Mary's 
Church, Va., June 24, '64. 

Thomas Lncas, 1st Lieut., pr. fr. Corp. to Sergt., Jan., "02; to 
1st Lieut. Aug. 17, '62; wd. at Brandy Station, Va., June 9, '63; 
nius. out M'ith company Sept. 1, '64. 

Lewis K. Evans, 2d Lieut., pr. fr. private to 2d Lieut., Nov. 14. 
'61; resigned July 11, '62. 

Samuel Greenlee, 2d Lieut., pr. fr. private to 1st Sergt., Dec, 
'61; to 2d Lieut., June 13, '62; wd. June 9, '63; killed at Ilawes' 
Shop, Va., May 28, '64. 

Jonas E. Lucas, 1st Sergt., pr. fr. Sergt; captured in action Nov. 
17, '63; com. 2d Lieut. June 26, '64; not nius. ; inus. out with 
Co. June letli, '65; Vet. 

V. Worthington, Q. M. Sergt., pr. fr. Corp. to Sergt; to Q. M. 
Sergt.; tr. to Co. F. Batt., Sept. 9, '64; pr. to 1st Sergt.; to 2d 
Lieut. Oct. 11, '64; to 1st Lieut. Co. L„Dec. 13, '64; to Capt. 
Co. A., March 5, '65; mus. out by consolidation, June 20, '65; Vet. 

John H. Iloge, Com. Sergt., wd. at Brandy St., Va., June 9, 
'63, inns, out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

John n. Black, Sergt., mus. out with Co., Sejit. 9, '64. 

S. S. Houlsworth, Sergt., died Nov. 27, '61. 

James K. Gregg, Sergt., wd. at Auburn, Va., Oct. 14, '63, mus. 
out with Co. Sept.^t, '64. 

George W. Evans, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp. Aug. 17, '62, mus. out 
with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

John Haver, Surgt., pr. fr. Corp. Sept. 1, '62, mus. out with Co. 
Sept. 9, '64. 

John R. Dunlap, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp. Sept. 1, '62, mus. out with 
Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

W. H. IL Eberhart, Corp., tr. to Battalion Sept. 9, '64. 

John Jones, Corp., pr. to Corp. April, '62, nins. out with Co. 
Sept. 9, '64. 

Alvin H. Wilson, Corp., pr. to Corp. June 13, '62, inus. out with 
Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Thomas F. Reppert, Corp.. pr. to Corp. Sept. 1, '62; wd. July 
28, '64; abs. at mus. out. 

Joseph A. Shatter, Corp., prisoner from June 24, '64, to April 
28, '65; mus. out June 9, 65; Vet. 

Jesse Hughes, Corp., wd. Aug. 22, '64; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; 
died Sept. 27, '64; buried at Philadelphia; Vet. 

Andrew J. Youn<;, Corp. tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; m\is. out as 
Sergt. Co. F., June 20. '65; Vet. 

J. M. Worthington, Bugler, mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 


George W. Walters, Bugler, pr. to iiiTic. March 1, '64, inus. out 
with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Alton, James E., disch. on Surg. Cert. Sept. 22, '62. 
Anderson, John, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64, Vet. 
AUfree, Asa S., wd. and missing at Wilderness May 5, '64. 
Alexander, Morris, cap. Nov. 21, '63; died at Anderson ville, July 
14, '64; grave 3,317. 

Bristel, Omit, mns. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Birch, Thomas, disch. on Surg. Cert. March 14, '63. 

Baker, David S., tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64, Vet. 

Brestel, Jacob, mns. in Sept. 1, '62; wd. May 28, '64; tr. to Batt. 
Sept. 9, '64; mns. out in Co. F, June 6, '65. 

Beam, George W., died Sept. 16, '63, bur. in Mil. Asy. Cem. 
D. C. 

Brown, James W., cap. Aug., '62, and Nov. 17, '63; mus. out 
June 16, '65. 

Crayne, Isaac B., uius. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Cree, Henry C, wd. at Anburn, Va., Oct. 14, '63, mus. out with 
Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Cree, Joseph M., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Cox, James, absent in hospital at mus. out. 

Cummins, William, disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 4, '62. 

Cree, Hugh D., disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 4, '62. 

Craft, Benjamin L., disch. on Surg. Cert. July 28, '62. 

Crawford, James, P., disch. on Surg. Cert. Oct. 17, '62, 

Cummins, James II., tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; mus. out with Co. 
as Corp. Co. F, June 20, '64; Vet. 

Gary, Sylvester P., mus. in Sept. 25, '62; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; 
mus. out with Co. F, June 9, '65. 

Cannon, James, mus. in March 30, '64, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Crago, James, mus. in March 25, '64, died June 1, '64, of wds. 
rec'd at Hawes' Sliop, Va., May 28, '64. 

Crawford, George W., missing at St. Mary's Church, Va., June 
24, '64. 

.Crago, Thomas, mus. in March 25, '6i, missing in action June 
23, '64. 

Davis, Winchester, mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Dean, John W., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Dunlap, Samuel R., died Feb. 13, '63. 

Dukate, John, mus. in Mai-ch 30, '64; cap. at St. Mary's Church, 
Va., June 24, '64; died at Andersonville, Oct. 6, '64; gr'ave 10,436. 

Evans, Robert, mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Elginfritz, David F., mus. in Aug. 25, '62; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, 
'64; mus. out with Co. F, May 27, '65. 


(tA ^^ "^'iTLCy 



Eisininiiiger, James, imis. in Aug. 22, '62; tr. to Batt. Sept. 'J, 
'64; miis. out in Co. F June (i, '65. 

Ely, Caleb, inus. in Aug. 25, "62; wd. at Auburn, A^a., Oct. 14, 
'63; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Evans, William W., died Jan. 29, '62. 

Eisinminger, Thomas, mus. in Sept. 17, '64; not on mns. out roll. 

Fisher, Franklin, mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Fordyee, Justus G., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Fordyce, James li., mus. in Sept. 16, '62, discli. on Surg. Cert. 
March 14, "64. 

Frank, Anthony, mus. in July 17, '63; prisoner from June 24, 
'64 to April 28, "65; mns. out June 21, '65. 

Gump, Harrison, disch. on Surg. Cert. April 29, '63. 

Grove, James P., March 1, '62, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Grim, David C, mus. in Aug. 17, '(i2; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; 
mus. out with Co. F, May 27, "()5. 

Glassmyer, Albert, mus. in July, "63, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '()4. 

Gresley, Charles, mus. in Julv 21, "()3, missing in action Nov. 
17, '63. 

Grass, Henry, mus. in July 17, '(53; capt. May 31, (54; died, 
date unknown; bur. at Millen, Ga., Sec. A, grave 302. 

Higlit, Peter A., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Hummel, David, mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Hughes, James, mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '()4. 

Hill, Samuel, inns, out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Hopkins, John W., disch. on Surg. Cert. Dec. 4, ■ti2. 

Heaton, Smith, mus. iu Aug. 17, "(i2, disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Dec. 8, '62. 

Ham, Ilichard W., tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64, Vet. 

Houseman, Samuel S., tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, 64, mus. out as 
Sergt. Co. F, June 20, '65. 

Herene, Edward, uius. in July 27, '('>3, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Ham, Alfred M., mus. in Feb. 8, '64; wd. iu action June 21, 
'64; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; tr. to Y. XL C. June 15, '65; disch. 
by Gen. Ord. July 17, '65. 

Higginbotham, B. K., disch. ou Surg. Cert. March 15, '63. 

Johns, John, not on mus. out roll. 

Johns, Oliver, uius. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Jenkins, Henry S., disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 19, '62. 

Johnston, George W. L., mus. in Sept. 24, '62; tr. to Batt. 
Sept. 9, '64; mus. out with Co. F, June (i, '65. 

Jones, William, died July 1(), '62; burial record July 12, '62, 
at Ale.xandria, Va., grave 81. 

Jones, Oliver, not on mus. out roll. 


Kennedy, David, mus. in March 8, '64, Substitute; abs., sick 
at mus. out. 

Kramer. Phillip L., mus. in Aug. 24. 'Gl, disch. on Surg. 
Cert. Jan. 4, '62. 

Kendall, James E., disch. on Surg. Cert. July 28, '62. 

Keigley, George, mus. in Sept. 24, '62, disch. by order Sec'y. 
of War May 26, '63. 

Keigley, Newton, mus. in Sept. 24, '62; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, 
'64; mus. out with Co. F, May 27, '65. 

King, Henry B., tr. to Vet. Ees. Corps, 1863. 

Keener, David L., mus. in Sept. 24, '62; died July 18, '63, 
bur. at Alexandria; grave 888. 

Kiebal, Frederick W., mus. in July 17, '63, died Dec. 29, '68. 

Kridel, Frederick W., not on mus. out roll. 

Lucas, Simeon S., disch. on Surg. Cert. Sept. 18, '63. 

Long, Milton, mus. in Aug. 24, '61, disch. by Sec'y of War, 
Sp. Or. No. 52, March 8, '64. 

Lightner, Josiah, mus. in Dec. 19, '68, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

McFarland, John F., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Midlam, Enoch W., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Mercer, Martin V. B., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64 

McCullough, John F., disch. by order of Sec'y. of War Jan. 
16, '62. s ' ^ 

McClelland, Wm. H., disch. on Surg. Cert. Feb. 16, '63. 

McClelland, George W., disch. on Surg. Cert. Feb. 16, '63. 

Mayhorn, Nelson, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; Vet. 

Mitchel, Jacob, mus. in Sept. 24, '62; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; 
mus. out with Co. F May 27, '65. 

Maple, David, mus. in Sept. 24, '62, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Mayes, Samuel, mus. in Oct. 20, '63, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

McGlumphey, William, mus. in March 25, '64, tr. to Batt. 
Sept. 9, '64. 

Moulter, Daniel, mus. in Feb. 8, '64, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Murdock, Abner, mus. in March 80, '64, killed in action July, 12, 

Mairs, Samuel, not on mus. out roll. 

Neff, John, mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Nutt, Thomas IE, disch. on Surg. Cert. Dec. 16, '62. 

Neff, Abraham, tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; Vet. 

Nearhoff, Abner, mus. in Aug. 2, '64; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; 
mus. out with Co. F May 27, '65. 

Phillips, Addison, mus. in Nov. 2, '68; wd. May 10, '64; tr. to 
Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Phillips, Joseph A., mus. in Dec. 14, '68; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, 
64; mus. out in Co. F by G. O. July 29, '65. 


Holeman, Wm. K., mus. in July 21, '63; missing in action near 
AVarrenton, Kov. 17, '03. 

Ross, Samuel, inus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Koss, Ira, nius. in Aug. 24, "61; pris. at Brandy Station, Va., 
June 9, '03; \vd. June 21, 04; nnis. out with Co. Sept. 9, "64. 

Rinehart, David H., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '04. 

Rush, William, disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 7, '63. 

Rush, William J., mus. in March 15, '64, tr. to Batt. Sept 9, '64. 

Rumble, James, mus. in Sept. 24, '62; wd. at Brandy Station 
June 9, '63; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '04. 

Shape, Demas J., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Simmons, Richard D., mus. in Aua^. 24, '01; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
June 7, '02. 

Shape, John M., disch. on Surg. Cert. June 7, '02. 

Shape, John M., mus. in Feb. 27, "64; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '04. 

Shawmon, John W., mus. in March 25, "(54; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, 
'64; mus. out in Co. F, June 6, '65. 

Sams, George W., mus. in March 30, "64; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64; 
died Oct. 8, '64, l)ur. JN'at. Cem., Arlington. 

Sams, Henry, Jr., mus. in March 30, '04; died July 28, '64. 

Seaton, George W., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '04. 

Shawmon, John F., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '04. 

Simraars, Stephen D., not on mus. out roll. 

Steaton, Smith, disch. on Surg. C'ert. Dec. 8, '02. 

Toomey, Isaiah W., mus. in Aug. 31, '03; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '04. 

Tiernan, Josiiua, mus. in March 30, '04; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Teagarden, George W., killed at Mt. Jackson, Ya., June 3, '62. 

Walters. John A., mus. out with Co. Sept. 9, '64. 

Wood, Henry A., pr. to Com. Sergt. June 22, '02. 

Young, John B., mus. in Feb. 27, '64; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '64. 

Yarkley, William, mus. in July 17, '63; tr. to Batt. Sept. 9, '04. 

Zollars, Richard S., mus. in Sent. 24, '02; tr. to. Batt. Sept. 9, 
'04; mus. out in Co. F, May 27, '05. 



Companies F and G, of the EiGirrr-FiFTn Pennsylvania Infantey 


Organization — Yoektown and Williamsbukg — Faie Caks — New- 
been, N. C. — West Ceeek — Kingston — White Hall — Golds- 
BOEO — Folly Island, S. C. — Siege Opeeations befoee Foet 
Wagnee — Death of Col. Pueviance — Befoee Peteesbueg — 
Deep Bottom — Losses — Teansfees — Mustered Out — Eegoeds 
OF the Men. 

COMPANY F, of the Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania Infantry, and a 
portion of Company G, were recruited in Greene County. The 
regiment -was organized on the 12th of JMovember, 1861, by the 
choice of the following officers: Joshua B. Howell, colonel; Norton 
M'Giffia, lieutenant-colonel; and Absalom Guiler, major. During 
the winter the regiment was engaged in drill and in fatigue duty, 
across the east branch of the Potomac, in the construction of works 
for the defense of Washington. In the spring of 1862 it moved to 
Meridian Hill, and was brigaded with the 101st and 103d Pennsyl- 
vania regiments, and the 96th New York, under command of Gen- 
eral Wessells. 

In the Peninsula campaign, under McClellan, the regiment was 
engaged in the siege of Yorktown, and in the battle of Williamsburg 
with a loss of two wounded, one mortally. At Fair Oaks, on the 
31st of May, while engaged in fortifying the position, it was vigor- 
ously attacked by the enemy under General Joseph E. Johnston. The 
regiment occupied the rifle-pits on the right of the main work, a re- 
doubt held by Hart's battery. General Casey, who held the front 
was vigorously pushed, but made a stout resistance, throwing grape 
and canister with terrible effect. He was finally obliged to retire to 
his supports. In the seven days' battles which ensued, which resulted 
in the change of base by McClellan from the Chickahominy to the 
James, the regiment was not actively engaged. When McClellan 
evacuated tlie Peninsula, and went to the support of Pope before 
Washington, Keyes' corps, the Fourth, to which the regiment be- 
longed, remained on duty at Fortress Monroe. 

On the 5th of December, 1862, Wessell's brigade was ordered to 
Newberne, North Carolina, to reinforce Foster, and upon its arrival 


joined in an expedition to destroy a rebel gun-boat on the ]Veuse, 
break up the railroad bridge near Goldsboro, and make a diversion 
in favor of liurnside at Fredericksburg. At West Creek tlie enemy 
was found ready to dispute the passage. Wessells liad the advance, 
and throwing tiie Eigth-fifth to the right of the road, and Ninth New 
Jersey to the left, crossed the stream and advanced upon the flanks of 
the enemy's position, compelling a hasty retreat. Two pieces of ar- 
tilleiy and a number of prisoners were tlie fruits of victory. On the 
following morning the command moved forward, Wessells upon the 
left, and soon came upon the enemy m the well made fortifications of 
Kingston. But by pushing through a swamp, thought to be inacces- 
sible, they entered at the side lett open, and immediately charged in 
face of a hot tire, and soon put the enemy to rout. A brisk skirm- 
ish was had at White Hall, and on the 17th the defenders of the 
bridge at Goldsboro were swept back and the destruction of the 
bridge, the main object of the expedition, was effected. 

Towards the close of Januarj^, 18t!3, General Foster was ordered 
with a part of his army to proceed to South Carolina, to co-oper- 
ate with General Hunter in his operations against Charleston. Col- 
onel Howell now had command of the brigade, and Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Pnrviance of the regiment. At the head of Folly Island the 
troops witnessed the first bombardment of Fort Sumter, by Admiral 
Dupont. Ill June, 1863, General Hunter was superceded by Gen- 
eral Gilaiorc. To possess Morris Island it was necessary to erect 
powerful batteries at the north end of Folly Island. AVhile at this 
work the dense underbrush shielded the working parties from view. 
In this duty tlie 85th sharetl, working by night, and watching by day. 
When all was ready the obstructions were cleared away, and tire 
opened from forty-four heavy guns. An assault followed by which 
the enemy's first line of works was cleared, but Fort Wagner, the 
main work, still held out. Gilmore determined to reduce it by regu- 
lar siege appi'oaches. "Ground was broken on the 21st of July, and 
the work, which was terribly exhausting, was pushed forward with 
the utmost vigor, day and night; neither the heat of a tropical 
climate, nor the missiles of a vigilant foe, were allowed to interfere 
with the labor. On the 20th of August the 85th Pennsylvania, 
100th New York, and the 3d New Hampshire, were detailed to oc- 
cupy the advanced trenches, each twenty-four hours in turn. The 
trenches were shallow, and afforded little protection from the enemy's 
fire. On the left were his powerful guns on James Island and in 
Fort Johnson; in front those of Sumter, Gregg and Wagner; and 
on the right Fort Moultrie. The nights were damp and cold, and 
during the day the thermometer stood 100° in the shade. The casu- 
alties were numerous, and the sick list increased with alarming rapid- 
ity. The 85th took its turn in this terrible ordeal, and on the 21st 


had one killed and twenty wounded, three mortally; on the 24th, one 
killed and seven -wounded, one mortally; on the 27th, two killed 
and eight wounded, three mortally; on the 30th, four killed and 
eight wounded, Lieutenant-Colonel Purviance being of the number 
killed; on the 2d of September, five wounded, one mortally." The 
85th with an aggregate strength of 451 on going upon the outer 
works, could muster but 270 lit for duty when recalled. Two at- 
tempts to surprise and capture Fort Gregg proving unsuccessful. 
General Gilmore determined to again attempt to take it by assault. 
But the bombardment by sea and land for forty hours induced the 
enemy to retire, and the island was occupied. 

Upon the death of Colonel Purviance, Major Campbell was made 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain Abraham, Major. Active operations 
were continued until the middle of April, 1864, when the Tenth 
corps was ordered north to reinforce the Army of the J ames. The 
85th was of the hrst brigade, Howell's, hrst division, Terry's. The 
usual service of fortifying and picket duty continued until the 20tli, 
when Howell's brigade was ordered to. charge and drive out the 
enemy in front. This was gallantly and successfully executed, but 
with a loss of two killed and twenty-one wounded. The rebel 
General Walker was wounded and taken prisoner. 

On the 14th of June, Grant's troops began to cross the James, 
and the Tenth corps took possession of the works between the James 
and the Appomattox. The enemy soon pressed heavily in front of 
Howell, and the fighting was of unusual severity. Finally the Union 
line was pushed back to the original line of battle. The loss of the 
85th was five killed and two wounded. In the expedition to Deep 
Bottom, which was made on the 13th of August, in which the Second 
and Tenth corps engaged the corps of Longstreet and Hill, the 85th 
had two killed and nineteen wounded, five mortally. In the affair 
of the 16th, Terry's division was hotly engaged, the 85th participating 
in a charge, in which the enemy, by withholding his fire while pro- 
tected by works, was able to deliver it in a manner to produce 
great destruction, the regiment losing nine killed and fifty-four 
wounded. In the operations on the south side of the Appomatto.v 
by Terry's troops the regiment participated, sustaining slight losses, 
until the 14th of October, when the veterans and recruits were trans- 
ferred to the 188th, and on the 22d of November it was mustered 
out of service. 

Company F, Eighty-fifth Infantry Regiment. 

Recruited in Greene County, mustered in October 16, 1861. 
John Morris, Capt. mus. in Nov. 11, '61; disch. June 23, '62. 
Nicholas Hager, Capt. pr. to 1st Lieut. Jan. 3, '62; to Capt. June 
23, '62; disch. March 9, '68. 


Levi M. Rogers, Capt. pr. from Sergt. to 2d Lieut. June 23, '62; 
to 1st Lieut. July 7, '63; to Capt. Aug. 8, '64; died Sept. 4, of wds. 
rec'd at Deep Bottom Aug. 16, '64, bur. in Nat. Asy. Cem. Sec. B., 
grave 1. 

Eosberry Sellers, 1st Lieut, discli. Nov. 28, '61. 

John Kemley, 1st Lieut, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; pr. fr. 2d Lieut. 
June 23, '62; discb. July 6, '63. 

Elmore A. liussell, 1st Lieut, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; pr. fr. 1st 
Sergt. Aug. 9, '62; com. Capt. July 21, '64; not mus.; wd. Aug. 16, 
'64; discb. Jan. 28, '65; Vet. 

James E. Buyers, 1st Sergt. ; absent on detaclied serv. at mus. out. 

Zacliariali C.Iiagan, Sergt; mus. out witli Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

James B. Lindsey, Sergt.; mus. in Nov. 11, '61; disch. Feb 20, '62. 

Joseph Silveus, Sergt.; disch. on Surg. Cert. 

Isaac D. Ilaveley, Sergt.; mus. in Feb. 1, '64; wd. Aug. 16, '64; 
tr. to Co. n, 188th Ptegt. P. V. June 28, '65; Vet. 

Rinehart B. Church," Sergt. mus. in Feb. 1, '64; wd. Aug. 15, '64; 
tr. to Co. II, 188th Regt. P. V. June 28, '65; Vet. 

Thomas J. White, Sergt.; mus. in Feb. 4, '64; absent on detached 
service at mus. out; Vet. 

Oliver M. Long, Sergt.; died at AVhite House, Va., June 12, '62. 

Alouzo Lightner, Sergt.; mus. in Feb. 1, '64; pr. to Sergt. Nov. 
18, '62; killed at Deep Bottom, Aug. 16, '64; Vet. 

Jefferson II. Zane, Corp.; mus. in Nov. 11, '01; absent, sick at 
mus. out. 

Ryerson Kinney, Corp.; absent, on detached service at mus. out. 

William H. Iloskinsoii, Corp.; mus. in Nov. 11, '61; mus. out with 
Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

John Morman, Corp.; disch. on Surg. Cert. May 26, '62. 

William C. Leonard, Corp.; disch. on Surg. Cert. July 4, '68. 

Thomas Hoge, Corp.; disch. on Surg. Cert. May 26, '62. 

Hiram Weaver, Corp.; disch. on Surg. Cert., date unknown. 

James N. Derbins, Corp.; mus. in Feb. 1, '64; wd. Oct. 13, '64; 
tr. to Co. II, 188th Regt. P. V. June 28, '65; Vet. 

Thomas M. Sellers, Corp.; mus. in Feb. 1, '64; wd. Aug. 16, '64; 
tr. to Co. II, 188th Regt. P. V. Jime 28, '65; Vet. 

Thomas P. Rodgers, Corp.; mus. in Aug. 28, '62; pr. to Corp. 
June 29, '64; killed at Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 16, '64. 

Daniel Swan, musician, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

James McCuen, musician; mus. in Dec. 16, '61; mus. out with 
Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Ar^o, Simeon, died at Morris Island, So. Carolina, Sept. 3, '63. 

Armer, Strosnider, des. date unknown. 

Bryner, James, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, 


Burk, Noah, discli. date unknown. 

babbitt, Joseph, raiis. in Nov. 11, '61; disch. May 12, '63. 

Burroughs, John B., mus. in March 26, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th 
Regt. P. v., June 28, '65. 

Bissett, Jeremiah, mus. in Jan. 20, '64; died at Hampton, Ya., 
Oct. 21, '64; bur. in Nat. Cem., Hampton, Sec. C, grave 32, under 
name of J. BussulL 

Bissett, Albert, mus. in Jan. 20, '64; died at Beverly, N. J., Aug. 

27, of wds. rec'd at Petersburg, Ya., June 17, '64. 
Cliapman, Charles, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 
Cheney, Jesse, disch. for wds. Nov. 23, rec'd June 10, '65. 
Chiirch, Franklin, mus. in Aug. 28, '62; disch. by Gen. Order, 

June 10, '65. 

Church, George, raus. in Feb. 24, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th Eegt. 
P. V. June 28, '65. 

Cree, Alexander D., mus. in Aug. 28, '62; wd. at Deep Bottom, 
Ya., Aug. 16, '64; disch. by Gen. Order May 13, '65. 

Cooper, James E., mus. in Oct. 22, '62; tr. to Co. H., 188th Regt. 
P. Y. June 28, '65. 

Clouse, John, mus. in Jan. 20, '64; tr. to Co. H., 188th Regt. P. 
Y. June 28, '65. 

Cartwright, Jesse L., mus. in Aug. 22, '64; died at Hampton, Ya., 
Oct. 4, '64; bur. in Nat. Cem., Hampton, Sec. 8, grave 14. 

Cowen, John, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; died at Washington, D. C; 
bur. Mil. Asylum Cem., D. C. 

Crouse, Nathan, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; died; date unknown. 

Crouse, William, died June 11, '62; bur. in Mil. Asylum Cem. 
D. C. 

Davis, Benjamin, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Duvall, Elias, died at Beaufort, So. Carolina, Sept. 11, '63, of wds. 
rec'd at Fort Wagner. 

Earnest, Jacob, absent on detached .service at mus. out. 

Engle, Solomon, mus. in Nov. 4, '61; mus. out with Co. Nov. 
22, '64. 

Estrep, Cornelius, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; died at Philadelphia, 
Aug 7, of wds. rec'd at Fair Oaks, Ya., May 31, '62. 

Fry, Thomas R., mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Fordyce, William, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Fordyce, John, disch.; date unknown. 

Fry, David, mus. in Jan. 5, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th P. Y. June 

28, '65. 

Fry, Henry, raus. out Feb. 1, '64; wd. Aug. 21, '62; killed near 
Peterburg, Ya., June 17, '64; Yet. 

Graham, John P., mus. in Nov. 11, '61; mus. out with Co. Nov. 
22, '64. 



Gilbert, Eliel, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 
Garrison, Thomson, absent on detached service at mus. out. 
Gladen, AYilliam II., discli.; date unknown. 

Gray, Isaac, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; wd. Aug. 3, '61; absent, on de- 
tached service at mus. out. 

Hickman, George F., mus. out witli Co. Nov. 22, '64. 
Hummel, William, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 
Hays, George W., mus. in Nov. 11, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. April 
16, '62. 

Hofi'raann, James, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th P. V. 
June28, '64; Vet. 

Hoifman, Jacob, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; absent on detached service 
at mus. out. 

Henderson, William, mus. in Jan. 25, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th 
Kegt. P. V. June 28, '65. 

Hunt, Josephus, mus. in Nov. 11, '65; died at Beaufort, So. Caro- 
lina, Oct. 12, "63, of wds. rec'd at Fort Wagner; bur. record Sept. 
29, '63. 

Hathaway, Adolph, mus. in Feb. '64; killed at Cold Harbor, June 
3, '64; bur. in Nat. Cem. City Point, Sec. A, Div. 1, grave 4 or 62; 

Johnston, Francis M., died at White House, Va., June 19, '62. 
Johnson, Nicholas, died at N. Y. Oct. 16, '62; bur. in Cypress 
Hill Cem., L. I. 

Knight, James, disch. on Surg. Cert. Sept. 12, '62. 
Kimble, Jackson, mus. in Feb. 4, '64; absent on detached service 
at mus. out. 

Leonard, Harvey, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; mus. out with Co. Nov. 
22, '64. 

Longhman, Henry, absent on detached service at mus. out. 
Lewis, George ¥., disch. Oct. 20, '62. 
Longdon, Morgan, disch. on Surg. Cert. Oct. 11, '62. 
Leonard, Wm. E., mus. in Feb. 4, '64; absent on detached service 
at mus. out. 

Mitchell, Andrew J., mus. out in Co. Nov. 22, '64. 
Martin, Perry W., mus. in Nov. 10, '61; wd. Aug. 16, '64; miis. 
out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Mitchell, Jonathan, disch. date unknown, for wds. rec'd Aug. 15, 

Martin, Silas W., mus. in Sept. 9, '62; wd. Aug. 16, '64; disch. \ty 
Gen. Order May 13, '65. 

Montgomery, John, mus. in Aug. 13, '62; disch. by Gen. Order 
May 13, '65. 

Montgomery, AVilliam, mus. in Oct. 22, '62; absent on detached 
service at mus. out. 



Moore, Carl, mus. in March 26, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th Regt. P. 
V. June 28, '65. 

Moore, Sanmel BL., mus. in March 26, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th 
Eegt. P. y. June 28, '65. 

Murdy, John, mus. in Aug. 22, '64; disch. by Gen. Order, June 
10, '65. 

Martin, James M., mus. in Nov. 11, '61 ; died at Point Look Out,, 
Md., Oct. 6, '62. 

Morris, Andrew J., mus. in Jan. 5, 64; died at Hilton Head, S. C- 
April 18, '64; Vet. 

McMullin, William, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

McCracken, Thomas, disch. on Surg. Cert. July 4, '63. 

McGlurphy, Harvey, disch. on Surg. Cert., date unknown. 

McGary, Spencer, mus. in JSTov. 11, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 
31, '63. 

McGumphrey, W., mus. in Nov. 11, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert, 
Oct. 80, '62. 

McDonald, Alfred, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; died at Hampton, Va., 
Oct. 10, '64; Vet.; bur. in Nat. Cem. Sec. D., grave 22. 

Nelson, LaFayette, died May 23, '62; bur. in Mil. Asy. Cem. D. C. 

Ott, Ezra, mus. in Jan. 20, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th Regt. P. V. 
June 28, '65. 

Ott, Salem, mus. in March 31, '64; tr. to Co. H., 188th Regt. P. 
V.June 28, '65. 

Pettitt, Henry, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; mus. out with Co. Nov. 
12, '64. 

Plants, Maxwell, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Packer, Wm. F., disch. on Surg. Cert. Aug. 1, '63. 

Pettitt, George, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; wd. Aug. 24, '63, and Aug. 
14, '64; tr. to Co. H. 188th Eegt. P. V. June 28, '65; Vet. 

Patterson, Joseph, died at Malvern Hill, Va. July 1, '62. 

Riggs, William, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Rinehart, Morgan, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; absent, on detached serv- 
ice at mus. out. 

Richard, Lewis, missing in action at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, '62. 

Roseberry, Thomas, disch. on Surg. Cert. Feb. 12, '63. 

Riggs, Peter, disch., date unknown. 

Roach, George, mus. in Jan. 20, '64; disch. June 23, '64. 

Rush, John, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th Regt. P. V. 
June 28, '65; Vet. 

Riger, John, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188 th Regt. P. V. 
June 28, '65; Vet. 

Rinehart, Thomas, mus. in Feb. 1, '64; tr. to Co. H, 188th Regt. 
P. V. Jiine28, '65; Vet. 


Einehart, Meeker, died at Annapolis July 9, of wds. rec'd May 
31, '62. 

Scott, Abijah M., abs. on detached service at nius. out. 

Scott, Liston, nius. in Feb. 1, '64; pris. fr. May 16, '64, to April 
21, '65; dischg. July 5, '65; Vet. 

Sutton, John, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; dischg. on Surg. Cert. May 
26, '62. 

Smith, James E., mus. in Mar. 11, '62; dischg. on Surg. Cert. 
Sept. 12, '62. 

Seabold, Williani H., mus. in Feb. 1, '64; abs. on detached ser- 
vice at mus. out. 

Sellers, John, mus. in Aug. 28, '62; dischg. on Gen. Order, June 
10, '65. 

Smith, Ezra, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; died May 29, '62; buried in 
Mil. Asylum Cemetery, D. C. 

Smith, Anthony A., mus. in Mar. 6, '62; died at Point Lookout. 
Oct. 25, '62. 

Thompson, Samuel, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; mus. out with Co., 
Nov. 22, '64. 

Thomas, William, dischg. date unknown. 

Teagarden, Isaac, mus. in Nov. 11, '61; dischg. date unknown. 

Taylor, Levi, mus. in Feb. Feb. 24, '64; abs. on detaclied service 
at mus. out. 

Thomas, Samuel, mus. in Apr. 8, '64; died Feb. IS, '65; buried 
in Nat. Cem., City Point, Va., Sec. A, div. 8, grave 129. 

Terrel, George W., mus. in Aug. 22, '64; dischg. by Gen. Order, 
June 10, '65. 

Vandivender, Eli, mus. in Aug. 13, '62; wd. Aug. 24, '63; dischg. 
by Gen. Order, June 10, '65. 

West, Jacob, mus. in Nov. 11,'<)1; mus. out with Co.. Nov. 22, '64. 

Wiseman, George, mus. in Jan. 20, '64; missing as Deep Bottom, 
Va., Aug. 16, '64. 

Weaver, Jacob, dischg. on Sur. Cert., July 9, '62. 

Winger, John M., mus. in Feb. 24, '64; dischg. on Surg. Cert., 
Sept. 26, '62. 

Wiseman, John, mus. in Aug. 22, '64; disch. by Gen. Order. 
June 10, '65. 

West, Samuel, died at Harrison's Landing, Va., July 26, '62. 

Wilkinson, A. J., died at Point Lookout, Md., Maj' 26, of wds. 
reed. May 20, '64. 

Company G, Eighty-fifth Inf.vntky Regiment. 

Recruited in Greene County, mustered in Nov. 6, 1861. 
Isaac M. Abraham, Capt. pr. to Major, Apr. 28, '64; wd. near 
Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 15, '64; mus. out with Reg., Nov. 22, '64. 


John A. Gordon, 1st Lieut., com. Capt. Sept. 8, '63; not mus; 
mns. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

John F. Crawford, 2d Lieut., resigned March 10, '64. 

Benoni S. Gilmore, 1st Sergt. mus. in Oct. 15, '61; pr. to Sergt. 
March 1, '63; to 1st Sergt.; mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

David E. Graham, 1st Sergt., disch. on Surg. Cert. Nov. 22, '62. 

Marquis L. Gordon, Sergt., pr. to Corp. March 1, '63; to Sergt. 
Nov. 1, '63; mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Hiram Gordon, Sergt.; pr. to Sergt. Nov. 1, '64; abs. on detached 
Serv., at mus. out. 

Jesse E. Jones, Sergt; mus. in Oct. 20, '61; wd. Aug. 14, '64; 
pr. to Sergt. Nov. 1, '64; mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Eobert II. Ross, mus. in Oct. 22, '61; wd. Aug. 30, '63; disch. 
on Surg. Cert. May 11, '64. 

James E. Core, mns. in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Snrg. Cert. Feb. 
6, '63. 

Benj. F. Campbell, mus. in March 17, '62; pr. to Corp. Nov. 1, 
'63, to Sergt. Sept. 1, '64; abs. on detached service at mus. out. 

Francis M. Eush, Sergt., died at Hampton, Va., Aug. 19, of wds. 
seed. Aug. 16, '64. 

Myers P. Titus, Sergt., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Hampton, 
Va., Oct., '64, of wds. reed, in action. 

"William Pitcock, Corp., disch. on Surg. Cert. Nov. 21, '62. 

George A. Burchinal, Corp, mus. in Oct. 15, '61, died at York- 
town, Va., June 10, '62. 

James Sturgis, Corp., died at Beverly, N. J., Nov. 6, of wds. 
reed. Aug. 16, '64. 

Harrison II. Hoge, Corp., died Aug. '62; bur. record Sept. 25, 
'62; bur. in Cypress Hill Cem. L. I., grave 437. 

Thomas S. Knisely, Corp., died at Suifolk, Va., Nov. 4, '62. 

George W. Kennv, Corp., Nov. 1, '63, killed at Bermuda Hun- 
dred Va., May 20, '64; bur. in Nat. Cem., City Point, Sec. A, Div. 
1; Vet. 

Adam M'Gill, musician, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Hiram Hickman, musician, died at Crany Island, Va., Sept. 
13, '62. 

Atchison, Henry K., absent, wounded at mus. out. 

Bai-e, Baker, mus. in Nov. 6, '61, disch. on Surg. Cert. Dec. 
29, '62. 

Black, Lindsay, mus. in Jan. 5, '64; wd. Aug. 16, '64; tr. to 
Go. G, 188th Eegt. P. V., June 25, '65; Vet. 

Bovid, "William, mus. in Feb. 12, '62; absent on detached ser. 
at mus. out. 

Bowers, "William H., died at Beaufort, S. C, Sept. 4, '63, of 
wds. reed, in action. 


Eariies, Jesse, died May 12, 'G2; buried in Nat. Cein., York- 
town, Va., Sec. C, grave 20G. 

Beard, George C, mus. in Oct. 24, '61; died April 9, '62; l)n. 
in Nat. Ceni., Yorktown, Va., Sec. IJ, grave 231. 

Cline, John L., wd. Sept. 2, '63; mustered out with Co. Nov. 
22, '64. 

Cuinley, John G., disch. on Surg. Cert. May 9, '63. 

Conrad, Alexander, disch. Oct. 22, '64, expiration of term. 

Cole, Jacob, died near Richmond, Va.', June 6, '62. 

Dean, William, mus. in Oct. 24, '64; mus. out with Co. Nov. 
22, '64. 

David, Wells E., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at White Oak 
Swamp, Va., June 23, '62. 

Dickson, Philans E., mus. in Oct. 25, '61; died at Washington, 
t). C, May 25, '62; bur. in Military Cem. 

Eberhart, Martin L., mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Enrix, Charles M. B., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; absent, sick at mus. 

Eberhart. William, mus. in Feb. 11. '62; aUs. on detaciied serv. 
at mus. out. 

French, Isaac, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; discii. on Surg. Cert. Feb. 
20, '62. 

Greene, William P.. mus. in Oct. 15, '61; mus. out with Co. 
Nov. 22, '(54. 

Graham, William A., wd. Aug. 16, '64; mus. out with Co. 
Nov. 22, '64. 

Goodwin, David S., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert 

Gray, James, mus. in Oct. 15. '61; disch. Nov. 17, '()4; exp. 

Gabler, Philarus E., disch. on Surg. Cert. Aug. 5, '63. 

Graham, John, disch. on Surg. Cert. Aug. 18. '62. 

Griffin, Charles A., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; tr. to Sig. Corps. Sept. 
7, '63. 

(Wooden, David, mus. in Feb. 12, '64; tr. to Co. G, 188th Ptegt. 
P. v., June 28, '65. 

Gehoe, Benjamin, died at Hampton, Va.. June 14. '64, of wds. 
reed, in action. 

Gregg, John, des. Nov., 1861. 

Grove, David L., mus. in Oct. 25, '61; absent on furlough at 
mus. out. 
. Hayden, Caleb F., absent, sick at mus. out. 

Ilonsacker, Nicholas, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; mus. out with Co. 
Nov. 22, '64. 

Harden, John P., mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 


Hunter, Isaac, inus. in Oct. 25, '61; absent, sick at mus. out. 

Ilayden, Henry M., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Surg. 
Cert. 1862. 

Haney, Wm. H., mus. in March 4, '62; disch. mi Surg. Cert. 

Husk, Frederick, liius. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Baltimore, Md., 
July 16, '02. 

Huss, James, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; des. June 30, '62. 

Hoffman, George, des. Nov. '61. 

Jacobs, Josephus, mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '65. 

Jenkins, Andrew J., mus. in Oct. 22, '61; mas. out with Co. 
Nov. 22, '61. 

Kent, John R., mus. out with Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Kniseley, George W., disch. on Surg. Cert. July, '63. 

Kennedy, Van B. mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Camp Scott, Va., 
April 25, '62. 

Lloyd, George, mus. in Oct. 15, "61; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Aug. 21, '62. 

Lyon, James F., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Harrison's Land- 
ing, July 2, '62. 

Lytle, Rodandus, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Fortress Monroe, 
Aug. 14, '62. 

Martin, David W., absent on detached service at mus. out. 

Mereditli, Enrix, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Dec. 22, '62. 

Mitchell, Allen W., mus. in Oct. 24, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Aug., '62. 

Moser, John P., tr. to Co. G, 188th Regt. P. V., June 28, 
'65; Vet. 

Murdock, J. II. L., died at White Oak Swamp, Va., June 28, '62. 

Moore, John, died at "Washington, D. C, Dec. 6, '61; bur. in 
Mil. Asy. Cem. 

Moser, Silas L., des. Nov. 18, '61. 

McDonald, John, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; wd., with loss of right 
arm and left hand, July 29, '68; disch. on Surg. Cert. May 7, '64. 

McGill, William, mus. in Oct. 15, '61, disch. on Surg. Cert. 
March 6, '63. 

McMasters, James, died at Camp Scott, May 16, '62. 

Nicholson, J. W., mus. in July 16, '62; died at Folly Island, 
Nov. 1, '62. 

O'Neal, Henry, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Aug. 5, '63. 

Pratt, Joseph S., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; abs. on detached duty 
at mus. out. 


Patton, Henry B., nius. in Oct. 15, '61; mus. out witli Co. 
jVov. 22, '64. 

Patterson, W. II., inns, in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
:Nov. 13, '62. 

Pratt, Ashabel F., mus. in Oct. 15, '61: disch on Surg. Cert. 
Aug. 5, '63, 

Pitcock, Owen, mus. in Nov. 1, '61; tr. to Vet. Res. Corps., 
Sept. 16, '63. 

Patton, Caleb A., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Pliiladelpliia, Pa., 
July 10, '62. 

Phillips, Ashberry, died at Chesapeake Hospital, Va., June 10, 
'62, of wds. received in action. 

Rush, John W., mus. out witii Co. Nov. 22, '64. 

Ramor, Minor A., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
JVIay 9, '63. 

Rush, John D., disch. on Surg. Cert. Nov. '61. 

Reid, Joel, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died Sept. 22, '62; bur. in Cyp. 
Hill Cam. L. I. 

Sutton, William A., mus. in Oct. 23, '61; absent in ar. at mus. 

Strickler, John, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; abs., sick at mus. out. 

Shultz, Israel, disch. Nov. '61. 

Strosnider, Reason, discli. on Surg. Cert. Nov. '(31. 

Spicer, John, disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 6, 'G'd. 

Sturgis, Phineas W., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Yorktown, 
Ya., June 2, '62; buried in Nat. Cera. Sec. D, grave 167. 

Sturgis, David R., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; died at Baltimore, Md., 
May 29, '62. 

Titus, Benjamin, mus. in Oct. 15, '61; absent, sick at mus. out. 

Thomas, Joshua R., wd. Aug. 9, '(53; discli. Nov. 11, '64; exp. 
of term. 

Tell, William, mus. in July 30, '(52; disch. by Gen. Order, June 
8, '65, 

Tannehill, Joseph, mus. in (3ct. 15, '(51; died at Morris Island, 
S. C . August 23, '63. 

Utt, William II., mus. in Oct. 15, '61; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
November 27, '62. 

AVilcox, Moses, mus. in Oct. 15. '61; died at Baltimore, 
Md., May 20, '62. 





Organization — North Centeal Railway — Chancelloesville — 
White House — Gettysbueg — The "Wheat Field — Mine Run 
Campaign — The Wildeeness — Coebin's Beidge — Spottsyl- 
VANIA — Tolopotomy Ceeek — Death of Captain McCulloijgh 
— Cold Haeboe — Befoee Peteesbueg — Jeeusalem Flank' 
Road — Deep Bottom — Ream's Station — Hatchee's Run — 



Recoed of Individual Soldiers. 

COMPANY A, of the One Hundred and Fortieth Regiment, 
was recruited in Greene County, and was originally officered by 
John F. McCullough, Captain; J. Jackson Furman, First Lieuten- 
ant; David Taylor, Second Lieutenant. The regiment was organized 
at Camp Curtiu on the 8th of September, 1862, with Richard P. 
Roberts, of Beaver County, Colonel ; John Frazer, of Washington 
County, Lieutenant-Colonel; Thomas B. Rodgers, of Mercer County^ 
Major. During the period of Lee's invasion of Maryland, which 
culminated in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, the 
regiment was posted along the line of the North Central Railway to 
keep open that great thoroughfare. Having been thoroughly drilled, 
it was ordered to the front, and arrived as the troops were returning 
from the disastrous battle of Fredericksburg. It became a part of 
the Third Brigade, General Zook, First Division, Second Corps. In 
the battle of Chancellorsville it was engaged in front of the Chancel- 
lor House on the old turnpike leading to Fredericlvsburg, where 
General Hancock held an advanced position, and where the enemy 
made frequent and determined attacks. With Colonel Miles it was- 
upon the picket line during the nervous and uneasy night of the 
2d, when the least movement of troops drew the fire of Avhole 
divisions of the army. During the morning of the 3d, while the 
One Hundred and Fortieth was supporting the Fifth Maitie Bat- 
tery, the White House, which was situated at the apex of the new 
line of battle, took fire and was utterly destroyed. Thirty-three 
wounded men, and three women, who had taken refuge in the cellar, 

Amd^i^U^ dfit^e^c^Aa-^^^ 


were brought forth from the burning wreck. When the army re- 
tired to tlie new line the ( Jne Hundred and Fortieth occupied a posi- 
tion to the left of the White House, where it remained, subjected to 
occasional artillery tire, until the 6th, when it retired across the 

The battle of Gettysbui'g followed close upon Chancellorsville. 
The First and Eleventh Corps met a full half of tlie rebel army on 
the heights beyond the town to the northwest, and were driven back 
through its streets to the ridge to the south, in the centre of which 
was the quiet little Evergreen Cemetery. On the morning of the 
2d the Second Corps, now under the gallant Hancock, came upon the 
tield, and was posted along the left centre of the line, stretching 
from the cemetery along the Emmettsburg Pike towards the Peach 
Orchard. About four o'clock Sickles, who, with the Third Corps, 
occupied the extreme left, stretching from the pike along the Peach 
Orchard to Little Konnd Top, was fiercely attacked. His line was 
thin and weak; but right gallantly did he hold liis ground, and hurl 
back the foe. Again and again he came. In the midst of the fray 
Sickles was grievously wounded with the loss of a leg. His weakened 
columns were gradually forced back. " PortioTis of the Fifth Corps 
were sent to his relief, but shared a like fate. Finally Hancock sent 
Caldwell's Division, of his own corps, to check the enemy's mad ad- 
vance, and repair the threatened disaster. Moving rapidly across 
the little wooded knoll to the right and front of Pound Top, he tirst 
sent the brigades of Cross and Kelly to penetrate the Wheat Field 
and the wood beyond, where the fiercest tighting had been. Colonel 
Cross was killed, and his command was terribly torn, as it advanced 
upon that fatal Wheat Field, on three sides of which the enemy in 
heavy numbers was concealed. And now, as a forlorn hope, the 
brigades of Zook and' Brooke were sent forward. Zook was killed 
while leading his troops into the tight, and before he had hardly got 
into action. The command of his brigade then fell upon Colonel 
Roljerts of the One Hundred and Fortieth. (Tallantly did these two 
small brigades pnsii forward over this devoted ground in the face of 
a severe tire. The enemy was swept back from the cover of the 
woods, and the rocky ridge beyond the Wheat Field, a position of 
great natural strength, was carried. But th s advantage, gained at 
a fearful cost, was of no avail. The angle in Sickle's line at the 
Peach Orchard, the weak point in his formation, had been hope- 
lessly broken, and through this opening tlie enemy swarmed and 
turned the right of Caldwell's position, compelling him to with- 
draw. He rested at night on the low ground on the loft centre of 
the line, where lie remained during the heavy cannonade of the suc- 
ceeding day, and until the close of the battle." The loss in Com- 
pany A in the battle was severe. Sergeant Brown and Corporal 


Eddy were killed, Private Loar was mortally wounded, Lieutenant 
Purman was wounded with loss of a leg, Captain McCullough, 
Sergeant Zimmers and Private Eddy were severely wounded, Colonel 
Roberts, Captain Acheson and Lieutenant Wilson of the regiment 
were killed. 

The One Hundred and Fortieth now became a part of the First 
Brigade, to the command of which Colonel Nelson A. Miles, of 
the Sixty-first New Yoi'k, was assigned. Lieutenant-Colonel Frazer 
was made Colonel, Major liodgers, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Captain 
Thomas Henry, Major. " In the advance of the army to the 
Eapidan, and the retrograde to Centreville, and subsequent advance to 
Mine Run, where the campaign ended without coming to a decisive 
battle, the regiment shared the fortunes of the corps, participating 
in the action of Bristoe Station on the 14th of October, 1863, and 
the skirmishing in front of the enemy's position at Mine Run, 
sustaining some loss in wounded." 

By midnight of the 3d of May, 1864, the regiment was on the 
march for the AVilderness campaign. General Grant was now in 
supreme command. By noon of the fifth, the regiment had arrived 
upon the Brock road, where it threw up breast-works, the enemy in 
front. The scenes on that gory field, pen cannot portray. The regi- 
ment shared in the fiery conflict. At three on the morning of the 
6th, it was aroused, the brigade holding the left of the line where 
substantial breast-works were erected. On the morning of the 8th 
the regiment joined in the general movement of the army, and had 
an encounter with the enemy at Corbin's bridge. On the 9th the 
Po River was crossed, and the regiment was placed upon the skirm- 
ish line and met the pickets of the enemy. A line of rifle pits 
was thrown up along the Po River. Early on the morning of the 
12th the regiment joined in the grand movement of Hancock's 
corps, which resulted in the movement upon the rebel iutrenchments, 
and large captures of men and material at Spottsylvania. The 
movement was commenced at the first breaking of the day, and was 
shielded somewhat from view by a dense fog which prevailed on that 
morning. The advantage gained was securely held, though the enemy 
made repeated attacks to regain his lost ground, and atone for 
his discomfiture. The loss in the regiment in this affair was over 
one hundred, and in Company A, Benjamin Dunston, John W. Peden, 
Thomas Boty and Judson W. Paden, were killed. Andrew J. "W ald- 
ers was mortally wounded, John Henry was wounded, and David 
Frays and Job Smith, Jr., were missing in action. 

Starting on another grand flanking movement on the 20th, the 
North Anna was crossed on the 23d, but finding the enemy advant- 
ageously posted. Grant determined not to attack; but, withdrawing, 
he encountered the enemy at Tolopotomy Creek, and severe fighting 


occurred, Hancock occupying the centre and successfully carrying 
tiie enemy's tirst line and holding it against every fierce attack of 
the foe. Here Company A lost its brave leader, Captain John 
F. McCullough, who was killed, and Norval Troy, who was mor- 
tally wounded. 

Without loss of time the army moved on to the old battle ground 
<jf Gaines' Mill, only with the two opposing columns reversed, Lee 
having the ground of McClellan, and Grant that of Stonewall Jack- 
son. Grant iiere boldly attacked along the whole line, Hancock 
holding the left. But the ground was now found to be completely 
fortified, and the attack, though successful in parts, was not in tiie 
main design fruitful, and was finally abandoned with grievous loss. 
In Company A, John R. M. Greene, and John Gray, were killed, 
and Michael Itoope was mortally wounded. I'y the middle of June 
the army was across the James, and an attack upon the enemy at 
Petersburg was promptly delivered. l>ut finding, as usual in this 
campaign, that the enemy had placed himself behind elaborately- 
planned and strongly fortified works, the attempt to carry the place 
by direct assault was abandoned, and the army sat down before the 
town and commenced the more tardy operations of the siege. In 
this first attack before Petersburg, John Acklin, of Company A, 
was killed. In the movement on the Jerusalem I 'lank Road, on 
the 21st of June, the One Hundred and Fortieth participated with 
the Second and Sixth Corps, but only a partial success was achieved; 
though a position was taken and fortified, which the enemy found 
himself unable to break through. On the 26th of July a demon- 
stration was made to the north side of the James, where, in con- 
nection with the JS^ineteenth corps, the brigade gallantly charged the 
enemy's works, on the 28th, and captured prisoners and four Parrott 
guns, and on the 30th returned to the Petersburg front. The 
mine explosion resulted in no advantage to the Union army. On 
the 14th of August the corps again crossed the James, and at 
Deep Bottom the rebel works were carried by Birney's division, 
•which was advanced within sound of the rebel capital. Returning 
to the Petersburg front the corps took up the line of march on 
the 21st, and at Ream's Station had a desperate encounter .with 
the enemy, who appeared in superior force. 

" In the subsequent operations of the corps during the fall and 
winter, the regiment bore a part, being hotly engaged in front of 
Petersburg, on the 9th of September, in the general movement of 
the 27th of October; suffering much from inclemency of tiie weather 
in the expedition to Hatcher's Run, from the 8th to the lOtli of 
December, and in that to Dabney's Mills from the 5th to the 17th 
of February, 1865. Apart from tliese it remained undisturbed in 
winter (juarters until the opening of the spring campaign on the 


25tli of March. On that day the Second Corps made an advance 
upon the rebel lines at Hatcher's Run, and a portion of his works, 
designed to cover the South Side ilailroad, was carried. For four 
days the fighting was continued on this part of the line, the corps 
making daily some substantial advance, Miles' Division executing 
a brilliant move at Southerland's Station on the 3d of Api'il, 
whereby extensive captures of men and materials were made. The 
corps was again engaged on the 6th at Sailor's Creek, and on the 
7th at Farmvillc fought its last battle. In this engagement an 
assaulting column led by General Miles M-as bloodily repulsed. 
Night put an end to tiie contest, and under cover of the dark- 
ness the enemy withdrew. Two days later Lee surrenclered. Hos- 
tile operations were soon after concluded, and returning to the 
neighborhood of Washington, the regiment, on the 31st of May, 
was mustered out of service." 

Company A, One Hundred and Fortieth Kegiment. 

Eecraited in Green County, mustered into service Sept. 4, 

John F. McCullougli, Capt., wd. at Gettysburg, July 2, '63; 
Com. Col. 183d Reg. P. Y., May 28, '64; not raus; killed at Toio- 
potomy, Va., May 31, '64. 

James M. Pipes, Capt., pro. fr. 1st Serg. to 2d Lieut., Jan. 2, 
'64; to Capt., June 27, '64; wd., with loss of arm, at Reanie's 
Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64; disch. on Surg. Cert. Feb. 17, "65. 

John A. Burns, Capt., pr. fr. Sergt. to 1st Sergt., Jan. 2, '64; 
to 1st Lieut., June 27, "64; to Capt., March 4, '65; mus. out with 
Co.. May 31, '65. 

J. Jackson Purman, 1st Lieut., wd. witli loss of leg at Gettys- 
burg, July 2, "63; discli. on Surg. Cert., May 20, '64. 

Mark G. Spragg, 1st Lieut., pr. fr. Corp. 'to Sergt., Marcli 1, 
'64; to 2d Lieut.," June 27, '64; to 1st Lieut., Marcli 4, "65; mus. 
out with Co. May 31, '65. 

David Taylor, 2d Lieut., resigned July 31, '63. 

Charles T. Hedge, 1st Sergt., pr. fr. Corp. July 1, '64; com. 2d 
Lieut., Dec. 18, '64; not mus.; mus. out with Co. May 31, ■()5. 

Daniel B. Waychaft, Sergt., pr. to Sergt., July 1, '64; disch. 
by Gen. Order, July 5, '65. 

Nathaniel N. Purman, Sergt., wd. at Cliancellorsville, May 3, 
'63; tr. to 105th Co. 2d Battl. V. R. C, Jan. 30, '65; dSsch. 
Sept. 4, '65; exp. term. 

Henry Zimmers, Sergt.; wd. at Gettysburg, July 2, '63; abs. 
at mus. out. 


John C. Coen, Sergt., pr. to Corp. July 1, "64; to Sergt., 
May 1, "65; mus. out with Co. JVlay 31, "65. 

Cornelius J. Bark, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp., Nov. 1, "63; disch. on 
Snrg. Cert. March 16, "65. 

Wiliain A. Brown, Sergt., killed at Gettysburi^, July 2, "63. 

J. S. Ilerrington' Corp., pr. to Corp. July 1, "64; tr. to V. R. 
C; disch. by Gen. Order, July 20, '65. 

Alpheus Crawford, Corp., disch. by Gen. Order, June 6, "65. 

Carey M. P"ulton, Corp., nuis. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Thomas J. Kent, Corp., pr. to Corp. July 1, '64; mus. out with 
Co. May 31, "65. 

James B. Reinhart, Corp., pr. to Corp. July 1, "64; mus. out 
with Co. May 31, "55. 

Joseph Bane, Corp., pr. to Corp. July 1, (54; mus. out with 
Co. May 31, '65. 

Kramer Gabier, Corp., mus. oat with Co. May 31, "65. 

Spencer Stephens, Corp., pr. to Corp. May 1, "65; mus. out with 
Co. May 31, '65. 

Leroy S. Greenlee, Corp., killed at Gettysburg, July 2, '63; bur. 
in Evergreen Cemetery. 

John W. Peden, Corp., killed in action, May 15, "64. 

James Woods, musician, mus. out with Co. May 31, "65. 

Morgan Dunn, musician, mus. out with Co. May 31, "65. 

Anderson, Harrison, inus. out with Co. May 31, "65. 

Acklin, Samuel, mus. in Feb. 27, '64; tr. to V. li. C; disch. 
by Gen. Order, Feb. 24, '65. 

Armstrong, Oliver, tr. to Co. F, 18th Reg. V. R. C, Aug. 
10, "64; disch. by Gen. Order, June 27, "65. 

Anderson, James, tr. to 114th Co. 2d Battl. V. R. C, March 
13, '64; disch. by Gen. Order, July 18, '65. 

Acklin, John, killed at Petersburg, Va., June 17, "64. 

Burson, Oliver, II. P., mus. out with Co. May 31, "65. 

Bennett, John, mus. out with Co. May 31, "65. 

Barney, Peter, tr. to 51st Co. 2d Battl. V. R. Corps. Nov. 6, 
"63; disch. Sept. 4, '65; exp. term. 

Clutter, Samael, mus. oat with Co. May 31, '65. 

Cox, John, Jr., mus. out with Co. May 31, "65. 

Clutter, Noah D., mus. in April 13, "64; tr. to Co. K, 1st Recr. 
V. R. C, Sept. 1, "63; disch. by Gen. Order, July, "65. 

Cowan, Joseph, des. Dee. 10, "63. 

Doman, George N., mus. out with Co. May 31, "65. 

Dunstan, Benjamin, killed at Spotlsylvania, Va., May 12, "64. 

Eddy, Michael, tr. to Vet. R. Corps. Jan. 6, "65. 

Eddy, John W., wd. and cap. at Gettysburg, July 2, "63; died 
at Richmond, Va., Jan. 27, "64. 

412 HISTORY OB^ grep:ne county. 

Freelaud, George, discli. on Snrg. Cert. Jan. 16, '65. 

Fislier, John, raus. in Nov. 29, '62; tr. to Co. li, 53d Eeg. 
P. v., May 30, '65. 

Frays, David, missing in action at Spottyslvania, C. II. Va., 
May 12, '64. 

Freeland, Charles A., died Nov. 17, '62. 

Garber, Thornton, disch. by Gen. Order, Jnly 10, '65. 

Gray, George, raus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Geary, Simon, wd. at Tolopotomy, Ya., March 31, '65; absent 
at mias. out. 

Green, John E. M., billed at Cold Harbor, Ya., June 6, '64. 

Green, Isaac P., died at Falmouth, Ya., Jan. 8, '63. 

Gray, John, killed at Cold Harbor, Ya., June 2, '64. 

Henry, John, wd. at Spottsylvania, C. H., May 12, '64; disch. 
by Gen. Order, June 8, '65. 

Hopkins, Daniel S. mus. in Feb. 29, '64; tr. to Co. H, 58d 
Eeg. P. Y., May 30, '65. 

Harris, Stephen C, tr. to Ind. Batty. C, Pa. Artillery, Feb. 
15, '64. 

Hoge, David E., died at Washington, D. C, Jan. 10, '65; bur. 
in Nat. Cem. Arlington. 

Jones, John C, mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Jones, George, mus. in Feb. 27, '64; tr. to Co. H, 53d Eeg. P. 
Y., May 31, '65. 

Kent, Eegin S., wd. at Bristoe Station, Ya. Oct. 14, '63; absent 
at mus. out. 

Kener, Oliver, raus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

King, Daniel, disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 17, '65. 

Kent, James F. discli. by Special Order, March 13, '63. 

King, Daniel, mus. in March 22, '64; tr. to Co. H. 53d Eeg. 
P. Y., May 30, '65; disch. by Gen. Order, June 3, '65. 

Loar, Benjamin F., died at Philadelphia, Aug. 1, of wds. reed, 
at Gettysburg, July 2, '63. 

Meighen, John, mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Miller, John H., disch. on Snrg. Cert. Jan. 20, '63. 

Mariner, George W., tr. to 114th Co. 2d Battl. Y. E. C, March 
13, '65; disch. by Gen. Order, July 18, '65. 

Miller, Abraham, tr. to Yet. Ees. Cor. Dee. 1, '63. 

Morris, Franklin E., missing in action at Chancellorsville, Ya., 
May 8, '63. 

Morris, Lindsay, died at Washington, D. C, Dec. 22, 64; bur. 
in Nat. Cem. Arlington. 

McCuUough, L. G., disch. by Gen. Order, June 6, '65. 

McCnllough, Hiram, missing in action at Eeam's Station, Ang. 
25, '64. 


Ogderi, William, absent, sick at mus. out. 

Pipes, Abner, disch. by Gen. Order, June 26, '65. 

Pettit, Joseph, died July 7, '64, at Ale.xandria, Va.; grave 2,346. 

Push, John A., mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Poop, John E., mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Poop, William, disch. on Surg. Cert. Jan. 16, '63. 

Poop, Lindsay, mus. in March 26, '64; tr. to Co. II, 53d Peo- 
P. v., May 30, 65. 

Poop, Henry, mus. in March 26, '64; tr. to Co. II. 53(1 Reg. P. 
v., May 30, '65. 

Robinson, Ale.x. D., mus. in Feb. 29, 64; tr. to Co. II, 53d Reg. 
]*. v.. May 3, '65. 

Pidgway, Samuel, died at Parkton, Md., Nov. 25, '62. 

Poope, Michael, mus. in March 26, '(54; died July 29, of wds. 
reed, at Cold Harbor, June 2, "64; bur. in Nat. Cem., Arlington. 

Steel, Nicholas, disch. by Gen. Order, July 15, '65. 

Steel, Ehud, mus. out with Co. Maj^ 31, '(55. 

Swart, James M., mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Scott, Simon P., mus. out with Co. May 31. '65. 

Scott, Henry, mus. out with Co. May 31, '(55. 

Sprowls, Jesse, wd. at Spottsylvania, C. IL, May 12, '64; absent 
at mus. out. 

Strosnider, Caleb, disch. by Gen. Order, July 12, '65. 

Sergeant, Richard, disch. March 10, '63. 

Strosnider, Kener L., tr. to 169th Co., 2d Battl, V. R. C, 
Jan. 9, '65; disch. by Gen. Order, July 3, '65. 

Sanders, Harvey, tr. to Vet. Pes. Corps. Sept. 1, '63. 

Smith, Job, Jr., mus. in March 9, '64; missing in action at 
S])ottsylvania, May 12, '64. 

Simpson, John, mus. in Feb. 27, 64; died Sept. 17 of wds. reed, 
in action, Aug. 14, '()4; bur. in Nat. Ceni., Arlington, Va. 

Steward, Jesse, died at Philadelphia, April 9, '65. 

Spragg, John M., killed at Mine Run, Nov. 29, '63. 

SinitlK Job, Sr., des. July 2, '63. 

Taylor, Abner AY., mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Taylor, Levi, tr. to Vet. Res. Corps. March 13, '65. 

Troy, Norval L., mus. in Nov. 29, '62; died June 27 of wds. 
reed, at Tolopotomy, May 31, '64; bur. at Ale.xandria, grave 2,234. 

Wilson, John P. H., mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Wilson, George W., mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Wallace, Benjamin F., tr. to 51st Co. 2d Battl. V. P. C, Jan. 
18, '65; discli. Sept. 4, '65. 

Walters, Brezan T. mus. out with Co. May 31, '65. 

Woolum, Harrison, disch. by Gen. Order, May 15, '65. 

Wallace, Francis A., disch. on Surg. Cert. Oct. 12, '63. 


West, Simon S., tr. to Independent Battery C, Pa., Art. date 

Walters, Andrew J., mus. in Feb. 27, '64; died at Philadelphia, 
Jiilj 4, of wds. reed, at Spottsylvania, C. H., May 12, '64. 

Welsh, Morris, mus. in April 3, '65, des. May 15, '65. 


Company K, Fifteenth Cavalry, One Hundred and Sixtieth of 
THE Line. 

Battle of Antietam — Disobganized — Sent to Kentucky- — Stone 
PivEE — Refusal to Advance — Colonel Palmee Released — 
Oeganization Completed — Battle of Chicicamauga — Rose- 
CKANS Shut Up by Beagg at Chattanooga — Geant in Command 
— Victoey — Aemy' Relieved — Valley of the French Beoad 
— Oedeeed to Nashville to Receuit — Nashville — Puesuitof 
Hood — Pursuit of Davis — Capture of Beagg and Yast Sums 
of Money — Musteeed Out — Individual Recoed. • 

COMPANY K, of the 15th Cavalry, 160th of the line, was in part 
recruited in Greene County. It was partially organized at Car- 
lisle, in September, 1862; but before it was completed, and before the 
company officers were selected, the regiment was ordered to the front 
and participated in the Antietam campaign then in progress. Un- 
fortunately, Colonel Palmer, who was looked to by the men to see 
that suitable officers should be selected, was taken prisoner, and be- 
fore further company organization was effected, the regiment was 
ordered west to the army of Rosecrans, in Kentucky, and arrived 
upon the eve of the battle of Stone River. Well knowing that the 
regiment was in no condition to go into battle in its disorganized 
state, without company officers, and wholly wanting in drill and dis- 
cipline, all but three companies stacked arms and refused to obey the 
order to advance. Majors Rosengarten and Ward, with about three 
hundred men, went into the battle. The former officer was killed, 
and the latter mortally wounded, and thirteen men were killed and 
sixty-nine wounded and missing. 

On the 7th of February, Colonel Palmer, having been released 
from captivity, returned to the regiment and a complete organization 

^^ccat <^ o<^-^^>2i^ 


of the entire command was efl'ected. On the 24th of June the army 
moved forward on the Chickamauga campaign, Companies H, 11 and 
K being detailed as escorts to General Kosecrani^, and the balance 
of the regiment performing courier duty between the right and left 
wings of the army. V>j the disaster to the right wing, and the 
escape of Rosecrans to Chattanooga, and the final retreat of the 
army, it became hemmed in, and the animals, as well as men, were 
brought to a state bordering on starvation. Colonel Palmer was, ac- 
cordingly, sent into the Se<iuatchie Valley, thirty miles away, where 
corn and provisions were found in abundance, and whence supplies 
were forwarded to Chattanooga. The arrival of Grant, and the battle 
of the 25th of November, wrought a marvelous change in the con- 
dition of the army, Bragg having been swept from before the place. 
Palmer was now sent with the Fifteenth to join Sherman in his re- 
lief of Knoxville, where Burnside was held by Longstreet. Upon its 
arrival it was sent against a party of whites and Indians approaching 
from North Carolina, and by skillful dispositions gained a complete 
triumph. In the active operations in the valley of the French Broad 
which succeeded, the regiment participated with credit. After Long- 
street had put his army in winter quarters, brisk skirmishing en.sned 
on the part of both armies, while engaged in foraging and gathering 
supplies, in which the Fifteenth gained much credit for its skillful 
operations, and its midnight descents upon the foe. 

In May, 1864, the regiment was ordered to Nashville to reci'uit 
and remount. It was August before this was accomplished, and, on 
ai>proaching the front, was kept busy in defending the communica- 
tions of Sherman, now well on his way in the Atlanta campaign. 
After the fall of Atlanta, and Sherman had cut loose for liis March to 
the Sea, the Fifteenth was ordered to the support of Thomas, at 
Nashville, in his operations against Hood, and when the latter had 
been routed and put to flight, the Fifteenth was put upon his track, 
and in the race which ensued, hung upon the rear and flanks of the 
retreating foe, despoiling him of material and trains so that his army 
was made powerless for further mischief. The operations were now 
largely confined, in the Western armies, to daring e.xploits of the 
cavalry, in which kind of warfare the men and officers of tiie 
Fifteenth had acquired great skill, and were very successful. 

With fresh horses the cavalry started on the spring campaign of 
1865, under General Stoneman. Its operations extended over por- 
tions of east Tennessee, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, 
and finally when the news came of the surrender of Lee and John- 
ston, the Fifteenth was put upon the track of Jeff Davis. " On the 
morning of the 8th inst.," says General Palmer in his official report, 
"while searching for Davis near the fork of Appalachee and Oconee 
Rivers, Colonel Ijett's Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry captured 



seven wagons in the woods, which contained $188,000 in coin, $1,- 
580,000 in bank notes, bonds, and securities and about $4,000,000 
of Confederate money, besides considerable specie, plate, and other 
valuables belonging to private citizens of Macon. The wagons con- 
tained also the private baggage, maps and official papers of Generals 
Beauregard and Pillow. Two days after, Company G, Captain 
Samuel Phillips, captured Genei-al Bragg, his wife, staff officers and 
three wagons. On the 15th news was received of the capture of 
Davis and party by Colonel Pritchard, of the Fourth Michigan Cav- 
alry, detachments from Colonel Bett's command being close upon 
his trail. The campaigning of the regiment was now at an end, and 
returning to Nashville on the 21st of June, it mustered out of service. 

Company K, One Hundeed and Sixtieth Regiment, Fifteenth 

Recruited in Greene County, mustered in Aug. 30, 1862. 

Jacob R. Plewitt, Capt., mus. in Nov. 31. '60; private An- 
derson Troop, Oct. 10, '62; resigned Feb. 27, '63. 

Abraham B. Garner, Capt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. fr. 1st Sergt. 
May 8, '63, to Maj., March 13, '65; inus. out with Regt. June 21, '65. 

Charles E. Scheide, Capt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. fr. Adj. March 
13, '65; mus. out with Co. June 21, '65. 

Frank E. Reniont, 1st Lieut., mus. in Aug. 22, '62; pr. fr. Sergt. 
Co. C, May 8, '63; to Capt., Co. I, Aug. 15, '64; mus. out with Co. 
June 21, '65. 

Nathaniel M. Sample, 1st Lieut., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. fr. pri- 
vate to Q. M. Sergt. March 1, '63; to 1st Sergt. March 16, '64; to 1st 
Lieut. Nov. 8, '64; mus. out with Co. June 21, '65. 

Michael M. Musser, 1st Sergt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. to Corp. 
March 1, '63; to Sergt. May 16, '63; to 1st Sergt. Jan. 1, '65; com. 
2d Lieut. May 20, '65; not mus.; mus. out June 21, '65. 

W. W. Blackraar, 1st Sergt. mus. in Aug. 30, '62; pr. fr. Corp. 
to Sergt. March 1, '63; to 1st Sergt. May 5, '63; to Lieut. 1st R§gt. 
W. Va. Cav. March 18, '64; disch. as Capt. July 8, '65. 

Theophilus H. Smith, Q. M. Sergt., pr. to Corp. Jan. 4, '63; to Q. 
M. Sergt. March 16, '64; mus. out with Co. June 21, '65. 

J. Lingerfield, Jr., Com. Sergt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. fr. private 
March 1, '63; mus. out June 21, '65. 

John C. Wilson, Sergt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. to Corp. Oct. 30, 
"62; to Sergt. March 1, '63; mus. out June 21, '65. 

James Agnew, Sergt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. to Corp. March 1, 
'63; to Sergt. May 15, '63; mus. out June 21, '65. 

Jacob H. Isett, Sergt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. to Corp. Oct. 30, 
'62; to Sergt. Feb. 5, '65; mus. out June 21, '65. 


Jaines II. Shertz, Sergt., inus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. to Curp. May 15, 
'68; to Sergt. Feb. 5, '65; inus. out June 21, '65. 

Jacob Weutzler, Sergt., pr. to Corp. Nov. 29, '64; to Sergt. March 
16, '65; mus. out June 21, "65. 

Henry C. Potts, Sergt., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. fr. Corp. Co. L, 
March 1, '63; disch. March 15, '63. 

Sealy S. Byard, Sergt., pr. tV. Sergt. Oct. 30, "62; disch. on Surg. 
Cert. Feb. 27, "63. 

William II. Small. Corp., pr. to Corp. April 1, "61:; luus. out 
June 21, "(15. 

James A. Kenney, Corp., inns, in Sept. 6, '62; pr. to Corp. Feb. 
5, '64; mus. out June 21, "65. 

Alexander H. Robinson, Corp., inus. in Oct. 3, '62; pr. to Corp. 
Fel). 5, "65; mus. out June 21, '65. 

Benjamin Bartrain, Corp., mus. in Oct. 3, "62; pr. to Corp. Feb. 
5, '65; mus. out June 21, "65. 

Joseph Copeland, Corp., mus. in Sept. 6, '62; pr. to Corp. March 
15, '65; mus. out June 21, '65. 

Jacob W. Miller, Corp., mus. in Oct. 10, "62; pr. to Corp. March 
15, '65; mus. out June 21, '65. 

Nathaniel B. Briggs, Corp., pr. to Corp. March 15, '65; nius. out 
June 21, '65. 

John P. Geinmill, Corp., pr. to Corp. May 15, '65; died at ('hat- 
tanooga Dec. 24, '63. 

William M. Murdock. Bugler, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; mus. out June 
21, '65. 

George W. Wright, Bugler, inus. in Oct. 3, '62; inus. out June 
21, '65. 

Jere. K. Parshall, Blacksmith, mus. in Oct. '62; disch. on Surg. 
Cert. Jan 15, '63. 

William McGee, Saddler, pr. to regimental saddler, March 1, "63. 

Askwith, John D., mus. in Sept. 28, '64; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Adainsoii, John, tr. to Co. I, date unknown. 

Arvecost, Joseph, inus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. C, date unknown. 

Burke, Joseph R., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Beck, Henry L., inus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to U. S. Array Oct. 
30, '62. 

Burson, David F., mus. in Aug. 30, "62; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Feb. 23, '63. 

Burchinell, Win. K., mus. in Oct. 3, "62; tr. to Signal Corps 
Oct. 27, "63. 

Burns, Andrew S., mus. in Aug. 18, "64; tr. to Co. A, June 
21, '65. 


Barnett, James P., died at Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 18, '62. 

Brooks, William, died at Lavergue, Tenn., Jan. 5, '63, of wds 
rec'd in action. 

Bell, Joseph, tr. to Co. B, date unknown. 

Bell, John H., tr. to Co. I, date unknown. 

Brown, John E., mus. in Oct. 3,62; tr. to Co.P, date unknown. 

Bond, Edward, mus. in Oct. 10, '62; tr. to Co. H, date unknown. 

Beitz, Augustus O., mus. in Aug. 6, '64; not on mus. out roll. 

Campbell, William P., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; mus. out with Co. 
June 21, '65. 

Cleverstone, Daniel, mus. in Sept. 24, '64; mus. out with Co. 
June 21, '65. 

Clark, Adrian S., mus. out with Co. June 21, '65. 

Carr, Charles, mus. in Oct. 10, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. Aug. 
6, '63. 

Clark, Edward B., disch. on Sui'g. Cert. March 3, '63. 

Cholette, Cor. M., tr. to U. S. Army Oct. 30, '62. 

Cover, Michael, mus. in June 4, '64; tr. to Co. A. June 21, '65. 

Crawford, Edwin E., died in Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 12, '63; bur. 
in Nat. Cem. 

Conner, William B., died in Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 3, '63; bur. 
Nat. Cem. Sec. B., grave 1,177. 

Cotterel, William, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. G, date un- 

Cumston, John, mus. in Oct. 10, '62; tr. to Co. E, date unknown. 

Chambers, William H., mus. in Oct. 10, '62; tr. to Co. H., date 

Cotterel, Jonas, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. M. 

Duer, Florence, mus. in Sept. 23, '64; disch. by Gen. Order, June 
24, '65. 

Dye, William L, disch. by Gen. Order, June 24, '65. 

Denney, Clark, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. I, date unknown. 

Drake, Alexander S., mus. in Oct. 10, '62; died at Nashville, Tenn., 
Dec. 31, '62; bur. in Nat. Cem., Sec. B, grave 88. 

Evaus, Benjamin B., tr. to Co. F, date unknown. 

Estle, Daniel L., tr. to Co. I, date unknown. 

Farrer, John G., mus. out with Co.. June 21, '65. 

Faas, John, mus. in Sept. 10, '64; mus. out with Co- June 21, '65. 

Fisher, David F., miis. in Sept. 19, '64; mus. out with Co. I, June 
21, '65. 

Fullerton, Bryam M., mus. in Aug. 20, '64; mus. out with Co. 
June 21, '65. 

Frankenberry, A. D., tr. to Signal Corps Oct. 27, '63. 

Filbey, Barton E., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; des. Dec. 8, '63. 

Gosline, Nelson, mus. out with Co, June 31, '65. 


Gibbons, Anthony J., nuis. in Sept. 25, '64; prisoner from April 
13 to 30, '65 ; disch. June 20, '65; to date May 18, '65. 

Grim, David, raus. in Sept. 19, '64; mus. out with Co. June 21, '65. 

Griffin, Samuel C, mus. in Jan. 27, '64; tr. to Co. A, June 21, '65. 

Gass, Samuel W., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. F, date unknown. 

Grim, William., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. D, date unknown. 

Grim, Lycurgus, mus in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. F, date unknown. 

Househalter, Philip, mus. in Sept. 22, 64; mus. out with Co. 
June 21, '65. 

Himes, John, mus. in Oct. 3, '63; mus. out with Co. June 21, '65. 

Howard, George W., mus. in Sept. 6, '62; pr. to 2d Lieut., 4th 
Regt. U. S. Col. Art., April 5, 65; mus. out Feb. 25, '66. 

Heiter, Joseph J., mus. in March 24, '64; tr. to Co. A, June 
21, '65. 

Hoke, George N., mus. in Sept. 6, '62; died at Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., April 2, '63; bur. in Nat. Cem. Stone River. 

Hawkins, A. LeRoy, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. Co. I, date un- 

Hewitt, Jacob, mus. in. Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. F, date unknown. 

Hewitt, Eli, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. B, date unknown. 

Hewitt, Samuel, mus. in Oct. 10, '62; tr. to Co. H, date unknown. 

Houlsworth, James, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. G, date un- 

Houston, Samuel, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. H, date un- 

Houston, Josepii, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. H, date 

Hartzell, Edwin, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. I, date uu- 

Hartley, John M., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. D, date un- 

Hughes, James, mus. in Oct. 29, '64; not on mus. out roll. 

Johns, Albert M., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Oct. 12, '63. 

Johnstone, Valentine, mus. in Aug. 8, '64; tr. to Co. A, June 
21, '65. 

Jamison, Wilbur T., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. H, date 

Jameson, John A., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. F, date un- 

Jordan, Robert H., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. H, date un- 

Kimmel, Jacob, mus. in Oct. 10, '6S; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Kinney, Eaton, mus, in Oct. 3, '62; dis, on Surg. Cert, Feb,33, '63, 


Ketchem, John, raus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. F, date unknown. 

Keys, Cory M., nius. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. G, date unknown. 

Kincaid, Robert, raus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. H, date unknown. 

Kent, James, inus. in Oct. 10, '62; tr. to Co. E, date unknown. 

Krouse, Enos, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; not on inus. out roll. 

Lamoreux, E. B., mus. in Aug. 8, '64; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Leas, William H., mus. in Sept. 22, '64; discli. by Gen. Order, 
June 9, '65. 

Lippincott, W. H., mus. in Sept. 27, '64; mus. out with Co. 
June 21, '65. 

Lundy, William, mus. in Aug. 30, '64; tr. to Co. D, date un- 

Lewis, Josiah, mus. in Oct. 3, '64; tr. to Co. G, date unknown. 

Mehl, Edwin M., mus. in Aug. 22, '64; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Metzler, John C, mus. in Aug. 22, '64; raus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Miller, C. G. Jr., mus. in Aug. 22, '64; raus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Mills, Edward L., mus. in Oct. 19, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Moyer, James H., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, 62.' 

Morrow, William H., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; disch. on Serg. Cert. 
April 28, '63. 

Myers, Alpheus, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. Feb. 
25, '63. 

Moore, Jacob B., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Signal Corps, Oct. 
27, '63. 

Marcus, William, raus. in March 21, '64; tr. to Co. A, June 
21, '65. 

Morony, Matthew, mus. in March 11, '64; tr. to Co. A, June 
21, '65. 

Minor, Andrew J., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. H, date 

Murdock, Wm. B., mus. in, Oct 3, '62; tr. to Co. G, date un- 

Milligan Samuel, mus. in Oct. 3, 62; tr. to Co. G, date unknown. 

Milligan, James H., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. G, date un- 

Milligan, Jonas, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co.. I, date unknown. 

Milligan, Edward, mus.* in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. I, date unknown. 

Messenger, James, mus. in Oct. 10,'62; tr. to Co. B, date unknown. 


Mill-dock, John, inus. in Aug. 30, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

McNay, Jasper P., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; mus. out with (-o. June 
21, '65. 

McClain, William, mus. in tr. to Co. A, June 

21, '65. 

McGovern, Thomas, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; died atNasli^'ilie, Tenn., 
Jan. 22, '63; bur. in Nat. Cem. section E, grave 2,089. 

McNay, Newton B., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. H, date un- 

McCormick, James, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. F, date un- 

McCarty, Boyd J., mus. in Oct. 10, '62; tr. to Co. G, date un- 

McGlumphey, J. B., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. D, date 

Newman, AVm. H., mus. in Sept. 6, '62; prisoner from May 2 to 
May 16, '65; disch. June 16, to date. May 21, '65. 

Norman, S. II., mus. in Aug. 22, '62; pr. to 2d Lieut. Co. B, 
184th Kegt. r. V. April 29, '64. 

Nichols, Thomas M., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
Feb. 8, '63. 

Newbecker,'!'. C, mus. in Aug. 22, '62; tr. to Yet. Res. Corps 
Aug. 1, '63; disch. by Gen. Order July 5, '65. 

Nichols, Erasmus, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; des. Dec. 8, '62. 

Pierce, Joseph K., mus. in Aug. 22, '62; disch. by Gen. Order 
May 29, '65. 

Pratt, Ingram, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; died at Nashville, Tenn., 
Feb. 8, '63; bur. in Nat. Cem., section B, grave 1,104. 

Pyles, James M., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. 11, date un- 

Phillips, John W., mus in Oct. 2, '62; tr. to Co. G, date un- 

Robertson, John, mus. in Sept. 6, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Rull, William, mus. in Aug. 22, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Ross, Jacob, mus. in Aug. 22, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. April 
4, '65. 

Reynolds, Jacob A., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; disch. March 10, '63. 

Ransom, George P., mus. in Aug. 8, '64; died at Nashville, Tenn., 
May 26, '65; bur. in Nat. Cem., section 1, grave 1,126. 

Riggle, Amos, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; des. Feb. 19, '63. 

Reynolds, John B., mus. in Sept. 6, '62; des. March 1, 'tj3. 

Ross, David D., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; tr. to Co. F, date unknown. 


Richuy, James L., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. H, date un- 

Rex, John, mns. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. C, date unknown. 

Rineliart, Bennett, mus. in Oct. 3, '62; ti-. to Co. B, date un- 

Kitchie, Clement, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. B, date 

Sawyers, John W., mus. in Sept. 15, '64; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65.* 

Schrader, Anthony, mus. in Sept. 12, '64; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65 

Shoaf, Daniel, mus. in Aug. 19, '64; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Sullivan, William, mus. in Aug. 21, '64; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Simday, John, mus. in Oct. 10, '62; mus. out. with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Struble, Lot J., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; miis. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Sharps, Charles T., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
April 29, '63. 

Steel, William, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to U. S. Army, Oct. 
30, '62. 

Shaffer, William G., mus. in Aug. 22, '62; tr. to Vet. Res. Corps, 
Sept. 80, '63. 

Supplee, Henderson, mus. in Aug 22, '62; tr. to Vet. Res. Corps, 
April 30, '64. 

Smith, John, mus. in Oct. 17, '64; tr. to Co. A, June 21, '65. 

Smith, William, mus. in June 18, '64; tr. to Co. A, June 21, '65, 

Stees, Thomas W., mus. in Oct. 10, 62; died at Murfreesboro. 
Tenn., June 2, '63. 

Stevenson, Alfred, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. F; date un- 

Stone, George E., mus. in Aug 30, '62; tr. toCo. ; I date unknown. 

Sproat, Timothy R., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. B; date un- 

Smith, William P., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. F; date 

Sayers, Harry E., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. G; date 

Shirk, Michael M., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. G; date un- 

Sliope, Milton S., mus. in Oct. 3, 62; tr. to Co. G; date un- 

Strosnider, William JVI., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; not on mus. out roll. 


Thornlee, James W., mus. in Aug. 22, '62; des. March 1, 63. 

Thomas, Joshua, mus. in Aug. 3U, '62; died at Nashville, Tenn., 
March 4, '63; bur. in Nat. Cem., Section E, grave 816. 

Turner. Abel, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. 11; date un- 

Turner, Josiah P., mns. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. D; date un- 

Thomas, Francis M., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. M; date 

Walter, John, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; disch. by Gen. Order, July 
5, '65. 

Watts, Wilbur, mus. in (Jet. 10, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 

Weatherby, J. C, Jr., mus. in Aug. 22, 62; mus. out witli Co. 
June 21, '65. 

Wagner, Augustus D., mus. in Oct. 10, 62; disch. on Surg. 
Cert. Oct. 31, '63. 

Wilson, Charles T., mus. in Oct. 3, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. 
July 30, '63. 

Wilson, William, mus. in Aug. 22, '62; disch. for promotion 
Feb. 28, '65. 

AViiliams, Edward P., mus. in Oct. 10, '62; disch. by Gen. 
Order, May 31, "65. 

Wood, "Edward W., mus. in Aug. 30, "62; tr. to Co. C; date un- 

Waychuff, John D., mus. in Oct. 3, "62; tr. to Co. F; date un- 

White, David C, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. F; date un- 

Wiser, Angelo, mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr. to Co. H; date un- 

Worthington, E., mus. in Aug. 30, '62; tr, to Co. F; date un- 

Wiley, James M., mus. in Aug. 22, '62; tr. to Co. M; date un- 

Zell, John M., mus. in Aug. 22, '62; mus. out with Co. June 
21, '65. 



Companies A, C, and G, Eighteenth Cavalry, One Hundeed and 


Okganization — Mosby's Gueeeillas — Hanovee — Gettysbueg — 
E.OUND Top — Puesuit of Teains — Beandy Station and Uppee- 
viLLB — Raid to Kichmond — Wildeeness — Yellow Taveen — 
Hanovee Codet House — Ashland — St. Maey's Chuech — 


Ceeek — Musteeed Out — Individual Eecoeds. 

THE One Hundred and Sixty-third regiment, of which Companies A, 
C, and G, were recruited in Greene County, was organized early 
in February, 1862, at camp near Fairfax Court House, with the fol- 
lowing field officers, viz.: Timothy M. Bryan, Jr., Colonel; James 
Gowan, Lieutenant-Colonel; Joseph Gilmore, William B. Darlington 
and Henry B. Van Voorhis, Majors; and was brigaded with Fifth 
New York and First Yermont Cavalry, under command of Col. Percy 
Wyndliam. Here the regiment M'as pitted against Mosby's guerrillas, 
citizens by day and soldiers by night. Being indifferently ai-med, 
the duty was anything but pride-exciting to a soldier. Early in the 
spring of 1862 William P. Brinton was made Lieutenant-Colonel in 
place of Lieut. Col. Gowan, who was honorably discharged, and the 
brigade was associated with a brigade of Michigan troops under 
Gen. Custer, the division being in command of Gen. Julius Stahel. 
Before entering upon the Gettysburg campaign Gen. Stahel was 
superceded by Gen. Kilpatrick, and the division became the Third of 
the Cavajry corps oi the army of the Potomac. 

Proceeding northward, Kilpatrick was sent in search of the rebel 
Gen. Stuart, who, since his defeat at Upperville, had been separated 
from the main body of Lee's army, and was known to be pushing on 
through Pennsylvania, while Lee himself was moving up the Cum- 
berland Yalley, the South Mountain intervening. Kilpatrick's 
column had alfeady passed Hanover, and the Eighteenth Pennsyl- 
vania, which was of the rear guard, was resting in the streets of that 
village, when the head of Stuart's column came up and immediately 
attacked. Kilpatrick formed on the hills to the south of the town, 
while the enemy ranged along the heights to the north. Artillery 
firing and skirmishing was kept up until nightfall, when Stuart with- 


<lre\v and pursiied his journey northward, being tlius prevented, by 
tlie stubborn front presented liy Kilpatrick, from joining Lee at 
Gettysburg, wliere he was so mucli needed in the progress of the 
battle. The division came up with tlie enemy's extreme left, at 
■Gettysburg, on the 2d of July, where some skirmishing occurred, 
and at evening moved to the extreme left of the Union Line, beyond 
Round Top. Towards evening of the 8d, the First Brigaile, led by 
Col. Farnsworth, was ordered to charge, and gallantly drove the 
enemy in upon his fortified line behind stone- walls and rocky-wooded 
heights. The commander, Col. Farnsworth, was killed and several 
men in the Eighteenth were wounded. 

Scarcely was the rebel army withdrawn from the Gettysburg field, 
before Kilpatrick was upon its track, and struck Ewell's wagon train 
near Monterey Springs, on its way across South Mountain. Kilpat- 
rick promptly charged, and having scattered the train guard, captured 
two pieces of artillery, a thousand prisoners, and two hundred wagons 
and ambulances. At break-neck speed he drove down the mountain, to 
escape the head of Lee's infantry, which was making a forced march for 
a crossing of the Potomac. At Smithfield the captured wagons were 
burned, and the prisoners delivered to the column of Gen. French, at 
Boonesboro. At Ilagerstown, where the rebel infantry had arrived, 
two batallions of the Eighteenth, led by Captains William C. Lindsey 
and John "W. Phillips, under command of Lieut. Col. Brinton, 
charged. From shelter in the narrow streets and alleys the enemy 
kept up a hot fire, even the women joining in the fusilade, while 
the cavalry only used their sabres, and consequently suffered se- 
verely. Capt. Lindsey was killed, as was also the color-bearer, 
Thomas Eagon, and Benal Jewel, of Company G. 

After the escape of Lee across the Potomac, the Union army 
leisurely followed, " and during the fall and early winter the regi- 
ment was actively engaged in scouting and skirmishing, meeting the 
enemy at Brandy Station and at Culpepper on the 18th of September; 
on the 11th of October, again near Brandy Station, wliere the 
Eighteenth charged a force of the enemy following from Culpepper, 
and lost its commander. Major Van Vom-his, three lieutenants and 
fifty men, by capture; on the 13th at Buckland Mills and New Bal- 
timore; on the 18th of November, in a scout across the Ivapidan, 
where the camp equipage, regimental colors, and camp guard, 
including a number of otticers and men, were captured, and Lieut. 
Roseberry Sellers was killed; and on the 6th of December went into 
"winter quarters near Stevensburg." On the 28th of February the 
Eighteenth started with Kilpatrick on his raid upon Richtnond, for 
the delivery of Union prisoners. Though unsuccessful in the main 
■object of the campaign, the troops behaved with gallantry, and Dahl- 
green, who led a division, was killed. Gen. AVilson now succeeded 

428 HISTORY OF gkeene county. 

Kilpatrick iu command of the division, and Col. Mcintosh was placed 
over the brigade. 

On the opening of the spring campaign of 1864, now under 
Grant, Xhe Eighteenth encountered the head of Longstreet's corps 
on the Plank lioad. Brisk fighting immediately commenced, and 
in the progress the Eighteenth was cut off and apparently sur- 
rounded; bat by a desperate break at an unguarded pomt, at a dense 
pine thicket and swamp supposed to be impenetrable, the command 
was brought off, tliough i-eported captured. The loss was one officer 
and thirty-nine men in killed, wounded and captured. 

On the 9th of May tlie regiment, witii the main body of Sheri- 
dan's command, moved around the right of the flank of Lee's army 
and struck boldly out towards Richmond. In this exciting and diffi- 
cult marc!), where the enemy sprang up on all sides, and greatly 
harrassed and impeded its coarse, the regiment participated, being 
engaged on the 11th at Yellow Tavern, on the 12th at Richmond, 
and, tinally, on the 16th, reached Haxall's landing on the James. 
After a few days rest, Sheridan returned and rejoined Grant near the 
South Anna. At Hanover Court House the Eighteenth Pennsylvania, 
supported by the Second Ohio, was ordered to charge and clear the 
town. At twilight the charge was made, dismounted, and thougli 
opposed by vastly superior numbers, well covered with breastworks,, 
was driven in utter rout and confusion, and many prisoners were 
taken. Lieut.-Col. Brinton and Major Phillips, who led the charge, 
were both slightly, and Captains M. S. Kingsland and David Hamil- 
ton, severely wounded. The enemy was again met at Ashland, and 
severe fighting ensued. At St. Mary's Church the enemy's infantrj' 
was again met, and for five hours was held at bay, the regiment 
losing thirty-three in killed, wounded and missing, Lieuts. Treson- 
thick and McCormick being mortally wounded. 

In conjunction with the Third New Jersey, the regiment was 
detached from the division and ordered to duty witla Gen. Wright, of 
the Sixth Corps, and was employed in picketing a line of nearly live 
miles, on his left flank. On the 23rd of June, the regiment, supported 
by a few sharpshooters, drove the enemy from the VVeldou Railroad, 
at Yellow House. 

In August Sheridan was sent to the Shenandoah Yalley, with 
two divisions of cavalry, to confront the rebel general Early, the 
Eighteenth being included. At Washington the regiment was armed 
with Spencer repeating rifles. At Winchester, and Summit Station, 
at Charlestown, and Leetown, it was actively employed in holding 
the rebel column in check, and on the 19th of September occurred 
the memorable battle of Winchester. "With the Eifth and Second 
New York deployed as skirmishers, the Eighteenth was ordered to 
charge. The Tiiird Battalion had the advance, and dashing forward, 


<irove the enemy from his works and into a wood beyond, from wliicli 
it was in turn repulsed by a rapid tire. But at this juncture the 
main body of the regiment came np, led by Colonel Brinton, and 
drove the enemy for half a mile, and, aided by the rest of tiie brigade, 
held this commanding position until Sheridan's infanti-y came to his 
relief. Colonel Brinton, after having his horse twice shot, and his 
clothing riddled with bullets, finally fell into the enemy's hands." 
In the general assault, which was delivered in the afternoon, it ])ar- 
ticipated and shai'ed in the glories of the decisive triumph. In the 
pursuit if the enemy up the valley frequent heavy skirmishin!; 
ensued. On the 8tli of October the command moved towards Cedar 
Creek, the Eighteenth acting as rear guard and suffering from fre- 
quent and severe attacks of the enemy. On the following day tlie 
division assumed the offensive, and swept forward with resistless 
power, driving the enemy, under Rosser, in confusion, capturing all 
his artillery, si.\ pieces, and his entire ambulance and wagon train. 

In the battle of Cedar Creek the regiment was engaged from 
early dawn until evening, when it jiarticipated with the brigade in a 
brilliant charge, which closed the struggle and swept from the 
Enemy's grasp his guns and trains. This single brigade was ac- 
credited with the capture of forty-tive pieces. At Cedar Creek, on 
the 12th of November, the division again met the enemy and drove 
him three miles, and soon after went into winter quarters near 
Harper's Ferry. The regiment subsequently participated in the 
descent upon Waynesboro, whereby the remnants of Early's army 
were captured, and with the Fifth New York Cavalry was detailed 
to conduct the prisoners taken, amounting to fifteen hundred, back 
to Winchester. On the way General Tlosser repeatedly attacked, 
counting confidently on the release of the prisoners, but was foiled 
in every attempt, and the prisoners were all safely delivered to the 
commanders at Winchester. This virtually closed the active cam- 
paigning of the regiment, and after consolidation with the Twenty- 
second Cavalry was finally mustered out on the .31st of October, 

Company A, Onk IIu.vdrkd axd Si.xTY-iniui) Rkgiment, Ei<ani:ENTn 

Recruited in Greene County, mustered in November 21, 1802. 

William C. Lindsey, Captain, killed at Ilagerstown. Maryland, 
July (j, '63. 

Guy Brian, Jr., mus. in June 12, '63; pr. fr. Adj. May 18, '65; 
onus, out with Co. B, 3d Reg. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

James P. Cosgrey, 1st Lieut., resigned May 1, '63. 


Benjamin F. Campbell, 1st Lieut., pr. fr. 2d Lient. May 9, '63;, 
disch. ieb. 10, '64. 

George E. Newlin, 1st Lieut, mus. in April 7, '61; mns. out 
with Co. B, 3d Keg. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Eoseberrj Sellers, 2d Lieut., mus. in Aug. 29, '62; pr. fr. 1st 
Sergt. May 9, '63; killed at Gennania Ford, JSlov. 18, '63. 

William Scott, 2d Lieut., pr. fr. Sergt. Co. G, Jan. 2, '65; mus., 
out witii Co. B, 3d Reg- Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Benj. W. Yoders, 1st Sergt., disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

John B. Gordon, 1st Sergt., died at Washington, D. C, Dec. 5,. 
'64; bnr. in Mil. Asylum Cemetery. 

John C. White, Com. Sgt., mus. in Feb. 23, '64; mus. out with 
Co. B, 3d Reg. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Joseph Cooke, Com. Sgt., prisoner from June 10 to Dec. 31, '64r 
disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Benjamin F. Herrington, Com. Sgt., mus. in Aug. 23, '62; pr.. 
to 2d Lieut. Co. G, Dec. 8, '62. 

4 George W. Kent, Sergt., mus. out with Co. B, 3d Peg., Prov. 
Cav. Oct. 31, '65. 

Edward Fraucke, Sergt., mus. in Feb. 17, 64; mus. out with Co.. 
B, 3d Reg., Prov. Cav." Oct. 31, '65. 

William J. Holt, Sergt., mus. in Feb. 29, '64; vvd. near Peters- 
burg, June 27, '64; mus. out with Co. B, 3d Reg., Prov. Cav. Oct.. 
31, '^'65. 

John R. Smith, Sergt., disch. by Gen. Order, July 10, '65, 

James Graham, Sergt., inus. in Sept. 22, '62; wd. at Spottsyl- 
vania. May 8, '64; disch. on Surg. Cert. May 18, '65. 

Jacob Whipkey, Sergt., mus. in Aug. 23, '62, tr. date and org., 

William D. Smith, Sergt. Nov. 21, '62; died Sept. 29, '64. 

Cyrus C. Elms, Sergt., mus. in April 6, '65; des. Sept. 10, '65. 

Thoiyas L. Dagg, Corp. mus. in March 11, '64; mus. out withi 
Co. B, 3d Regt., Prov. Cav. Oct. 31, '65. 

James Seals, Corp., mus. in March 9, '64; mus. out with Co. B, 
3d Regt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Kendal Brant, Corp., mus. in Sept. 10, '62; disch. March 26, '63.. 

Jonas Whipkey, Corp., mus. in Aug. 23, '62; disch. bv Gen. 
Order, June 12, '65. 

Robert M. Yates, Corp., mus. in Nov. 23, '62; disch., date un- 

Robert J. Tukesberry, Corp., disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

John Evans, Corp., prisoner fr. June 30 to Oct. 9, '63; disch. by- 
Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Salatial Murphy, Corp., disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 


George K. Wiscarver, Corp., mns. in Oct. 27, 'tV2; tr., date and 
org. unknown. 

John T. Morris, Corp.; cap.; died at Andersonville, (in., June 
26, '64; grave 2,508. 

Henry Cook, Corp., killed at Opeqiian, Va., Sept. 11>, '64. 

John Boylan, Corp., JMarcii 31, "()5; des. Sept. 10, "(iS. 

Samuel S. Rhineiiart, Corp., mus. in Aug. 23, '()2; died March 
10, '65; bur. in U. S. Gen. IIosp. Cem., No. 2, Annapolis, Md. 

Andrew Wilson, Jr., Bugler, dieil at Washington, D. C, April 1, 
of wds. rec'd. in action Jan. 18, '64; bur. in Mil. Asylum Cem. 

Charles White, Bugler, mus. in Feb. 25, '64; mus. out with Co. 
H, 3d Reg., Prov. Cav. Oct. 31, '65. 

fVederick Ramer, blacksmith, disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Everly L. Dow, blacksmith, disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, 'tiS. 

Warren Kneel, blacksmith, disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Lewis Perry, saddler, disch. by Gen. (^rder, July, '65. 
Adams, Elijah, mus. in Feb. 2!*, '64; mus. out witii Co. B, 3d 
Reg., Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Adams, Richard L., mus. in Feb. 23, '64; disch. b}' Gen. Order, 
Sept. 16, '65. 

Amtnonds, John, absent at mus. out. 

Adams, Jacob, mus. in Feb. 23, '64; died Oct. 6, "t)4. 

Anderson, William, mus. in March 31, '65; not acct. foi-. 

Boyers, George W., disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Bryner, William A., pris. fr. J uly 6, '63, to Dec. 8, '64; disch. by 
Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Bryner, George W^.. mns. in Oct. 27, 't)2; disch. by Gen. Order, 
June 5, '65. 

Brandymore, ]\[ort., mus. in March 31, "65; disch. by Gen. 
Order, July 12, '65. 

Courtright, James, mus. out with Co. B, 3d Reg., Pro. Cav., Oct. 
31, '65. 

Campbell, AV^. T. II., mus. in April 1, 't)5; mus. out with ('.>. !>, 
3d Reg., Pro. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Concklin, S. M., abst. at mus. out. 

Cole, William, disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Cooley, Joseph B., mus. Sept. 9, 64; disch. by Gen. Order, June 
13, '65. 

Church. William, mus. in March 2'J, 'i]5; disch. by Gen. Order, 
June 10, '65. 

Chapman, George, cap.; died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. '••. '64; 
grave 8,260. 

Chapman, Charles, mns. in April 22, '64; not acct. for.'' 

Champ, Charles, mus. in April 20, '64; not acct. for. 


Dickinson, William, miis. Sept. 8, '62; tr., org. unknown; Jan. 
21, '65. 

Davis, Henry, mus. in April 22, '64; not acct. for. 

Eckoft; Charles V., mns. in Feb. 29, '64; discli., dis. Oct. 13, '66. 

Evans, Azariali, disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Eagon, Solomon, disch. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Evans, Caleb, pris. from Nov. 18, '63, to April 11, '64; discli. by 
Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Eagon, Thomas, killed at Hagerstown, Md., July 6, '63. 

Edwards, Thomas W., mus. in March 21, '65; disch. by Gen. 
Order, Sept. 20, '65. 

Fox, James F., mus. in March 31, '65; niiis. out with Co. B, 3d 
Kegt., Prov. Cav., Oct. 21, '65. 

Finnegan, John, disch. by Gen Order, July 11, '65. 

Fry, John, disch. by Gen. Ordei-, July 11, '65. 

Friend, Michael, mus. in March 30. '65; not acct. for. 

Grey, Elijah, mus. in Marcii 31, '65; mus. out with Co. B, 3d 
Keg., Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Goodwin, Frank, mus. in Mav 21, "63; pr. to Ilospt. Steward 
U. S. Army, March 28, '64. 

Gallatin, Joseph P., mus. in JS'ov. 11, '62; disch. by Gen. Order, 
July 11, '65. 

Gardner, Freeman, mus. iu Nov. 11, '62; disch. by Gen. Order 
July 11, '65. 

Golf, Mott W., mus. in March 31, '64; disch. by Gen. Order, 
May 13, '65. 

Gumph, John, disch. by Gen. Order, July 18, "65. 

Gribben, Peter, mus. in Aug. 23, '62; wd. at Old Church, Va., 
June 11, '64; disch. by Gen. Order, July 5, '65. 

Galloway, Nicholas, mus. in July 19,, '63; des. Oct. *65. 

Gribben, Elias K., mus. in Aug. 23, '63; not on mus. out roll. 

Hacket, William, mus. in Feb. 29, "64; absent at mus. out. 

Ileudershot, Thomas F., mus. in Aug. 29, '64; captured at 
Fisher's Hill, Va., Oct. 8, '64; bur. rec, J. Hendershot died at 
Richmond, Va., Feb. 3, '65. 

Harrison, Moses, discli. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Huffman, James, dischg. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Hughes, David, mus. in March 23, '64; dischg. bv Gen. Order, 
June 19, '65. 

Hedge, Samuel, mus. in Sept. 16, '64; dischg. by Gen. Order, 
June 13, '65. 

Hinerman, Henry, mus. in Sept. 4, '(i2; died, date unknown. 

Johns, Ellis J., wd. at Opequau, Va., Sept. 19, '64; dischg. 
by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Jeffries, Elisha, dischg. l)y Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 


John?, Hiram M,. inuri. in Feb. 23, "04; captured at Old Ch., 
Ya., June 11, '64; died, date univnown. 

Knox, William, absent at mus. out. 

Kent, Nicholas J., wd. at Opec^uan, Ya., Sept. 19, "64; dischg. 
by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Knight, S. W., mus. in Oct. 20, "62; died, date unknown. 

Leonard, Asa, mus. in Feb. 5, '64; mus. out with Co. B, 3d 
Eegt. Prov. Cav., Oct". 31, '(55. 

Lincoln, Andrew, dischg. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Lindsay, Francis, nuis. in March 29, '65; dischg. by Gen. 
Order, June 27, '65. 

Longstretli. William, mus. in Nov. 23, '62; died at Washing- 
ton, 1). C, Aug. 19, '63; buried in Mil. Asylum Oeinetil-y. 

Lindsey, James, mus. in Nov. 23, '62; died at Wasliington, 
D. C, Aug. (i, "63; bur. rec, July 13, '63; buried in Mi!. Asylum 
Cemetery. /' 

Lapping, John, killed at Hanover Court House. -Va., May 30, 

Lasiiire, Henry, died, date unknown. 

Lieb, John A., mus. in Feb. 26, '64; pr. to Capt. 127th Regt., 
U. S. 0. T.; dischg. Sept. 10, '()5. 

Morris, John P., mus. in Feb. 23, "64; mus. out with Co. !!, 
3d liegt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Monroe, Thomas J., mus. in April 4, "65; mus. out with Co. 
B, 3d Ptegt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Minor, Calvin, mus. in March 29. '65; mus. out with Co. P, 
3d Ptegt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 81, '6.5. 

Mitlaneer. Lemuel H., dischg. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Martin, Wm. H., discli. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Martin, Philip C, discli. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Maukey, Henry C, pris. from June 30 to Nov. 1. '63; dischg. 
by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Martin, Joseph W., mus. in Oct. 8, '64; des. Jan. 14; ret. 
May 5, '65; dischg. by Gen. Ordei-, May 6. '65. 

Morris, Joseph C. captured; died at Richmond, Ya., P'eb. 26. 

Meeks, Eli, captured; died at liichmond. Ya., Dec. 22. '63, of 
wds. reed, in action. 

Miller, John D., inns, in Feb. 5, '64; absent at mus. out. 

Mnrphy, John, mns. in April 6, '65; des. Sept. 10, '65. 

Martin, Matthias, dischg. by Gen. Order, July 1, '65. 

Murphy, Jeremiah, mus. in Sept. 7, '64; dischg. by Gen. Order, 
June 13, '65. 

Madigan, Dennis, mus. in April 5. '65; drafted; dischg. by Gen. 
Order, Jnne 21. '65. 


May, James, mns. in Marcli 25, '64; not accounted for. 

McGrady, liobert, absent at mus. out. 

McClellan, Asa S., dischg. Marcli 28, '63. 

McCnllougb, Joses, burial record L. C. McCougb; died at 
Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 14, '64; grave 5,642. 

O'Dwyer, Thos. J., nius. in April 4, '65; dischg. by Gen. Order, 
Aug. 25, '65. 

Poland, Jolin W., prisoner from Nov. 18, '63, to June 7, '65; 
dischg. by Gen. Order, Ju]y 1, '65. 

Poland, Cavalier, wd. at Spottsylvania, May 8, '64; tr. to Vet. 
K. C; dischg. by Gen. Order, Sept. 12, '65. 

Phelan, Wm., miis. in April 20, '64; not accounted for. 

Rineaart, John T., mus. in Feb. 23, '64; mus. out vritli Co. B, 
3d Eeg;-., Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Reese, David, dischg. by Gen. Order, Aug. 18, '65. 

Eadlinghafer, M., pris. from Nov. 30, '63, to Dec. 8, '64; dischg. 
by Gen. OrAer, July 11, '65. 

Rex, Harper, dischg. by Gen. Order, Jvtlj 11, '65. 

Rush, Levi, dischg. by Gen. Order, July 11, "()5. 

Rhoade, William P. dischg. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Rush, Peter, dischg. March 28, "63. 

Rogers, Alexander W., dischg. Aug. 25, '63. 

Rush, Isaiah, dischg. on Snrg. Cert. Nov. 10, '64. 

Richie, Samuel, mus. in Sept. 9, '64; dischg. by Gen. Order,. 
June 13, '65. 

Rex, George, mus. in Feb. 29, '64; capt. at Old Ch., Va., June 
11, '64; died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 17, '64; grave 9,019. 

Rhinehart, Arthur J., mus. in March 26, '64; died at Phila- 
delphia, Oct. 6, '64, of wds. reed, at Opequan, Va., Sept. 19, '64. 

Syphers, Peter M., mus. in Feb. 23, '64; mus. out with Co. B,. 
3d Regt. Prov: Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Smitii, Dennis, absent at mus. out. 

Smith, Francis, mus. in Dec. 1, '64; drowned near Racine, O.,^ 
Oct. 20, '65. 

Stull, Lewis W., mus. in Atig. 23, '62; dischg. May 14, '63. 

Stickles, Amos, dischg. Jan. '22, '63. 

Sherrick, Isaac W., wd. at Opequan, Va., Sept. 19, '64; disclig. 
on Surg. Cert.; date unknown. 

Straight, Henry, dischg. by Gen. Order, June 12, '65. 

Shape, Frederick, captured; died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 
13, '64; grave 5,494. 

Smith, William, des. Nov. 22, '62. 

Smith, Cowperthwait C, des. June, 5, '65. 

Sullivan, Cornelius, mus. in Sept. 16, '64; not accounted for 

Tukesbury, John, dischg. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

^y^^^n c/-s ^ - ^^^>^^^r^^^^z^< 



Thomas, John, killed at Fisher's Hill, \^a., Oct. 8, 'G-i. 

Tukeshury, William, wd. in action, Sept. 1, '64; not on nius. 
ont roll. 

Ulum, Henry, captured; died, date unknown. 

Valentine, Jolui, nius. in April lU, '1)5; disclig. by Gen. Order, 
May 23, '65. 

White, James D., wd. at Old Church, Va., June 11, '64; aUsent 
at mus. out. 

Whales, Alexander, abs. at nius. out. 

White, Francis M., wd. at Hanover, C. H. Va., May 31, '64; 
disclig. by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Wagner, George W., mus. in Sept. 6, '64; disclig. by Gen 
Order, June 13, '65. 

West, Thomas, died at Fairfax Court House, Va., May 7, '63. 

Whipkey, Silas, mus. in March 23, '62; died at Fairfax C. II., 
June 20, "(i^. 

Wilson, John W., mus. in April 4, '65; des. Sept. 10, '65. 

Welte, Rudolph, mus. in Aug. 15, "64; not accounted for. 

Yates, Hazlet A[., wd. at Oj)e(pian, Va., Sept. 19, '64; dischg. 
by Gen. Order, July 11, '()5. 

Voders, .Joseph C., wd. at Opequan, Va., Sept. I'J, '64; dischg. 
by Gen. Order, July 11, '65. 

Yates, Alexander, died at Frederick, Md., Aug. 6, '63, of wds. 
reed, in action; bur. rec. July 25, '63; bur. in Nat. Cem., Antietam, 
Section 26, lot E, grave 501. 

Yoders, John J., mus. in March 11, '64; died at City Point, Yn., 
Aug. 9, '64; bur. in Nat. Cein., Section K, division 4, grave 107. 

Young, Harrison, mus. in March 30, '65; des. Sept. 10, '65. 

Yoders, Wni. H., dischg. by Gen. Order, June 22, '65. 



Recruited in Greene County, mustered in Nov. 23, 18t)2. 

James Hughes, Capt., nuis. in Nov. 27, '62; resigned Feb. 14, '63. 

Frederick Zarraclier, Capt., mus. in Ajiril 23, '64; mus. out with 
Co. C, 3d Regt. Prov. Cav. Oct. 31, '65. 

Samuel Montgomery, 1st Lieut., mus. in Dec. 3, '62; resigned 
Oct. 23, '63. 

Francis A. J. Grey, 2d Lieut., mus. in Nov. 20, '62; resigned 
May 14, '63. 

James R. Weaver, 2d Lieut., mus. in Nov. 15, '62; pr. fr. Sergt. 
to Major, June 18, '63; com. 1st Lieut. April 1, '()4; not mus.; Bv. 
1st Lieut., Capt., Major .and Lieut.-(\il. March 13, "(io; disch. May 
15, '65. 


Charles Edwards, 2d Lieut., pr. fr. Sergt. May 16, '65; com. 1st 
Lieut. May 16, '65; not mus.; mus. out with Co. 3d Eegt. Prov. Cav. 
Oct. 31, '65. 

James Burns, 1st Sergt., disch. by Gen. Order, July 10, '65. 

Eli J. White, 1st Sergt., killed at Opequan, Va., Sept. 19, '64. 

Jonathan Gregory, 1st Sergt., caijtured; died at Richmond, Va., 
Jan. 5, '64; bur. in Nat. Cem., Sec. C, div. 1, grave 187. 

John M. Ashbrook, 1st Sergt., captured at Mine Eun, Va., May 
5, '04; died at Florence, North Carolina, Nov. 18, '64. 

Benjamin H. James, 1st Sergt.; not on mus. out roll. 

^Y. H. McGluuiphey, Q. M. Sergt., dis. by Gen. Order, July 10, '65. 

George W. Love, Q. M. Sergt., mus. in Feb. 27, '64; mus. out witli 
Co. 3d Eegt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Samuel C. Oliver, Q. M. Sergt., not on mus. out roll. 

John S. Ackley, Com. Sergt., disch. by Gen. Order, July 10, '65. 

Eeuben Sanders, Sergt., prisoner fr. Oct. 11, '63, to April 16, '64; 
disch. by Gen. Order, July 10, '65. 

James L. Hughes, Sergt., pr. fr. Corp. May 1, '65; disch. by Gen. 
Order, July 10, '65. 

William M. Smith, mus. in Feb. 27, '64; mus. out with Co. C, 
3d Eegt. Prov. Cav. Oct. 31, '65 ; Vet. 

Frederick Filleman, Sergt., mus. in Feb. 27, '64; pr. fr. Corp. 
May 1, '65; mus. out with Co. C, 3d Eegt., Pro;'. Cav., Oct. 31, '65; 

Martin Supler, Sergt.; not on mus. out roll. 

A. L. Montgomery, Sergt. ; not on mus. out roll. 

John Hulings, Sergt.; mus. in Oct. 18, '62; tr. to V. E. Co.; 
disch. Oct. 18, '65; exp. term. 

Maxwell Bayles, Corp., mus. out with Co. C. 3d Prov. Cav., Oct. 
3, '65. 

Thomas Miller, <Corp., mus. in Feb. 25, '64; wd. at St. Mary's 
Church, Va., June 15, '64; mus. oat with Co. C, 3d Eegt. Prov. Cav., 
Oct. 31, '65. 

Edward E. Newlin, Corp., mus. in March 8, '64; wd. at Opequan, 
Sept. 19, '64; mus. out with Co. C, 3d Eegt. Prov. Cav. Oct. 31, '65. 

William Hofford, Corp., mus. in March 10, '64; mus. out with 
Co. C, 3d Eegt. Prov. Cav. Oct. 31, '65. 

William Filby, Corp., disch. by Gen. Order, July 10, '65. 

Elisha Dailey, Corp., mus. in Dec. 7, '62; wd. at St. Mary's 
Church, Va., June 15, '64; pr. to Corp., May 1, '65; disch by Gen. 
Order, July 10, '65. 

Daniel W. Vanata, Corp., mus. in Dec. 7, "62; disch. on Surg. 
Cert. Jan. 16, '65. 

Dennis Murphy, tr. to Vet. lies. Corps, Sept. 3, '64 


Francis Clutter, Corp., captured; died at Anderson ville, Ga., May 
31, '64. 

Joseph Eidle, Corp., mus^ in March 15, '04; killed at Opequan, 
Sept. 19, '64; bur. in Nat. Cem., Winchester, Va., lot 18. 

John B. Moorse, Corp., not on mus. out roll. 

Joseph Spilman, Corp., not on inus. out roll. 

Wilson Mortbrd, Corp., not on inns, out roll. 

James llagerty, Corp., not on mus. out roll. 

John Anderson, blacksmith, disch. by Gen. Order, July 10, '65. 

George Elms, blacksmith, disch. by Gen. Order, July 10, "6.^. 

William Ilenninger, saddler, inns, in March 12. 'n4; mus. out 
with Co. C, 3.1 Kegt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, 'Go. 

Thomas Vanata, saddler, mus. in March 12, '(54; mus. out with 
Co. C, 3d Regt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, "65. 

Aliums, Porter, disch. by Gen. Order, June 16, '()5. , 

Allen, James, mus. in Dec. 7, '63; died at Wilmington, N. C, 
March 9, '(iS. 

Burns, Harvey, mus. out with Co. C, 3d Regt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 
31, '65. 

Barnhart, Wilson, mus. in Dec. 7, "62; disch. date unknown. 

Barger, A. J., not on mus. out roll. 

Barnhart, Thomas, not on mus. out roll. 

Barnhart, Benjamin, not on mus. out roll. 

Clutter, Seeley B., mus. in Dec. 7, '62; disch. date unkown. 

Clutter, Addison, mus. in Dec. 7, '62; disch. date unknown. 

Carter, Daniel, mus. in Dec. 7, '62; disch. by Gen. Order, July 
10, '65. 

Crate, Joseph, mus. in March 3, '64; disch. June (J, "65. 

Clank, Samuel, mus. in Dec. 19, '62; mus. out with Co. C, 3d 
Regt. Prov. ('av., Oct. 31, "65. 

Cuthberson, William, mus. in Mar*^-!! 11, '64; mus. out with Co. 
C, 3d Regt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Canavan, John, mus. in Feb. 15, '64; mus. out with Co. C, 3d 
Regt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, 65. 

Curry, William, mus. in April 29, '64; mus. out with Co. C, 3d 
Regt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Crooks, John, mus. in March 4, '64; des. Sept. 9, '(55. 

Crawford, William, died; bur. in Nat. Cem., Gettysburg, Sec. E, 
grave 12. 

Cartwright, James II., tr. to Vet. Res. Corps; disch. by Gen. 
Order, July 14. 

Clark, James, not on mus. out roll. 

Campbell, Daniel, mus. in March 31, "64; disch. by Gen. Order, 
June 20, '65. 

Conner, Michael, mus. in March 28, '64; not accounted for. 


Cox, William, mus. in March 19, '64; not accounted for. 

Durbin, Jolm, mus. in Dec. 7, '62; disch. on Surg. Cert. June 
6, '65. 

Douglass, Andrew J., mus. in Dec. 7, '62; disch. by Gen. Order, 
July 10, '65. 

Dille, Abraham V., mus. in ISI^ov. 23, '62; disch. bj Gen. Order, 
July 10, '65. 

Durbin, Andrew J., captured; died at Salsburj, N. C, Dec. 8, '64. 

Day, William B., captured; died at Richmond, Va., Feb. 21, '64. 

Davisj Thomas, mus. in Feb. 26, '64; wd. at Kearneysville, Va., 
Aug. 26, '64; mus. out with Co. C, 3d Regt. Prov. Cav., Oct. 31, '65. 

Davie, Daniel, wd. at St. Mary's Church, Va., June 15, '64; disch. 
by Gen. Order, July 1, '65